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Radiation therapy

Index Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator. [1]

235 relations: Absorbed dose, Adjuvant therapy, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Anal cancer, Anus, Apoptosis, Assisted reproductive technology, Auger therapy, Axilla, Beam's eye view, Bile acid malabsorption, Birth defect, Bone metastasis, Boron, Brachytherapy, Bragg peak, Breast cancer, Bronchus, Cancer, Cancer and nausea, Carbon, Cardiac fibrosis, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiovascular disease, Catheter, CD20, Cell (biology), Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Cervical cancer, Cetuximab, Charged particle, Chemotherapy, Childhood leukemia, Choosing Wisely, Christopher Nutting, Circulatory system, Cisplatin, Cobalt therapy, Cobalt-60, Colorectal cancer, Coronary artery disease, Crocetin, CT scan, Cyberknife, Cytotoxicity, Deep inspiration breath-hold, Demyelinating disease, Developing country, ..., Diarrhea, DNA, Dosimetry, Dupuytren's contracture, Emil Grubbe, Endothelial dysfunction, Epithelium, External beam radiotherapy, Fast neutron therapy, Fertilisation, Fibrosis, Food and Drug Administration, Gamete, Gamma ray, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Gel dosimetry, Germ cell tumor, Godfrey Hounsfield, Gonad, Graves' ophthalmopathy, Gray (unit), Growth hormone, Half-life, Hammersmith Hospital, Head and neck cancer, Heart arrhythmia, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hepatic artery proper, Heterotopic ossification, Hormonal therapy (oncology), Hydroxy group, Hyperthermia therapy, Hyperthyroidism, Hypopharyngeal cancer, Hypopituitarism, Hypoxia (medical), Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Image-guided radiation therapy, Immunotherapy, Inflammation, Intellectual disability, Internet Archive, Intracranial pressure, Intraoperative radiation therapy, Intrauterine growth restriction, Iobenguane, Iodine-131, Ion, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of lutetium, Keloid, Leukemia, Linear energy transfer, Linear particle accelerator, Lumen (anatomy), Lymphedema, Lymphoma, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malabsorption, Malignancy, Manhattan Project, Marie Curie, Mastectomy, Mathematical optimization, Medical diagnosis, Medical imaging, Melanoma, Metastasis, Metronidazole, Micromanipulator, Misonidazole, Missouri, Mitotic catastrophe, Moist desquamation, Monoclonal antibody, Mucous membrane, Multileaf collimator, Nasopharynx cancer, National Cancer Institute, Neoadjuvant therapy, Neon, Neoplasm, Nerve compression syndrome, Neuroblastoma, Neuroendocrine tumor, Neutron capture therapy of cancer, Nimorazole, Nobel Prize, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Nuclear reactor, Oncology, Oropharyngeal cancer, Orthovoltage X-rays, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound, Palliative care, Particle beam, Particle therapy, Pelvis, Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, Peripheral artery disease, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Photon, Pigmented villonodular synovitis, Pituitary gland, Plantar fibromatosis, Polonium, Positron emission tomography, Prolactin, Prostate cancer, Proton, Proton therapy, Pterygium, Quality of life (healthcare), Radiation enteropathy, Radiation oncologist, Radiation proctitis, Radiation therapist, Radiation treatment planning, Radiation-induced cognitive decline, Radiation-induced lumbar plexopathy, Radical (chemistry), Radioactive source, Radiobiology, Radioimmunotherapy, Radiology, Radionuclide, Radiosensitivity, Radiosensitizer, Radiosurgery, Radium, Radon, Range (particle radiation), Renal cell carcinoma, Restenosis, Route of administration, Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam, Science (journal), Selective internal radiation therapy, Sex steroid, SIR-Spheres, Skin cancer, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Steatorrhea, Stem cell, Steroid, Strontium-89, Surgery, Sweat gland, Taylor & Francis, Teratology, The Independent, Therac-25, Therapeutic index, Therapy, TheraSphere, Thyroid, Thyroid cancer, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Tirapazamine, Tomotherapy, Tositumomab, Total body irradiation, Trachea, Treatment of cancer, Trigeminal neuralgia, Truebeam, Unsealed source radiotherapy, Valvular heart disease, Vestibular schwannoma, Vestibule of the ear, Vitamin B12, Volt, Voltage, Wide local excision, Wilhelm Röntgen, X-ray, X-ray tube, Xerophthalmia, Xerostomia, Yttrium-90. Expand index (185 more) »

Absorbed dose

Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.

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Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

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American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) is a professional organization for physicians specializing in Hospice and Palliative Medicine, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Anus

The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Assisted reproductive technology

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

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Auger therapy

Auger therapy (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy electrons (emitted by the Auger effect) to damage cancer cells, rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy.

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Axilla

The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.

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Beam's eye view

Beam's Eye View (or BEV) is an imaging technique used in radiation therapy for the quality assurance and planning of External Beam Radiation Therapy treatments.

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Bile acid malabsorption

Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Bone metastasis

Bone metastases, or osseous metastatic disease, is a category of cancer metastases that results from primary tumor invasion to bone.

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Boron

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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Bragg peak

The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Bronchus

A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer and nausea

Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Cardiac fibrosis

Cardiac fibrosis may refer to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts but more commonly refers to the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the cardiac muscle.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Catheter

In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.

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CD20

B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and progressively increasing in concentration until maturity.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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Cetuximab

Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.

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Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Childhood leukemia

Childhood leukemia is a type of leukemia, usually acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and a type of childhood cancer.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Christopher Nutting

Christopher M. Nutting (born 5 April 1968) is a British Professor of Clinical Oncology and medical consultant, specializing in head and neck cancers, who has helped develop Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), an advanced form of Radiation therapy.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Cisplatin

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.

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Cobalt therapy

Cobalt therapy or cobalt-60 therapy is the medical use of gamma rays from the radioisotope cobalt-60 to treat conditions such as cancer.

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Cobalt-60

Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Crocetin

Crocetin is a natural apocarotenoid dicarboxylic acid that is found in the crocus flower and Gardenia jasminoides (fruits).

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cyberknife

The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system used for treating benign tumors, malignant tumors and other medical conditions.

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Cytotoxicity

Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Deep inspiration breath-hold

Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) is a method of delivering radiotherapy while limiting radiation exposure to the heart and lungs.

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dosimetry

Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.

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Dupuytren's contracture

Dupuytren's contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permanently bent in a flexed position.

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Emil Grubbe

Emil Herman Grubbe (1 January 1875 — 26 March 1960) was probably the first American to use x-rays in the treatment of cancer.

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Endothelial dysfunction

In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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External beam radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).

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Fast neutron therapy

Fast neutron therapy utilizes high energy neutrons typically between 50 and 70 MeV to treat cancer.

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Fertilisation

Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Fibrosis

Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Gamete

A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

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Gel dosimetry

Gel dosimeters are manufactured from radiation sensitive chemicals that, upon irradiation with ionising radiation, undergo a fundamental change in their properties as a function of the absorbed radiation dose.

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Germ cell tumor

A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells.

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Godfrey Hounsfield

Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).

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Gonad

A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Graves' ophthalmopathy

Graves ophthalmopathy (also known as thyroid eye disease (TED), dysthyroid/thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), Graves' orbitopathy (GO)) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos).

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Gray (unit)

The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Half-life

Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Hammersmith Hospital

Hammersmith Hospital, formerly the Military Orthopaedic Hospital, and later the Special Surgical Hospital, is a major teaching hospital in west London.

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Head and neck cancer

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.

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Hepatic artery proper

The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad.

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Heterotopic ossification

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process by which bone tissue forms outside of the skeleton.

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Hormonal therapy (oncology)

Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hyperthermia therapy

Hyperthermia therapy is a type of medical treatment in which body tissue is exposed to higher temperatures in an effort to treat cancer.

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Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypopharyngeal cancer

Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells grow in the hypopharynx (the area where the larynx and esophagus meet).

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Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Ibritumomab tiuxetan

Ibritumomab tiuxetan, sold under the trade name Zevalin, is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for relapsed or refractory, low grade or transformed B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a lymphoproliferative disorder.

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Image-guided radiation therapy

Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan.

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Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Intraoperative radiation therapy

Intraoperative radiation therapy, or IORT, is the application of therapeutic levels of radiation to the tumor bed while the area is exposed during surgery.

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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

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Iobenguane

Iobenguane, also known as metaiodobenzylguanidine or mIBG, or MIBG (tradename Adreview) is a radiopharmaceutical, used in a scintigraphy method called MIBG scan.

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Iodine-131

Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isotopes of lutetium

Naturally occurring lutetium (71Lu) is composed of 1 stable isotope 175Lu (97.41% natural abundance) and one long-lived radioisotope, 176Lu with a half-life of 3.78 × 1010 years (2.59% natural abundance).

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Keloid

Keloid, also known as keloid disorder and keloidal scar, is the formation of a type of scar which, depending on its maturity, is composed mainly of either type III (early) or type I (late) collagen.

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Leukemia

Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Linear energy transfer

In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material traversed per unit distance.

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Linear particle accelerator

A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

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Lumen (anatomy)

In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.

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Lymphedema

Lymphedema, also known as lymphoedema and lymphatic edema, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the bloodstream.

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Malabsorption

Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

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Malignancy

Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Mastectomy

Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.

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Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Melanoma

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Metastasis

Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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Metronidazole

Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.

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Micromanipulator

A micromanipulator is a device which is used to physically interact with a sample under a microscope, where a level of precision of movement is necessary that cannot be achieved by the unaided human hand.

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Misonidazole

Misonidazole is a radiosensitizer used in radiation therapy to cause normally resistant hypoxic tumor cells to become sensitive to the treatment.

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Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Mitotic catastrophe

Mitotic catastrophe refers to a mechanism of delayed mitosis-linked cell death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or physical stresses.

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Moist desquamation

Moist desquamation is a description of the clinical pattern seen as a consequence of radiation exposure where the skin thins and then begins to weep because of loss of integrity of the epithelial barrier and decreased oncotic pressure.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Multileaf collimator

A multileaf collimator (MLC) is a device made up of individual "leaves" of a high atomic numbered material, usually tungsten, that can move independently in and out of the path of a particle beam in order to block it.

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Nasopharynx cancer

Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Neoadjuvant therapy

Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neoplasm

Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nerve compression syndrome

Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, also known as entrapment neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve.

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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue. It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Symptoms may include bone pain, a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest, or a painless bluish lump under the skin. Occasionally, neuroblastoma may be due to a mutation inherited from a person's parents. Environmental factors have not been found to be involved. Diagnosis is based on a tissue biopsy. Occasionally it may be found in a baby by ultrasound during pregnancy. At diagnosis, the cancer has usually already spread. The cancer is divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on a child's age, cancer stage, and what the cancer looks like. Treatment and outcomes depends on the risk group a person is in. Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Low-risk disease in babies typically has a good outcome with surgery or simply observation. In high-risk disease, chances of long-term survival, however, are less than 40% despite aggressive treatment. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in babies and the third-most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. About one in every 7,000 children is affected at some time. About 90% of cases occur in children less than 5 years old and it is rare in adults. Of cancer deaths in children, about 15% are due to neuroblastoma. The disease was first described in the 1800s.

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Neuroendocrine tumor

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.

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Neutron capture therapy of cancer

Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer.

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Nimorazole

Nimorazole (INN) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Oropharyngeal cancer

Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease in which cancer form in the tissues of the throat (oropharynx).

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Orthovoltage X-rays

Orthovoltage x-rays are produced by x-ray tubes operating at voltages in the 100–500 kV range, and therefore the x-rays have a peak energy in the 100–500 keV range.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound

An oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound is any substance that increases the availability of oxygen in body tissues by influencing the molecular structure of water in blood plasma and thereby promoting the movement (diffusion) of oxygen through plasma.

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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Particle beam

A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles, in many cases moving at near the speed of light.

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Particle therapy

Particle therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment.

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Pelvis

The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a type of unsealed source radiotherapy, using a radiopharmaceutical which targets peptide receptors to deliver localised treatment, typically for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Pigmented villonodular synovitis

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a joint disease characterized by inflammation and overgrowth of the joint lining.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Plantar fibromatosis

Plantar fascial fibromatosis, also known as Ledderhose's disease, Morbus Ledderhose, and plantar fibromatosis, is a relatively uncommon non-malignant thickening of the feet's deep connective tissue, or fascia.

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Polonium

Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Prolactin

Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Proton therapy

In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer.

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Pterygium

Pterygium refers to any winglike triangular membrane occurring in the neck, eyes, knees, elbows, ankles or digits.

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Quality of life (healthcare)

In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.

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Radiation enteropathy

Radiation enteropathy or radiation enteritis is a syndrome that may develop following abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy for cancer.

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Radiation oncologist

A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer.

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Radiation proctitis

Radiation proctitis (and the related radiation colitis) is inflammation and damage to the lower parts of the colon after exposure to x-rays or other ionizing radiation as a part of radiation therapy.

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Radiation therapist

The Radiation Therapist, Therapeutic Radiographer or Radiotherapist is an allied health professional who works in the field of radiation oncology.

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Radiation treatment planning

In radiotherapy, radiation treatment planning is the process in which a team consisting of radiation oncologists, radiation therapist, medical physicists and medical dosimetrists plan the appropriate external beam radiotherapy or internal brachytherapy treatment technique for a patient with cancer.

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Radiation-induced cognitive decline

Radiation-induced cognitive decline describes the possible correlation between radiation therapy and mild cognitive impairment.

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Radiation-induced lumbar plexopathy

Radiation-induced lumbar plexopathy (RILP) or radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP) is nerve damage in the pelvis and lower spine area occurring as a late side effect of external beam radiation therapy.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Radioactive source

A radioactive source is a known quantity of a radionuclide which emits ionizing radiation; typically one or more of the radiation types gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles, and neutron radiation.

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Radiobiology

Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation.

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Radioimmunotherapy

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell.

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Radiology

Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radiosensitivity

Radiosensitivity is the relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs or organisms to the harmful effect of ionizing radiation.

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Radiosensitizer

A radiosensitizer is an agent that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.

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Radiosurgery

Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.

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Radium

Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Range (particle radiation)

In passing through matter, charged particles ionize and thus lose energy in many steps, until their energy is (almost) zero.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

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Restenosis

Restenosis is the recurrence of stenosis, a narrowing of a blood vessel, leading to restricted blood flow.

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Route of administration

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

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Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam

Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam (chemical name Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate, abbreviated Samarium-153 EDTMP, trade name Quadramet) is a chelated complex of a radioisotope of the element samarium with EDTMP.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radioembolization or intra-arterial microbrachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy used in interventional radiology to treat cancer.

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Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

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SIR-Spheres

SIR-Spheres microspheres are used to treat patients with unresectable liver cancer.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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St Bartholomew's Hospital

St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known simply as Barts and later more formally as The Royal Hospital of St Bartholomew, is a hospital located at Farringdon in the City of London and founded in 1123.

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Steatorrhea

Steatorrhea (or steatorrhoea) is the presence of excess fat in feces.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Steroid

A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Strontium-89

Strontium-89 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 50.57 days.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Sweat gland

Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Teratology

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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Therac-25

The Therac-25 was a radiation therapy machine produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1982 after the Therac-6 and Therac-20 units (the earlier units had been produced in partnership with CGR of France).

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Therapeutic index

The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.

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Therapy

Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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TheraSphere

TheraSphere is a radiotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that consists of millions of microscopic, radioactive glass microspheres (20–30 micrometres in diameter) being infused into the arteries that feed liver tumors.

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Thyroid

The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Tirapazamine

Tirapazamine (SR-4233) is an experimental anticancer drug that is activated to a toxic radical only at very low levels of oxygen (hypoxia).

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Tomotherapy

Tomotherapy or helical tomotherapy (HT) is a type of radiation therapy in which the radiation is delivered slice-by-slice (hence the use of the Greek prefix tomo-, which means "slice").

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Tositumomab

Tositumomab is a murine IgG2a lambda monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, produced in mammalian cells.

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Total body irradiation

Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation.

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Trachea

The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.

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Trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.

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Truebeam

TrueBeam is a radiotherapy device, a linear accelerator, manufactured by Varian.

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Unsealed source radiotherapy

Unsealed source radiotherapy (also known as unsealed source radionuclide therapy (RNT) or molecular radiotherapy) uses radioactive substances called radiopharmaceuticals to treat medical conditions, particularly cancer.

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Vestibular schwannoma

A vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin-forming cells of the vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve).

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Vestibule of the ear

The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the eardrum (tympanic cavity), behind the cochlea, and in front of the three semicircular canals.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Wide local excision

A wide local excision (WLE) is a surgical procedure to remove a small area of diseased or problematic tissue with a margin of normal tissue.

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Wilhelm Röntgen

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray tube

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

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Xerophthalmia

Xerophthalmia (from Ancient Greek xērós (ξηρός) meaning dry and ophthalmos (οφθαλμός) meaning eye) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears.

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Xerostomia

Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

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Yttrium-90

Yttrium-90,, is a medically significant isotope of yttrium.

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3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 3-dimensional radiation therapy, Actinotherapy, Cobalt-beam therapy, Contact X-ray brachytherapy (Papillon), Contact x-ray brachytherapy, Hyperfractionated radiation therapy, IMRT, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, Intensity modulated radiation therapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Irradiation therapy, Medical radiation, Medical radiation therapy, Primatom, Radiation (medicine), Radiation Oncology, Radiation Therapy, Radiation medicine, Radiation oncology, Radiation treatment, Radio oncology, Radio therapy, Radioisotope therapy, Radiotherapeutic, Radiotherapy, Roentgen therapy, Roentgenotherapy, Side effects of radiation therapy, Skin-sparing effect, Therapeutic radiation, Ultraviolet irradiation therapy, X Ray Treatment, X-Ray Treatment, X-Ray treatment, X-ray therapy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_therapy

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