280 relations: African Americans, African-American English, Afro-Brazilians, Allele, American Anthropological Association, Americas, Anatomy, Anglo, Ann Morning, Anthropological Society of London, Anthropology, Archaic humans, Aristotle, Ashley Montagu, Atlantic slave trade, BBC News, Behavior, Biological anthropology, Biology, Blood quantum laws, C. Loring Brace, Caboclo, Capitalism, Carl Linnaeus, Caucasian race, Charles Cooley, Charles White (physician), Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Chicago school (sociology), China, Christoph Meiners, Civil and political rights, Civil rights movement, Clade, Cladistics, Clan, Classical antiquity, Cline (biology), Cluster analysis, College, Colonial empire, Colonialism, Colonization, Color blindness (race), Community, Complex traits, Constitutionality, Critical race theory, Cultural anthropology, Cultural identity, ..., Culture, Demographics of Brazil, Demography of the United States, Dependent and independent variables, Developmental psychology, Discrimination, Doctor of Philosophy, Douglas J. Futuyma, E. O. Wilson, Ecotype, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Edward Alsworth Ross, Edward Long, Empire of Brazil, England, English people, Environmental racism, Epicanthic fold, Essentialism, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnic nationalism, Ethnic stereotype, Ethnological Society of London, Ethnonym, Eugenics, Europe, European Americans, European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, European Council, European Parliament, European Union, Fascism, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Field Museum of Natural History, Folk belief, Folk taxonomy, Forensic anthropology, Four temperaments, François Bernier, France, Franz Boas, Fuzzy set, Genetic distance, Genetic divergence, Genetic drift, Genocide, Genome Research, Genotype, Georg Forster, George W. Gill, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Germany, Great chain of being, Greco-Roman world, Guido Barbujani, Haplogroup, Hegemony, Hillbilly, Himalayas, Hispanic, Hispanophone, History, History of colonialism, History of slavery, Homininae, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Howard Winant, Human, Human genetic clustering, Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy, Human genetic variation, Human genome, Human Genome Diversity Project, Human Genome Project, Human skin color, Human taxonomy, Humorism, Hypatia transracialism controversy, Identity (social science), Ideology, Imani Perry, Incentive, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infraspecific name, Ingroups and outgroups, Institution, Institutional racism, Institutionalisation, Interracial marriage, Irish people, Isolation by distance, Jim Crow laws, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Joseph L. Graves, Josiah C. Nott, Julien-Joseph Virey, Katya Gibel Mevorach, Language, Latin America, Law enforcement agency, Law enforcement officer, Lester Frank Ward, Lexicon, Linguistics, List of contemporary ethnic groups, Loaded language, Louis Agassiz, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Lumpers and splitters, Malay race, Malvina Hoffman, Mark Shriver, Marvin Harris, Massimo Pigliucci, Medical research, Medicine Magazine, Melancholia, Melanism, Mestizo, Methuen Publishing, Michael Omi, Miscegenation, Mongoloid, Monogenism, Monophyly, Moral, Mulatto, Multiracial, Multiregional origin of modern humans, Nation, Nationalism, Natural kind, Natural order (philosophy), Natural selection, Nazi eugenics, Nazism, Negro, Negroid, Neil Risch, Nomen dubium, Norman Sauer, Offender profiling, Office for National Statistics, Office of Management and Budget, Ohio University Press, One-drop rule, Paradigm, Pardo, People, Personalized medicine, Petrus Camper, Pharmacogenomics, Phenotype, Phylogenetic tree, Poland, Political sociology, Polygenism, Population, Population genetics, Pre-Adamite, Quadroon, Race (biology), Race and ethnicity in censuses, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, Race and genetics, Race and health, Race and intelligence, Race of the future, Racial discrimination, Racial formation theory, Racial profiling, Racialism, Racialization, Raciolinguistics, Racism, Recent African origin of modern humans, Reconstruction era, Reductionism, Sahara, Samuel George Morton, Sanguine, Scientific community, Scientific consensus, Scientific racism, Scientific Revolution, Self-concept, Sewall Wright, Sibling, Slavery, Social class, Social constructionism, Social reality, Social relation, Social science, Social Science Research Council, Social stratification, Socioeconomic status, Sociology, Species, Subjectivity, Subspecies, Supremacism, Survey methodology, Taxonomy (biology), Textbook, The New Jim Crow, The New York Times, The Race Question, The Races of Mankind, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Thomas Jefferson, Tradition, Ulysses G. Weatherly, United States, United States Census, W. E. B. Du Bois, Wales, White Americans, White people, William C. Boyd, William Julius Wilson, World, World War II, Yellow Emperor. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in North American linguistics, is the set of English dialects primarily spoken by most black people in North America; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English.
Afro-Brazilians (afro-brasileiros) are Brazilian people who have African ancestry.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Anglo is a prefix indicating a relation to the Angles, England, the English people, or the English language, such as in the term Anglo-Saxon language.
Ann Juanita Morning is an American sociologist and demographer whose research focuses on race.
The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (June 28, 1905November 26, 1999), previously known as Israel Ehrenberg, was a British-American anthropologist who popularized the study of topics such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are those enacted in the United States and the former colonies to define qualification by ancestry as Native American, sometimes in relation to tribal membership.
Charles Loring Brace IV (born 1930) is an American anthropologist, Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan's Department of Anthropology and Curator Emeritus at the University's Museum of Anthropological Archaeology.
A caboclo (also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin") (English: cabloke) is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Charles Horton Cooley (August 17, 1864 – May 7, 1929) was an American sociologist and the son of Thomas M. Cooley.
Charles White FRS (4 October 1728 – 20 February 1813) was an English physician and a co-founder of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, along with local industrialist Joseph Bancroft.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman; also Charlotte Perkins Stetson (July 3, 1860 – August 17, 1935), was a prominent American feminist, sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform.
In sociology and later criminology, the Chicago school (sometimes described as the ecological school) was the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specializing in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christoph Meiners (31 July 1747 – 1 May 1810) was a German philosopher and historian, born in Warstade.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).
A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Color blindness, in sociology, is a concept describing the ideal of a society where racial classifications do not limit a person's opportunities, as well as the kind of deliberately race-neutral governmental policies said to promote the goal of racial equality.
A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.
Complex traits, also known as quantitative traits, are traits that do not behave according to simple Mendelian inheritance laws.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Critical race theory (CRT) is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power.
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Brazil's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups.
The United States is estimated to have a population of 327,996,618 as of June 25, 2018, making it the third most populous country in the world.
In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Douglas Joel Futuyma (born 24 April 1942) is an American evolutionary biologist.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype,Greek: οίκος.
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva (born February 6, 1962 in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania) is an American political sociologist and professor of sociology at Duke University.
Edward Alsworth Ross (December 12, 1866 – July 22, 1951) was a progressive American sociologist, eugenicist, and major figure of early criminology.
Edward Long (23 August 1734 – 13 March 1813) was a British colonial administrator and historian, and author of a highly controversial work, The History of Jamaica (1774).
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
The epicanthic fold is the skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.
An ethnic stereotype, national stereotype, or national character is a system of beliefs about typical characteristics of members of a given ethnic group or nationality, their status, society and cultural norms.
The Ethnological Society of London (ESL) was a learned society founded in 1843 as an offshoot of the Aborigines' Protection Society (APS).
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is the Council of Europe’s independent human rights monitoring body specialised in combating antisemitism, discrimination, racism, religious intolerance, and xenophobia.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Field Museum of Natural History, also known as The Field Museum, is a natural history museum in the city of Chicago, and is one of the largest such museums in the world.
In folkloristics, folk belief or folk-belief is a broad genre of folklore.
A folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, and can be contrasted with scientific taxonomy.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
François Bernier (25 September 162022 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
In mathematics, fuzzy sets (aka uncertain sets) are somewhat like sets whose elements have degrees of membership.
Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species, whether the distance measures time from common ancestor or degree of differentiation.
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Genome Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754Many sources, including the biography by Thomas Saine, give Forster's birth date as November 26; according to Enzensberger, Ulrich (1996) Ein Leben in Scherben, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag,, the baptism registry of St Peter in Danzig lists November 27 as the date of birth and December 5 as the date of baptism. – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary.
George W. Gill is an American anthropologist, and a Professor Emeritus at the University of Wyoming and is "widely recognized as an expert in skeletal biology".
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Guido Barbujani (born January 31, 1955) is an Italian population geneticist, evolutionist and literary author born in Adria, who has been working at the State University of New York at Stony Brook (NY), at the Padua and Bologna Universities, and is now a professor at the University of Ferrara since 1996.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
"Hillbilly" is a term (often derogatory) for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States, primarily in Appalachia and the Ozarks.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Howard Winant (born 1946) is an American sociologist and race theorist.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human genetic clustering is the degree to which human genetic variation can be partitioned into a small number of groups or clusters.
"Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy" is a 2003 paper by A. W. F. Edwards.
Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was started by Stanford University's Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
The feminist philosophy journal ''Hypatia'' became involved in a dispute in April 2017 that led to the online shaming of one of its authors, Rebecca Tuvel, an untenured assistant professor of philosophy at Rhodes College in Memphis.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Imani Perry (born 1972 in Birmingham, Alabama, United States) is an American interdisciplinary scholar of race and African American culture.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
In botany, an infraspecific name is the scientific name for any taxon below the rank of species, i.e. an infraspecific taxon.
In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Institutional racism (also known as institutionalized racism) is a form of racism expressed in the practice of social and political institutions.
Institutionalisation (or institutionalization) refers to the process of embedding some conception (for example a belief, norm, social role, particular value or mode of behavior) within an organization, social system, or society as a whole.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Isolation by distance (IBD) (note: the acronym IBD is also used for another important concept in population genetics, Identity by descent) is a term used to refer to the accrual of local genetic variation under geographically limited dispersal The IBD model is useful for determining the distribution of gene frequencies over a geographic region.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.
Joseph L. Graves, Jr. (born 1955), is an American Scientist and the Associate Dean for Research and Professor of Biological Studies at the Joint School for Nanoscience and Nanoengineering which is jointly administered by North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University and UNC Greensboro.
Josiah Clark Nott (March 31, 1804March 31, 1873) was an American physician and surgeon.
Julien-Joseph Virey (21 December 1775, Langres – 9 March 1846) was a French naturalist and anthropologist.
Katya Gibel Mevorach (born 18 June 1952) is Professor of Anthropology and American Studies at Grinnell College.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
A law enforcement officer (LEO) or peace officer, in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws.
Lester F. Ward (June 18, 1841 – April 18, 1913) was an American botanist, paleontologist, and sociologist.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups.
In rhetoric, loaded language (also known as loaded terms or emotive language) is wording that attempts to influence an audience by using appeal to emotion or stereotypes.
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born 25 January 1922) is an Italian-born population geneticist, who has been a professor (now emeritus) at Stanford University since 1970.
Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline that has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories.
The concept of a Malay race was originally proposed by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840), and classified as a brown race.
Malvina Cornell Hoffman (June 15, 1885July 10, 1966) was an American sculptor and author, well known for her life-size bronze sculptures of people.
Mark Kennedy Shriver (born February 17, 1964) is an American Democratic politician who served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates for two consecutive terms, from 1995 to 2003.
Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist.
Massimo Pigliucci (born January 16, 1964) is Professor of Philosophy at CUNY-City College, formerly co-host of the Rationally Speaking Podcast, and formerly the editor in chief for the online magazine Scientia Salon.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine Magazine was a UK consumer magazine focused on health and medical issues.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house.
Michael Omi is an American sociologist.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
Monogenism or sometimes monogenesis is the theory of human origins which posits a common descent for all human races.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The multiregional hypothesis, multiregional evolution (MRE), or polycentric hypothesis is a scientific model that provides an alternative explanation to the more widely accepted "Out of Africa" model of monogenesis for the pattern of human evolution.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
In analytic philosophy, the term natural kind identifies a grouping of singular objects that always share particular qualities, whether or not humans know either the objects or qualities.
In philosophy, the natural order is the moral source from which natural law seeks to derive its authority.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon.
Neil Risch is an American human geneticist and professor at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).
In zoological nomenclature, a nomen dubium (Latin for "doubtful name", plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is of unknown or doubtful application.
Norman J. Sauer is an American forensic anthropologist and professor emeritus of anthropology at Michigan State University (MSU).
Offender profiling, also known as criminal profiling, is an investigative tool used by law enforcement agencies to identify likely suspects and has been used by investigators to link cases that may have been committed by the same perpetrator.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
Ohio University Press (OUP), founded in 1947, is the largest scholarly press in the state of Ohio.
The one-drop rule is a social and legal principle of racial classification that was historically prominent in the United States asserting that any person with even one ancestor of sub-Saharan African ancestry ("one drop" of black blood)Davis, F. James.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
Personalized medicine, also termed precision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.
Petrus Camper (11 May 1722 – 7 April 1789), was a Dutch physician, anatomist, physiologist, midwife, zoologist, anthropologist, palaeontologist and a naturalist in the Age of Enlightenment.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State, to civil society, to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power.
Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins (polygenesis).
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
The Pre-Adamite hypothesis or Pre-adamism is the theological belief that humans (or intelligent yet non-human creatures) existed before the biblical character Adam.
Historically in the context of slave societies of the Americas, a quadroon or quarteron was a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry (or in the context of Australia, one quarter aboriginal ancestry).
In biological taxonomy, race is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below the level of subspecies.
Many countries and national censuses currently enumerate or have previously enumerated their populations by race, ethnicity, nationality, or a combination of these characteristics.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
The relationship between race and genetics is relevant to the controversy concerning race classification.
Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity.
The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century.
The race of the future is a theoretical composite race which will result from ongoing racial admixture.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
Racial formation theory is an analytical tool in sociology, developed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant, which is used to look at race as a socially constructed identity, where the content and importance of racial categories are determined by social, economic, and political forces.
Racial profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior, rather than on individual suspicion.
Racialism is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories.
In sociology, racialization or ethnicization is the process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such.
Raciolinguistics examines how language is used to construct race and how ideas of race influence language and language use.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Samuel George Morton (January 26, 1799 – May 15, 1851) was an American physician and natural scientist.
Sanguine or red chalk is chalk of a reddish-brown colour, so called because it resembles the colour of dried blood.
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social reality is distinct from biological reality or individual cognitive reality, representing as it does a phenomenological level created through social interaction and thereby transcending individual motives and actions.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is a U.S.-based independent nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing research in the social sciences and related disciplines.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Supremacism is an ideology of domination and superiority: it states that a particular class of people is superior to others, and that it should dominate, control, and subjugate others, or is entitled to do it.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A textbook or coursebook (UK English) is a manual of instruction in any branch of study.
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is a book by Michelle Alexander, a civil rights litigator and legal scholar.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Race Question is the first of four UNESCO statements about issues of race.
The Races of Mankind is a series of 104 sculptures created for the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago by sculptor Malvina Hoffman, representing the various races of humankind, and unveiled in 1933.
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Ulysses Grant Weatherly (2 April 1865 – 18 July 1940) Professor of Sociology at Indiana University and founder of the American Sociological Society, and on its executive committee from 1907 to 1910.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
William Clouser Boyd (March 4, 1903 - February 19, 1983) was an American immunochemist.
William Julius Wilson (born December 20, 1935) is an American sociologist.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Classification of Races, Classification of races, Contemporary views on race, Evolution of races, Human Races, Human races, Modern Classification Of Human Race, Race (anthropology), Race (classification of human beings, Race (classification of human beings), Race (classification of humans), Race (human beings), Race (human categorisation), Race (human classification), Race (human construct), Race (human), Race (humans), Race (social concept), Race (social construct), Race debate, Race denial, Race differences, Race in ancient history, Race theory, Races of mankind, Racial, Racial Groups, Racial categories, Racial characteristics, Racial classification, Racial classifications, Racial composition, Racial group, Racial identity, Racial theory, Racial trait, Racial type, Racially, Social interpretations of race, Validity of human races.