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Radical (chemistry)

Index Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron. [1]

173 relations: Activation energy, Alcohol, Alkyd, Alkyl, Allotropes of oxygen, Allyl bromide, Alpha-1 antitrypsin, Alzheimer's disease, Aminoxyl group, Antioxidant, Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Antoine Lavoisier, Arachidonic acid, Astrochemistry, Atherosclerosis, Atmospheric chemistry, Atom, Atom transfer radical polymerization, Bilirubin, Biochemistry, Bond cleavage, Bond energy, Bond-dissociation energy, Cage effect, Cancer, Carbene, Carbocation, Carboxylic acid, Catalase, Cell cycle, Chemical reaction, Chemical trap, Chemistry, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cigarette, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion, Conjugated system, Death, Diabetes mellitus, Dimer (chemistry), Diradical, DNA, Docosahexaenoic acid, Drying oil, Electrolysis, Electron pair, Electron paramagnetic resonance, ..., Electron transport chain, Electronegativity, Engine knocking, Enzyme, Exothermic reaction, Forbidden mechanism, Frank R. Mayo, Frémy's salt, Free Radical Centre, Free-radical addition, Free-radical theory of aging, Friedrich Paneth, Functional group, Gerhard Herzberg, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, Glutathione peroxidase, Glutathione reductase, Gout, Granulocyte, Ground state, Hearing loss, Heterolysis (chemistry), Hofmann–Löffler reaction, Homolysis (chemistry), Hormesis, Hydrogen bromide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroperoxyl, Hydroxyl radical, Ion, Ionizing radiation, Iron overload, Jaundice, Joule per mole, Linoleic acid, Liver, Living polymerization, Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau, Lung, Macrophage, Maleic anhydride, Markovnikov's rule, Mass spectrometry, Melanin, Methanol, Methyl group, Methylene (compound), Molecule, Morris S. Kharasch, Moses Gomberg, Mutation, Myocardial infarction, Nitrene, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Octyl methoxycinnamate, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic peroxide, Organometallic chemistry, Oxidative stress, Oxybenzone, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Paramagnetism, Parkinson's disease, Photodissociation, Plasma (physics), Polymerization, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Purine, Quantum chemistry, Radical (chemistry), Radical ion, Radical polymerization, Radical substitution, Radical theory, Reaction mechanism, Reactive intermediate, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Redox, Refrigerant, Resonance (chemistry), Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, Schizophrenia, Selection rule, Senescence, Signal transduction, Singlet oxygen, Smog, Smoke, Spectroscopy, Spin (physics), Spin-forbidden reactions, Steric effects, Stroke, Styrene, Substituent, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, TEMPO, Tetraethyllead, Tetrasulfur tetranitride, Titanium oxide, Tocopherol, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, Transition metal, Transition metal oxo complex, Triphenylmethyl radical, Triplet oxygen, Ultraviolet, Unpaired electron, Uric acid, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, 13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 4-Hydroxy-TEMPO, 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Expand index (123 more) »

Activation energy

In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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An alkyd is a polyester modified by the addition of fatty acids and other components.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Allotropes of oxygen

There are several known allotropes of oxygen.

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Allyl bromide

Allyl bromide (3-bromopropene) is an organic halide.

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Alpha-1 antitrypsin

Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Aminoxyl group

Aminoxyl radicals are chemical species containing the R2N–O• functional group.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols

A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro.

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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Arachidonic acid

Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).

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Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of molecules in the Universe, and their interaction with radiation.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atmospheric chemistry

Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atom transfer radical polymerization

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is an example of a reversible-deactivation radical polymerization.

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Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bond cleavage

Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.

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Bond energy

In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.

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Bond-dissociation energy

Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a chemical bond.

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Cage effect

The cage effect in chemistry describes how the properties of a molecule are affected by its surroundings.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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In chemistry, a carbene is a molecule containing a neutral carbon atom with a valence of two and two unshared valence electrons.

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A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical trap

In chemistry, a chemical trap is a chemical compound that is used to detect a unstable chemical compounds.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Conjugated system

In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dimer (chemistry)

A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.

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A diradical in organic chemistry is a molecular species with two electrons occupying two degenerate molecular orbitals (MO).

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.

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Drying oil

A drying oil is an oil that hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electron pair

In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Engine knocking

Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Forbidden mechanism

In spectroscopy, a forbidden mechanism (forbidden transition or forbidden line) is a spectral line associated with absorption or emission of light by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules which undergo a transition that is not allowed by a particular selection rule but is allowed if the approximation associated with that rule is not made.

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Frank R. Mayo

Frank R. Mayo (June 23, 1908 – October 30, 1987) was a research chemist who worked for a variety of companies and won the 1967 Award in Polymer Chemistry from the American Chemical Society due to his work on the Mayo–Lewis equation.

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Frémy's salt

Frémy's salt is a chemical compound with the formula (K42), sometimes written as (K2).

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Free Radical Centre

The Free Radical Centre or ARC Centre of Excellence for Free Radical Chemistry and Biotechnology is a research centre that was established in the 2005 Australian Research Council (ARC) grant funding rounds.

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Free-radical addition

Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals.

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Free-radical theory of aging

The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.

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Friedrich Paneth

Friedrich Adolf Paneth (31 August 1887 – 17 September 1958) was an Austrian-born British chemist.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Gerhard Herzberg

Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, (December 25, 1904 – March 3, 1999) was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".

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Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world.

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Glutathione peroxidase

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.

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Glutathione reductase

Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSR gene.

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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

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Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Hearing loss

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.

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Heterolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different", and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") is the process of cleaving a covalent bond where one previously bonded species takes both original bonding electrons from the other species.

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Hofmann–Löffler reaction

The Hofmann–Löffler reaction (also referred to as Hofmann–Löffler–Freytag reaction, Löffler–Freytag reaction, Löffler–Hofmann reaction, as well as Löffler's method) is an organic reaction in which a cyclic amine 2 (pyrrolidine or, in some cases, piperidine) is generated by thermal or photochemical decomposition of N-halogenated amine 1 in the presence of a strong acid (concentrated sulfuric acid or concentrated CF3CO2H).

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Homolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.

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Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.

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Hydrogen bromide

Hydrogen bromide is the diatomic molecule with the formula.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the perhydroxyl radical, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2.

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Hydroxyl radical

The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Iron overload

Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.

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Joule per mole

The joule per mole (symbol: J·mole−1 or J/mol) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material.

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Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Living polymerization

In polymer chemistry, living polymerization is a form of chain growth polymerization where the ability of a growing polymer chain to terminate has been removed.

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Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau

Louis-Bernard Guyton, Baron de Morveau (also Louis-Bernard Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution; 4 January 1737 – 2 January 1816) was a French chemist and politician.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Maleic anhydride

Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.

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Markovnikov's rule

In organic chemistry, Markovnikov's rule or Markownikoff's rule describes the outcome of some addition reactions.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Methylene (compound)

Methylene (systematically named methylidene, and dihydridocarbon), also called carbene is an organic compound with the chemical formula (also written). It is a colourless gas that fluoresces in the mid-infrared range, and only persists in dilution, or as an adduct.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Morris S. Kharasch

Morris Selig Kharasch (August 24, 1895 – October 9, 1957) was a pioneering organic chemist best known for his work with free radical additions and polymerizations.

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Moses Gomberg

Moses Gomberg (February 8, 1866 – February 12, 1947) was a chemistry professor at the University of Michigan.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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In chemistry, a nitrene (R–N) is the nitrogen analogue of a carbene.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Nucleophilic conjugate addition

Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.

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Octyl methoxycinnamate

Octyl methoxycinnamate or ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (INCI) or octinoxate (USAN), trade names Eusolex 2292 and Uvinul MC80, is an organic compound that is an ingredient in some sunscreens and lip balms.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic peroxide

Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 (trade names Milestab 9, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, KAHSCREEN BZ-3) is an organic compound.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polyunsaturated fatty acid

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Radical ion

A radical ion is a free radical species that carries a charge.

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Radical polymerization

Free-radical polymerization (FRP) is a method of polymerization by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free-radical building blocks.

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Radical substitution

In organic chemistry, a radical-substitution reaction is a substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate.

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Radical theory

Radical theory is an obsolete scientific theory in chemistry describing the structure of organic compounds.

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Reaction mechanism

In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

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Reactive intermediate

In chemistry, a reactive intermediate or an intermediate is a short-lived, high-energy, highly reactive molecule.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Resonance (chemistry)

In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.

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Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization

Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer or RAFT polymerization is one of several kinds of reversible-deactivation radical polymerization.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Selection rule

In physics and chemistry, a selection rule, or transition rule, formally constrains the possible transitions of a system from one quantum state to another.

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Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Singlet oxygen

Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.

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Smog is a type of air pollutant.

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Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Spin-forbidden reactions

In chemistry, the selection rule (also known as the transition rule) formally restrict certain reactions, known as spin-forbidden reactions, from occurring due to a required change between two differing quantum states.

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Steric effects

Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.

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In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.

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A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.

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Superoxide dismutase

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl or (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxidanyl, commonly known as TEMPO, is a chemical compound with the formula (CH2)3(CMe2)2NO.

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Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.

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Tetrasulfur tetranitride

Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4.

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Titanium oxide

Titanium oxide may refer to.

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Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.

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Traité Élémentaire de Chimie

Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry) is a textbook written by Antoine Lavoisier published in 1789 and translated into English by Robert Kerr in 1790 under the title Elements of Chemistry in a New Systematic Order containing All the Modern Discoveries.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Transition metal oxo complex

A transition metal oxo complex is a coordination complex containing an oxo ligand.

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Triphenylmethyl radical

The triphenylmethyl radical (often shorted to trityl radical) is a persistent radical and the first radical ever described in organic chemistry.

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Triplet oxygen

Triplet oxygen, 3O2, refers to the S.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Unpaired electron

In chemistry, an unpaired electron is an electron that occupies an orbital of an atom singly, rather than as part of an electron pair.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.

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13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid

13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is the commonly used term for 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE).

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4-Hydroxy-TEMPO or TEMPOL, formally 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl, is a heterocyclic compound.

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9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid

9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-hydroxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid or 9-HODE) has been used in the literature to designate either or both of two stereoisomer metabolites of the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid: 9(S)-hydroxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9(S)-HODE) and 9(R)-hydroxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9(R)-HODE); these two metabolites differ in having their hydroxy residues in the S or R configurations, respectively.

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Chemical radical, Chlorine Radical, Free Radicals, Free radical, Free radicals, Free-radical, One-electron reductant, Organic radical, Oxygen free radicals, Oxygen radical, Oxygen radicals, Persistent radical, Radical (Chemistry II), Radical (Chemistry), Radical chemistry, Radical reaction, Radical reactions, Single electron transfer, Single-electron transfer, Stable radical, Termination (chemistry).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radical_(chemistry)

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