26 relations: Atomic number, Attenuation, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Avogadro constant, Bremsstrahlung, Classical electron radius, E (mathematical constant), Electron, Electron energy loss spectroscopy, Electronvolt, Elementary particle, Fine-structure constant, Ionization, Lepton, Mass number, Mean free path, Nuclear collision length, Nuclear force, Nuclear interaction length, Pair production, Particle Data Group, Photon, Range (particle radiation), Stopping power (particle radiation), Strong interaction.

## Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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## Attenuation

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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## Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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## Attenuation length

In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.

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## Avogadro constant

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

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## Bremsstrahlung

Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.

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## Classical electron radius

The classical electron radius is a combination of fundamental physical quantities that define a length scale for problems involving electrons interacting with electromagnetic radiation.

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## E (mathematical constant)

The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron energy loss spectroscopy

In electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) a material is exposed to a beam of electrons with a known, narrow range of kinetic energies.

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## Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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## Fine-structure constant

In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

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## Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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## Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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## Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

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## Nuclear collision length

Nuclear collision length is the mean free path of a particle before undergoing a nuclear reaction, for a given particle in a given medium.

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## Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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## Nuclear interaction length

Nuclear interaction length is the mean path length required to reduce the numbers of relativistic charged particles by the factor 1/, or 0.368, as they pass through matter.

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## Pair production

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.

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## Particle Data Group

The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Range (particle radiation)

In passing through matter, charged particles ionize and thus lose energy in many steps, until their energy is (almost) zero.

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## Stopping power (particle radiation)

Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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