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Radiation hardening

Index Radiation hardening

Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare. [1]

185 relations: Aeroflex, Aerospace, Aircraft, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Annealing (metallurgy), Avalanche breakdown, BAE Systems, Band gap, Biasing, Bipolar junction transistor, Boeing, Borophosphosilicate glass, Bravais lattice, Capacitor, Carrier generation and recombination, Central processing unit, Charge carrier, Charged particle, Civilian, CMOS, Communications survivability, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic ray, Crystal oscillator, Data, Deep-level trap, Degradation (telecommunications), Design specification, Digital data, Digital electronics, Digital signal processor, Dynamic random-access memory, Earth's magnetic field, EEPROM, Electric current, Electrical cable, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic component, Electronvolt, Electrostatic discharge, Emitter-coupled logic, ERC32, Error correction code, European Space Agency, Explosion, Federal Standard 1037C, Field-programmable gate array, ..., Finite-state machine, Flip-flop (electronics), Gallium arsenide, Gallium nitride, Gamma ray, Glitch, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, Gray (unit), H-index, Hardware register, High-energy astronomy, Honeywell, Hot-carrier injection, HZE ions, IBM, IBM RAD6000, IBM System/360, IBM System/4 Pi, Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, Instructions per second, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, Ion, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, Juno Radiation Vault, KOMDIV-32, Kurchatov Institute, Large Hadron Collider, Latch-up, LEON, Light-emitting diode, Magnetoresistive random-access memory, Magnetosphere, Marconi Communications, Maxwell Technologies, Memory cell (computing), Memory scrubbing, Microelectronics, Microprocessor, Military, Military aircraft, Mongoose-V, MOSFET, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron capture, Neutron radiation, New Horizons, Noise (electronics), Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear electromagnetic pulse, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, NXP ColdFire, Opto-isolator, Outer space, Parity bit, Particle accelerator, Particle detector, Particle radiation, Passivation (chemistry), P–n junction, Photoconductivity, Photocurrent, Power cycling, Power semiconductor device, POWER1, PowerPC, PowerPC 7xx, Printed circuit board, Proton, Proton200k, Quartz, R3000, Rad (unit), RAD750, Radiation protection, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Random-access memory, RC circuit, RCA 1802, Redundancy (engineering), Reset (computing), RH-32, RH1750, RHPPC, Sapphire, Satellite, Scientific Research Institute of System Development, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Sensor, Short circuit, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Silicon on insulator, Silicon on sapphire, Single event upset, Single-board computer, Soft error, Space Micro Inc, Space Shuttle program, Spacecraft, Static random-access memory, Sun, Survivability, System, System on a chip, Telecommunication, Tempest (codename), Texas Instruments, Threshold voltage, Thyristor, Time constant, Time triple modular redundancy, Ultraviolet, Van Allen radiation belt, Vanderbilt University, Voltage regulator, Voltage spike, Vulnerability (computing), Wafer (electronics), Watchdog timer, X-ray, 4000 series, 7400 series, 8-bit. Expand index (135 more) »


Aeroflex Inc. was an American company which produced test equipment, RF and microwave integrated circuits, components and systems used for wireless communications.

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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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Annealing (metallurgy)

Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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Avalanche breakdown

Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.

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BAE Systems

BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.

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Bipolar junction transistor

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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.

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Borophosphosilicate glass

Borophosphosilicate glass, commonly known as BPSG, is a type of silicate glass that includes additives of both boron and phosphorus.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carrier generation and recombination

In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Charge carrier

In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.

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Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".

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Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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Communications survivability

In telecommunication, communications survivability is the ability of communications systems to continue to operate effectively under adverse conditions, though portions of the system may be damaged or destroyed.

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Coronal mass ejection

A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Crystal oscillator

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.

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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

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Deep-level trap

Deep-level traps or deep-level defects are a generally undesirable type of electronic defect in semiconductors.

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Degradation (telecommunications)

In telecommunication, degradation, is the loss of quality of an electronic signal, which may be categorized as either "graceful" or "catastrophic", and has the following meanings.

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Design specification

A design specification is a detailed document providing information about a designed product or process.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electrical cable

An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron hole

In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.

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Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.

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Emitter-coupled logic

In electronics, emitter-coupled logic (ECL) is a high-speed integrated circuit bipolar transistor logic family.

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ERC32 is a radiation-tolerant 32-bit RISC processor (SPARC V7 specification) developed for space applications.

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Error correction code

In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.

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Federal Standard 1037C

Federal Standard 1037C, titled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms, is a United States Federal Standard issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

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Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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Gallium nitride

Gallium nitride is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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A glitch is a short-lived fault in a system, such as a transient fault that corrects itself, making it difficult to troubleshoot.

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GNU General Public License

The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

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GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

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Gray (unit)

The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).

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The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar.

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Hardware register

In digital electronics, especially computing, hardware registers are circuits typically composed of flip flops, often with many characteristics similar to memory, such as.

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High-energy astronomy

High energy astronomy is the study of astronomical objects that release electromagnetic radiation of highly energetic wavelengths.

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Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.

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Hot-carrier injection

Hot carrier injection (HCI) is a phenomenon in solid-state electronic devices where an electron or a “hole” gains sufficient kinetic energy to overcome a potential barrier necessary to break an interface state.

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HZE ions

HZE ions are the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have an electric charge greater than +2.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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The RAD6000 radiation-hardened single board computer, based on the IBM RISC Single Chip CPU, was manufactured by IBM Federal Systems.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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IBM System/4 Pi

The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the F-15 Eagle fighter, E-3 Sentry, AWACS, Harpoon Missile, NASA's Skylab, MOL, and the Space Shuttle, as well as other aircraft.

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Institute for Space and Defense Electronics

The Institute for Space and Defense Electronics (ISDE) is a research facility at Vanderbilt University, a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Instructions per second

Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Juno Radiation Vault

Juno Radiation Vault is a compartment inside the Juno spacecraft that houses much of the probe's electronics and computers, and is intended to offer increased protection of radiation to the contents as the spacecraft endures the radiation environment at planet Jupiter.

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The KOMDIV-32 (КОМДИВ-32) is a family of 32-bit microprocessors developed and manufactured by the Scientific Research Institute of System Development (NIISI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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Kurchatov Institute

The Kurchatov Institute (Hациональный исследовательский центр "Курчатовский Институт" (since 2010) i.e. (Russia's) National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute"; 1991-2010: Роcсийский научный центр "Курчатовский Институт". — Russian Scientific Centre "Kurchatov Institute") is Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy.

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Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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A latch-up is a type of short circuit which can occur in an integrated circuit (IC).

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LEON (from león, meaning lion) is a 32-bit CPU microprocessor core, based on the SuperSPARC SPARC-V8 RISC architecture and instruction set designed by Sun Microsystems.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Magnetoresistive random-access memory

Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile random-access memory technology available today that began its development in mid-1980s.

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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Marconi Communications

Marconi Communications, the former telecommunications arm of the General Electric Company plc (GEC), was founded in August 1998 through the amalgamation of GEC Plessey Telecommunications (GPT) with other GEC subsidiaries: Marconi SpA, GEC Hong Kong, and ATC South Africa.

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Maxwell Technologies

Maxwell Technologies is an American developer and manufacturer headquartered in San Diego, California.

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Memory cell (computing)

The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory.

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Memory scrubbing

Memory scrubbing consists of reading from each computer memory location, correcting bit errors (if any) with an error-correcting code (ECC), and writing the corrected data back to the same location.

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Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military aircraft

A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.

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The Mongoose-V 32-bit microprocessor for spacecraft onboard computer applications is a radiation-hardened and expanded 10–15 MHz version of the MIPS R3000 CPU.

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MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.

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Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.

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Neutron capture

Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.

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Neutron radiation

Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents

A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.

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Nuclear electromagnetic pulse

A nuclear electromagnetic pulse (commonly abbreviated as nuclear EMP, or NEMP) is a burst of electromagnetic radiation created by nuclear explosions.

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Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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NXP ColdFire

The NXP ColdFire is a microprocessor that derives from the Motorola 68000 family architecture, manufactured for embedded systems development by NXP Semiconductors.

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In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Parity bit

A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle detector

In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.

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Particle radiation

Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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P–n junction

A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.

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Photoconductivity is an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material becomes more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation such as visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, or gamma radiation.

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Photocurrent is the electric current through a photosensitive device, such as a photodiode, as the result of exposure to radiant power.

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Power cycling

Power cycling is the act of turning a piece of equipment, usually a computer, off and then on again.

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Power semiconductor device

A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics; a switch-mode power supply is an example.

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The POWER1 is a multi-chip CPU developed and fabricated by IBM that implemented the POWER instruction set architecture (ISA).

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PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.

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PowerPC 7xx

The PowerPC 7xx is a family of third generation 32-bit PowerPC microprocessors designed and manufactured by IBM and Motorola (now Freescale Semiconductor).

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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The Proton200k is a high-speed, space-qualified, radiation-hardened single-board computer based on a Texas Instruments DSP.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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The R3000 is a full 32 bit RISC microprocessor chipset developed by MIPS Computer Systems that implemented the MIPS I instruction set architecture (ISA).

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Rad (unit)

The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.

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The RAD750 is a radiation-hardened single board computer manufactured by BAE Systems Electronics, Intelligence & Support.

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Radiation protection

Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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RC circuit

A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source.

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RCA 1802

The RCA CDP1802, a 40-pin LSI integrated circuit chip (IC), implemented using COSMAC (Complementary Symmetry Monolithic Array Computer) architecture, is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor (µP) introduced by RCA in early 1976, the company's first single-chip microprocessor.

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Redundancy (engineering)

In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing.

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Reset (computing)

In a computer or data transmission system, a reset clears any pending errors or events and brings a system to normal condition or an initial state, usually in a controlled manner.

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The RH-32 was a radiation-hardened 32-bit microprocessor chipset developed by the USAF Rome Laboratories for the Ballistic Missile Defense Agency, and produced by Honeywell (later, TRW) for Aerospace applications.

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The RH1750 is a radiation-hardened implementation of the MIL-STD-1750A processor produced by GEC-Plessey (now Marconi Communications).

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The RHPPC is a radiation hardened processor based on PowerPC 603e technology licensed from Motorola (now Freescale) and manufactured by Honeywell.

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Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Scientific Research Institute of System Development

Scientific Research Institute of System Analysis (abbrev. SRISA/NIISI RAS, НИИСИ РАН, Научно-исследовательский институт системных исследований Российской Академии Наук) - is Russia's research and development institution in the field of complex applications, an initiative of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor device

Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.

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In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silicon on insulator

Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology refers to the use of a layered silicon–insulator–silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic device capacitance, thereby improving performance.

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Silicon on sapphire

Silicon on sapphire (SOS) is a hetero-epitaxial process for integrated circuit manufacturing that consists of a thin layer (typically thinner than 0.6 µm) of silicon grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) wafer.

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Single event upset

A single event upset (SEU) is a change of state caused by one single ionizing particle (ions, electrons, photons...) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistors.

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Single-board computer

A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.

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Soft error

In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where a signal or datum is wrong.

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Space Micro Inc

Space Micro Inc is an American company that supplies radiation hardened electronics for space and military applications.

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Space Shuttle program

The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Survivability is the ability to remain alive or continue to exist.

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A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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System on a chip

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Tempest (codename)

TEMPEST is a National Security Agency specification and a NATO certification referring to spying on information systems through leaking emanations, including unintentional radio or electrical signals, sounds, and vibrations.

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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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Threshold voltage

The threshold voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth, of a field-effect transistor (FET) is the minimum gate-to-source voltage VGS (th) that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals.

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A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials.

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Time constant

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.

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Time triple modular redundancy

Time triple modular redundancy, also known as TTMR, is a patented single event upset mitigation technique that detects and corrects errors in a computer or microprocessor.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Van Allen radiation belt

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.

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Vanderbilt University

Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Voltage regulator

A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable DC voltage independent of the load current, temperature and AC line voltage variations.

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Voltage spike

In electrical engineering, spikes are fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage (voltage spikes), current (current spikes), or transferred energy (energy spikes) in an electrical circuit.

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Vulnerability (computing)

In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which can be exploited by a Threat Actor, such as an attacker, to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.

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Wafer (electronics)

A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.

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Watchdog timer

A watchdog timer (sometimes called a computer operating properly or COP timer, or simply a watchdog) is an electronic timer that is used to detect and recover from computer malfunctions.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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4000 series

The 4000 series is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968.

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7400 series

The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.

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8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hardening

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