97 relations: Aberration of light, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Albert Einstein, Asteroid, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Beam-powered propulsion, Big Bang, Binary star, Black-body radiation, Circumstellar disc, Comet, Comet nucleus, Comet tail, Crookes radiometer, Dielectric mirror, Diffuse reflection, Doppler effect, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Ernest Fox Nichols, Escape velocity, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Galaxy formation and evolution, Gas, Gordon Ferrie Hull, Gravitational compression, IKAROS, Initial mass function, International System of Units, Interstellar medium, Inverse-square law, Ion, Irradiance, James Clerk Maxwell, JAXA, Johannes Kepler, Jules Verne, Jupiter, Kelvin, Kinetic theory of gases, Laser cooling, Mars, Mercury (planet), Metre, Micrometre, Molecular cloud, Momentum, ..., Newton (unit), Newton's laws of motion, Nichols radiometer, Open cluster, Outer space, Pascal (unit), Perturbation (astronomy), Photon, Photon epoch, Planck constant, Planck's law, Planetary system, Poynting vector, Poynting–Robertson effect, Pressure, Protoplanetary disk, Protostar, Pyotr Lebedev, Reflection (physics), Solar constant, Solar sail, Solar System, Solar wind, Spacecraft propulsion, Spectral energy distribution, Specular reflection, Speed of light, Star, Star cluster, Star formation, Stefan–Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stellar structure, Sun, Sunlight, Supergiant star, Thermal equilibrium, Thermonuclear weapon, Velocity, Venus, Viking program, Watt, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Yarkovsky effect, Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack effect, Young stellar object. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
The aberration of light (also referred to as astronomical aberration, stellar aberration, or velocity aberration) is an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Beam-powered propulsion, also known as directed energy propulsion, is a class of aircraft or spacecraft propulsion that uses energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant to provide energy.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.
A comet tail—and coma—are features visible in comets when they are illuminated by the Sun and may become visible from Earth when a comet passes through the inner Solar System.
The Crookes radiometer, also known as a light mill, consists of an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum.
A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror composed of multiple thin layers of dielectric material, typically deposited on a substrate of glass or some other optical material.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Ernest Fox Nichols (June 1, 1869 – April 29, 1924) was an American educator and physicist.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gordon Ferrie Hull (October 7, 1870 in Garnet, Ontario, Canada – October 7, 1956) was a Canadian-American mathematician, teacher, and physicist, especially known for the experimental detection of the radiation pressure exerted by light which he achieved in 1903.
Gravitational compression is a phenomenon in which gravity, acting on the mass of an object, compresses it, reducing its size and increases the object's density.
IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) experimental spacecraft.
In astronomy, the initial mass function (IMF) is an empirical function that describes the initial distribution of masses for a population of stars.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
A Nichols radiometer was the apparatus used by Ernest Fox Nichols and Gordon Ferrie Hull in 1901 for the measurement of radiation pressure.
An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physical cosmology, the photon epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which photons dominated the energy of the universe.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field.
The Poynting–Robertson effect, also known as Poynting–Robertson drag, named after John Henry Poynting and Howard P. Robertson, is a process by which solar radiation causes a dust grain orbiting a star to lose angular momentum relative to its orbit around the star.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.
Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev was a Russian physicist.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
The solar constant is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area.
Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
A spectral energy distribution (SED) is a plot of energy versus frequency or wavelength of light (not to be confused with a 'spectrum' of flux density vs frequency or wavelength).
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star clusters are groups of stars.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter ''σ'' (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.
Stars of different mass and age have varying internal structures.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
The Yarkovsky effect is a force acting on a rotating body in space caused by the anisotropic emission of thermal photons, which carry momentum.
The Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack effect, or YORP effect for short, changes the rotation state of a small astronomical body – that is, the body's spin rate and the obliquity of its pole(s) – due to the scattering of solar radiation off its surface and the emission of its own thermal radiation.
Young stellar object (YSO) denotes a star in its early stage of evolution.