70 relations: Alcohol, Alkane, Alkene, Antares (rocket), Aromaticity, Atlas (rocket family), Carbon monoxide, Carbonization, Carcinogen, Cryogenics, Delta (rocket family), Diesel fuel, Dissociation (chemistry), Energia, Enthalpy of vaporization, Ethanol, Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Full Thrust, Flash point, Gas generator, Gasoline, Gram per litre, Heat capacity ratio, Helium, HGM-25A Titan I, Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodesulfurization, Indian Space Research Organisation, Isomer, Jet fuel, John Drury Clark, Kerosene, Ladderane, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid oxygen, Liquid-propellant rocket, Methane, Methanol, Multistage rocket, Nitrogen, Octane rating, OTRAG, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Polymerization, Propane, R-7 Semyorka, ..., Regenerative cooling (rocket), Robert H. Goddard, Rocket propellant, Rocketdyne, Saturn I, Saturn V, Solid-propellant rocket, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz-FG, Specific impulse, Sulfur, Syntin, Thermal runaway, Toxicity, Tronador (rocket), Turbopump, Vapor pressure, Vulcanization, World War II, Zenit (rocket family). Expand index (20 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK) and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS and CRS programs.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Atlas is a family of American missiles and space launch vehicles.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Delta is an American versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
Falcon 9 Full Thrust (also known as Falcon 9 v1.2, with Block 3, Block 4 and Block 5 variants) is a partially reusable medium-lift launch vehicle, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
A gas generator is a device for generating gas.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A gram per litre or gram per liter (g/L or g/l) is a unit of measurement of mass concentration that shows how many grams of a certain substance are present in one litre of a usually liquid or gaseous mixture.
In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific heats or Poisson constant, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The Martin Marietta SM-68A/HGM-25A Titan I was the United States' first multistage intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in use from 1959 until 1965.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
John Drury Clark, Ph.D. (August 15, 1907 – July 6, 1988) was an American rocket fuel developer, chemist, and science fiction writer and fan.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
In chemistry, a ladderane is an organic molecule containing two or more fused cyclobutane rings.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
OTRAG (Orbital Transport und Raketen AG, or Orbital Transport and Rockets, Inc.), was a German company based in Stuttgart, which planned in the late 1970s and early 1980s to develop an alternative propulsion system for rockets.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
Regenerative cooling, in the context of rocket engine design, is a configuration in which some or all of the propellant is passed through tubes, channels, or in a jacket around the combustion chamber or nozzle to cool the engine.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
Rocketdyne was an American rocket engine design and production company headquartered in Canoga Park, in the western San Fernando Valley of suburban Los Angeles, in southern California.
The Saturn I (pronounced "Saturn one") was the United States' first heavy-lift dedicated space launcher, a rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
The Soyuz-FG launch vehicle is an improved version of the Soyuz-U from the R-7 family of rockets, designed and constructed by TsSKB-Progress in Samara.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Syntin is a hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C10H16 used as a rocket fuel.
Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Tronador (Spanish for Thunderer) is a series of Argentine rockets, including the Tronador I and Tronador II vehicles, to develop a liquid-propellant rocket expendable launch system called ISCUL (Inyector Satelital de Cargas Utiles Ligeras, Light Payloads Satellite Launcher).
A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving gas turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zenit (Зеніт, Зени́т; meaning Zenith) is a family of space launch vehicles designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine, which was then part of the Soviet Union.