249 relations: Abel Muzorewa, Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act, 1991, Abraham Lincoln, Accademia dei Lincei, Administrative Council (Norway), African Americans, Afrikaners, Al Wefaq, Al-Akhdam, Albert Einstein, Algeria, Algerian War, American Civil War, Amity-enmity complex, Anti-miscegenation laws, Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States, Apartheid, Arabs, Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia, Ashkenazi Jews, Associated Press, Auto-segregation, Łódź Ghetto, Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, Banners of Inner Mongolia, Benito Mussolini, Berbers, Beta Israel, Black Fives, Brown v. Board of Education, Bruno Pontecorvo, Bruno Rossi, Bumiputera (Malaysia), California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, Casta, Chuang Guandong, Cityscape, Civil disobedience, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil rights movement, Clarence Mitchell Jr., Colored, Coloureds, Constitution of Liberia, Council of Representatives (Bahrain), Cow Palace, Curfew, De facto, De jure, ..., Dissenting opinion, Eight Banners, Emilio Segrè, Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law, 1988, Enrico Fermi, Ethnic enclave, Ethnic group, European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Exclusionary zoning, Fair Housing Act, Federigo Enriques, Fijians, French colonial empire, Fushun, Geng Jimao, Genocide, GeoJournal, Germans, Ghetto, Gone with the Wind (film), Goralenvolk, Gorals, Government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, Great Council of Chiefs, Group Areas Act, Guido Fubini, Guild, Gulf Daily News, Han Chinese, Haratin, Haredi Judaism, Harvard University, Hattie McDaniel, Hispania, Hispanic and Latino Americans, History of the Jews in Iran, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, Hong Taiji, House of Representatives of Fiji, Ian Smith, Imperial examination, Indians in Fiji, Inner city, Instrumental variables estimation, Internal Settlement, Internment, Interracial marriage, Interracial marriage in the United States, IRIN, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Italian Fascism, Italian Racial Laws, J. J. Benjamin, Jesse Owens, Jewish deportees from Norway during World War II, Jim Crow laws, John Lennon, John Marshall Harlan, Kahnawake, Kansas, Kashubians, Kingdom of Italy, Kristallnacht, Lancaster House Agreement, Latin America, Leila J. Rupp, Liaoning, Liberian nationality law, List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, Louis Wirth, Loving v. Virginia, Lynching, Lyndon B. Johnson, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, Malaysian New Economic Policy, Manchu people, Margherita Sarfatti, Martin Luther King Jr., Medal of Honor, Mellah, Mestizo, Milliken v. Bradley, Ming dynasty, Miscegenation, Mohawk people, Morocco, Mortgage discrimination, Mulatto, Nabeel Rajab, Nadir of American race relations, National Assembly (Bahrain), National Basketball Association, Nazi Germany, Nazi ghettos, Negro, Negro league baseball, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nonviolence, Nuremberg Laws, Nurhaci, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, P (symbol), Pakistanis, Pale of Settlement, Pass laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, Poland, Poles, Pope, Precedent, Prejudice, President of Fiji, Prime Minister of Fiji, Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000, Public toilet, Public transport, Qing dynasty, Race (human categorization), Race and health, Racial Integrity Act of 1924, Racial segregation in the United States, Racism in the United States, Rassenschande, Reconstruction era, Redlining, Reichsmark, Reps Theatre, Rhodesia, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Richmond, British Columbia, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Robert Mugabe, Romani people, Rosa Parks, Rube Foster, Russian Empire, Sahara, Sambo (racial term), Schutzstaffel, Self-governing colony, Senate of Fiji, Separate but equal, Sephardi Jews, Shang Kexi, Shtetl, Shunzhi Emperor, Sinicization, Sit-in, Slavery in Mauritania, Slavery in the United States, Slavs, Slonim (Hasidic dynasty), Social contract (Malaysia), Social stratification, Southern Rhodesian general election, 1980, Staff writer, Strict scrutiny, Sudan, Suicide mission, Supremacism, Supreme Court of the United States, Surrey, British Columbia, Tang dynasty, The Beatles, The Holocaust, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Schelling, Tor Bomann-Larsen, Tullio Levi-Civita, Unfree labour, Union of South Africa, United States Armed Forces, Usury, Uyghurs, Vigilante, Virginia, Visible minority, Voting Rights Act of 1965, W. W. Norton & Company, Waldorf Astoria New York, Warsaw Ghetto, Wends, White flight, White supremacy, Willow Palisade, Woodrow Wilson, Wu Sangui, Yemen, Zambo, Zimbabwe Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election, 1979, 1987 Fijian coups d'état, 1997 Constitution of Fiji, 2013 Constitution of Fiji. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (14 April 1925 – 8 April 2010) served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia from the Internal Settlement to the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979.
The Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act, 1991 (Act No. 108 of 1991) is an act of the Parliament of South Africa which repealed many of the apartheid laws that imposed race-based restrictions on land ownership and land use.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.
The Administrative Council (Administrasjonsrådet) was a council established by the Supreme Court to govern Norway.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Al-Wefaq National Islamic Society (جمعية الوفاق الوطني الإسلامية; transliterated: Jam'īyat al-Wifāq al-Waṭanī al-Islāmīyah), or Al-Wefaq for short, is a Bahraini political party.
Al-Akhdam, Akhdam or Achdam ("the servants," singular Khadem, meaning "servant" in Arabic; also called Al-Muhamasheen, "the marginalized ones") is a minority social group in Yemen.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The amity-enmity complex was a term introduced by Sir Arthur Keith.
Anti-miscegenation laws or miscegenation laws are laws that enforce racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of different races.
In the United States, anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were state laws passed by individual states to prohibit miscegenation, nowadays more commonly referred to as interracial marriage and interracial sex.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) responsibility for “safeguard the special position of the ‘Malays’ and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities” and goes on to specify ways to do this, such as establishing quotas for entry into the civil service, public scholarships and public education.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Auto-segregation or self-segregation is the separation of a religious or ethnic group from the rest of society in a state by the group itself.
The Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
The Bahrain Centre for Human Rights is a Bahraini non-profit non-governmental organisation which works to promote human rights in Bahrain,.
A banner is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The term Black Fives refers to all-black basketball teams that thrived in the United States between 1904, when basketball was first introduced to African Americans on a large scale organized basis, and 1950, when the National Basketball Association became racially integrated.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontecorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.
Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.
Bumiputera or Bumiputra (Jawi: بوميڤوترا) is a Malaysian term to describe Malays and other indigenous peoples of Southeast Asia, i.e. the Malay world, used similarly as in Indonesia and Brunei.
The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is responsible for the operation of the California state prison and parole systems.
The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal is a special administrative tribunal established in 1977 through the Canadian Human Rights Act.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
Chuang Guandong (IPA:; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush into Manchuria of the Han Chinese population, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period starting at the last half of the 19th century.
In the visual arts a cityscape (urban landscape) is an artistic representation, such as a painting, drawing, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Clarence Maurice Mitchell Jr. (March 8, 1911 – March 19, 1984) was a civil rights activist and was the chief lobbyist for the NAACP for nearly 30 years.
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
The Constitution of Liberia is the supreme law of the Republic of Liberia.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-nuwab), sometimes translated as the "Chamber of Deputies", is the name given to the lower house of the Bahraini National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.
Cow Palace (originally the California State Livestock Pavilion) is an indoor arena located in Daly City, California, situated on the city's northern border with neighboring San Francisco.
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law is an Israeli law passed in 1988, that prohibits the employer from discriminating between job applicants or employees on the following criteria.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is the Council of Europe’s independent human rights monitoring body specialised in combating antisemitism, discrimination, racism, religious intolerance, and xenophobia.
Exclusionary zoning is the utilization of zoning ordinances to exclude certain types of land uses from a given community.
The Fair Housing Act is a federal act in the United States intended to protect the buyer or renter of a dwelling from seller or landlord discrimination.
Abramo Giulio Umberto Federigo Enriques (5 January 1871 – 14 June 1946) was an Italian mathematician, now known principally as the first to give a classification of algebraic surfaces in birational geometry, and other contributions in algebraic geometry.
Fijians (iTaukei) are a nation and ethnic group native to Fiji, who speak Fijian and share a common history and culture.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Fushun (formerly romanised as Fouchouen, using French spelling, also as Fuxi (撫西)) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of, of which is the city proper.
Geng Jimao or Keng Chi-mao (died 1671) was a Chinese prince and military leader, inheriting the title of "Jingnan Prince" (Jingnan wang meaning "Prince who pacifies the South") from his father Geng Zhongming, along with his lands, and passing it on, in his turn to his son Geng Jingzhong.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1977.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.
The Goralenvolk was a geopolitical term invented by the German Nazis in World War II in reference to the Goral highlander population of Podhale region in the south of Poland near the Slovak border.
The Gorals (Górale; Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are an ethnographic (or ethnic) group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic (Silesian Gorals).
The government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia took office on 1 June 1979 under the terms of the Internal Settlement negotiated between the government of Rhodesia and moderate African nationalists.
The Great Council of Chiefs (Bose Levu Vakaturaga in Fijian, ग्रेट काउंसिल ऑफ चीफ्स in Fiji Hindi) was a constitutional body in the Republic of the Fiji Islands from 1876 to March 2012.
Group Areas Act was the title of three acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa.
Guido Fubini (19 January 1879 – 6 June 1943) was an Italian mathematician, known for Fubini's theorem and the Fubini–Study metric.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
The Gulf Daily News is an English-language newspaper published in the Kingdom of Bahrain by Al Hilal Group.
The Han Chinese,.
Haratin, also referred to as Harratins, Haratine or Hartani, are oasis-dwellers in the Sahara, especially in the Maghreb.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hattie McDaniel (June 10, 1895October 26, 1952) was an American stage actress, professional singer-songwriter, and comedian.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times.
The Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (or HMDA, pronounced HUM-duh) is a United States federal law that requires certain financial institutions to provide mortgage data to the public.
Hong Taiji (28November 159221 September1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and also referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was an Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The House of Representatives was the lower chamber of Fiji's Parliament from 1970 to 2006.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
Indo-Fijians are Fiji citizens who are fully or partially of Indian descent, which includes descendants who trace their heritage from various parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.
In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology and related disciplines, the method of instrumental variables (IV) is used to estimate causal relationships when controlled experiments are not feasible or when a treatment is not successfully delivered to every unit in a randomized experiment.
The Internal Settlement was an agreement which was signed on 3 March 1978 between Prime Minister of Rhodesia Ian Smith and the moderate African nationalist leaders comprising Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithole and Senator Chief Jeremiah Chirau.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia that deemed "anti-miscegenation" laws unconstitutional.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
Israe͏̈l Joseph Benjamin (Fălticeni, Moldavia, 1818 – London, May 3, 1864) was a Romanian-Jewish historian and traveler.
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (September 12, 1913March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time Olympic gold medalist in the 1936 Games.
Prior to the deportation of individuals of Jewish background to the concentration camps there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.
John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
The Kahnawake Mohawk Territory (in Mohawk, Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora) is a First Nations reserve of the Mohawks of Kahnawá:ke on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on the 21st December 1979, allowed for the creation and recognition of the Republic of Zimbabwe, replacing the unrecognised state of Rhodesia created by Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Leila J. Rupp (born 1950) is a historian, feminist, and professor of Feminist Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
The Republic of Liberia was founded by African slaves from North America by the American Colonization Society and returned to establish a republic on African soil.
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition.
Louis Wirth (August 28, 1897 – May 3, 1952) was an American sociologist and member of the Chicago school of sociology.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.
The Malaysian Indians or Indian Malaysians (Tamil: மலேசிய இந்தியர்கள்) consist of people of full or partial Indian through paternal descent —particularly Tamil Indians who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia from Tamil Nadu.
The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Dasar Ekonomi Baru (DEB)) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Margherita Sarfatti (April 8, 1880 – October 30, 1961) was an Italian journalist, art critic, patron, collector, socialite, a prominent propaganda adviser of the National Fascist Party.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U.S. military service members who distinguished themselves by acts of valor.
A mellah (ملاح and מלאח, the Arabic meaning "salt spring" or "salt marsh" which was the area of the first Jewish settlement in Fez) is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, analogous to the European ghetto.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974), was a significant United States Supreme Court case dealing with the planned desegregation busing of public school students across district lines among 53 school districts in metropolitan Detroit.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Nabeel Ahmed Abdulrasool Rajab (نبيل أحمد عبدالرسول رجب, born on 1 September 1964) is a Bahraini human rights activist and opposition leader.
According to historian Rayford Logan, the nadir of American race relations was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War.
The National Assembly is the name of both chambers of the Bahraini parliament when sitting in joint session, as laid out in the Constitution of 2002.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
The Negro leagues were United States professional baseball leagues comprising teams predominantly made up of African Americans and, to a lesser extent, Latin Americans.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO) is an agency within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The "P" symbol or "P" badge was introduced on 8 March 1940 by the Nazi German government with relation to the requirement that Polish workers (Zivilarbeiter) used during World War II as forced laborers in Germany (following the German invasion and occupation of Poland) display a visible symbol marking their ethnic origin.
The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.
In South Africa, pass laws were a form of internal passport system designed to segregate the population, manage urbanisation, and allocate migrant labour.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.
The President of the Republic of Fiji is the head of state of Fiji.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Fiji is the head of government of Fiji.
Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000
Prohibition of Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law is an Israeli law enacted in 2000, which prohibits discrimination on the part of those who provide products, public services or operate public places in providing products, public services, entry to public places or providing services in public places, on the grounds of a customer's race, religion, nationality, land of origin, sex, sexual orientation, political views, personal status or parenthood.
A public toilet is a room or small building with one or more toilets (or urinals) available for use by the general public, or by customers or employees of a business.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity.
On March 20, 1924, the Virginia General Assembly passed two laws that had arisen out of contemporary concerns about eugenics and race: SB 219, titled "The Racial Integrity Act" and SB 281, "An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases", henceforth referred to as "The Sterilization Act".
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
Racism in the United States against non-whites is widespread and has been so the colonial era.
Rassenschande ("race disgrace") or Blutschande ("blood disgrace") was an anti-miscegenation concept in Nazi German racial policy, pertaining to sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
In the United States, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
Reps Theatre (also known as The Repertory Players or simply Reps) is a Zimbabwe theatre and theatrical company based in the capital city of Harare.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
Richmond is a coastal city located in the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Rita Levi-Montalcini, (22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Andrew "Rube" Foster (September 17, 1879 – December 9, 1930) was an American baseball player, manager, and executive in the Negro leagues.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sambo is a term for a person with African heritage and, in some countries, also mixed with Native American heritage (see zambo).
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers were able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony.
The Senate of Fiji was the upper chamber of Parliament.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Shang Kexi (尚可喜; Shang Ko-hsi; August 25, 1604 – November 12, 1676) was a Han Chinese general of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Shtetlekh (שטעטל, shtetl (singular), שטעטלעך, shtetlekh (plural)) were small towns with large Jewish populations, which existed in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
The Shunzhi Emperor; Manchu: ijishūn dasan hūwangdi; ᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ |translit.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Slavery has been called "deeply rooted" in the structure of the northwestern African country of Mauritania, and "closely tied" to the ethnic composition of the country.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slonim is a Hasidic dynasty originating in the town of Slonim, which is now in Belarus.
The social contract in Malaysia refers to the supposedly understanding made by Malaya's founding fathers in the Constitution, nearing its independence.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
General elections were held in Southern Rhodesia in February 1980 to elect a government which would govern the country after it was granted independence as Zimbabwe, in accordance with the conclusions of the Lancaster House Agreement.
In journalism, a staff writer byline indicates that the author of the article is an employee of the periodical, as opposed to being an independent freelance writer.
Strict scrutiny is the most stringent standard of judicial review used by United States courts.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
A suicide mission is a task which is so dangerous for the people involved that they are not expected to survive.
Supremacism is an ideology of domination and superiority: it states that a particular class of people is superior to others, and that it should dominate, control, and subjugate others, or is entitled to do it.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada, located south of the Fraser River and north of the Canada–United States border. It is a member municipality of the Metro Vancouver regional district and metropolitan area. Mainly a suburban city, Surrey is the second-largest city by population after the city of Vancouver and the province's third largest city by area, after Abbotsford and Prince George. The six "town centres" the City of Surrey comprises are: Fleetwood, Whalley/City Centre, Guildford, Newton, Cloverdale, and South Surrey.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Crombie Schelling (April 14, 1921 – December 13, 2016) was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland, College Park.
Tor Bomann-Larsen (born 26 April 1951) is a Norwegian illustrator, children's writer, non-fiction writer, novelist and government scholar.
Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS (29 March 1873 – 29 December 1941) was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
The Waldorf Astoria New York is a luxury hotel in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
White flight is a term that originated in the United States, starting in the 1950s and 1960s, and applied to the large-scale migration of people of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
Zimbabwe Rhodesia was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 12 December 1979.
The Zimbabwe Rhodesia general election of April 1979 was held under the Internal Settlement negotiated by the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith intended to provide a peaceful transition to majority rule on terms not harmful to Rhodesians of white descent.
The Fiji coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.
The 1997 Constitution of Fiji was the supreme law of Fiji from its adoption in 1997 until 2009 when President Josefa Iloilo purported to abrogate it.
Fiji's fourth constitution was signed into law by President Ratu Epeli Nailatikau on September 6, 2013, coming into effect immediately.
Black segregation, Color bar, Color barrier, Colour bar, Colour barrier, De facto segregation, De jour segregation, De jure segregation, Ethnic segregation, Race segregation, Racial Segregation, Racial divide, Racial segregation in Canada, Racial segregation laws, Racial separation, Racially segregated, Racially-segregated, Racism and Segregation, School segregation, Segregated education, Segregated school, Segregation laws, Segregation of schools, Segregationism, Segregationist, Segregationists, White Separatist Banner, Whites only.