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# RSA Factoring Challenge

The RSA Factoring Challenge was a challenge put forward by RSA Laboratories on March 18, 1991 to encourage research into computational number theory and the practical difficulty of factoring large integers and cracking RSA keys used in cryptography. [1]

## Arjen Lenstra

Arjen Klaas Lenstra (born 2 March 1956, Groningen) is a Dutch mathematician.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Computational number theory

In mathematics and computer science, computational number theory, also known as algorithmic number theory, is the study of algorithms for performing number theoretic computations.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

## Factorization

In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind.

## Herman te Riele

Hermanus Johannes Joseph te Riele (born January 5, 1947, The Hague) is a mathematician at CWI in Amsterdam with a specialization in computational number theory.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Integer factorization records

Integer factorization is the process of determining which prime numbers divide a given positive integer.

## Jens Franke

Jens Franke (born June 29, 1964) is a German mathematician.

## Key size

In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).

## Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

## Paul Zimmermann (mathematician)

Paul Zimmermann (born November 13, 1964) is a French computational mathematician, working at INRIA.

## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

## RSA (cryptosystem)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.

## RSA numbers

In mathematics, the RSA numbers are a set of large semiprimes (numbers with exactly two prime factors) that are part of the RSA Factoring Challenge.

## RSA Secret-Key Challenge

The RSA Secret-Key Challenge consisted of a series of cryptographic contests organised by RSA Laboratories with the intent of helping to demonstrate the relative security of different encryption algorithms.

## RSA Security

RSA Security LLC, formerly RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company.

## Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

## Semiprime

In mathematics, a semiprime is a natural number that is the product of two prime numbers.

## Shor's algorithm

Shor's algorithm, named after mathematician Peter Shor, is a quantum algorithm (an algorithm that runs on a quantum computer) for integer factorization formulated in 1994.

## Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.

## The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage

The text "The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage" was the solution to a challenge ciphertext posed by the inventors of the RSA cipher in 1977.

## United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: \$; code: USD; also abbreviated US\$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

## University of Bonn

The University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany.

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

## References

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