34 relations: Chinese character classification, Chinese character description language, Chinese characters, Chinese dictionary, Chinese language, Classifier (linguistics), Determinative, Duan Yucai, Erya, Etymology, 阝, Han dynasty, Hanja, Hanyu Da Cidian, Inflection, Japanese language, Jerry Norman (sinologist), Kangxi Dictionary, Kangxi radical, Kanji, Korean language, Léon Wieger, Lexicography, List of kanji radicals by stroke count, Phonetics, Radical 184, Semantics, Shuowen Jiezi, Simplified Chinese characters, Stroke (CJKV character), Traditional Chinese characters, Unicode, Xu Shen, Zihui.
All Chinese characters are logograms, but several different types can be identified, based on the manner in which they are formed or derived.
The Chinese character description languages are several proposed languages to most accurately and completely describe Chinese (or CJKV) characters and information such as their list of components, list of strokes (basic and complex), their order, and the location of each of them on a background empty square.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A determinative, also known as a taxogram or semagram, is an ideogram used to mark semantic categories of words in logographic scripts which helps to disambiguate interpretation.
Duan Yucai (1735–1815), courtesy name Ruoying (若膺) was a Chinese philologist of the Qing Dynasty.
The Erya or Erh-ya is the oldest surviving Chinese dictionary or Chinese encyclopedia known.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
阝 (Kangxi radical 163 & 170) is a character used in Kangxi writing which serves as the combining form of two distinct radicals, distinguished by whether it is on the left or right of a character.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
The Hanyu Da Cidian is the most inclusive available Chinese dictionary.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist known for his studies of Chinese dialects and historical phonology, particularly on the Min Chinese dialects, and of the Manchu language.
The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The 214 Kangxi radicals form a system of radicals (部首) of Chinese characters.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Léon Wieger (born July 9, 1856 in Strasbourg, France - died March 25, 1933 in Xian County, Hebei, China), was a French Jesuit missionary, medical doctor, theologist and sinologist who worked at the Catholic Jesuit mission in Hejian, together with Séraphin Couvreur.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
Kanji radicals are graphemes, or graphical parts, that are used in organizing Japanese kanji in dictionaries.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Radical 184 meaning "eat" or "food" is 1 of 11 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 9 strokes.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
CJKV strokes are the calligraphic strokes needed to write the Chinese characters in regular script used in East Asia.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Xu Shen (CE) was a Chinese scholar-official and philologist of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189).
The Zìhuì is a Chinese dictionary, edited by Mei Yingzuo (梅膺祚) during the late Ming Dynasty and published in 1615, the forty-third year of the Ming Wanli Emperor.