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Radioactive waste

Index Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material. [1]

290 relations: 'Ndrangheta, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abyssal plain, Actinide, Aesthetics, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, American Physical Society, Americium, Americium-241, Antarctic Treaty System, Anti-tank warfare, Arsenic, Asphalt, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Australian National University, Background radiation, Barium, Basic law, Basketball court, Becquerel, Beryllium, Beta decay, Beta particle, Biological half-life, Biomedical waste, Biosphere, Birth defect, Blast furnace, Bone tumor, Borosilicate glass, Brachytherapy, Breeder reactor, By-product, Caesium, Caesium-137, Calabria, Calcination, Californium, Cell (biology), Ceramic, Channel Tunnel, Chemical element, Chernobyl disaster, Clothing, Coal, Cobalt, Collective dose, Colorado, Concrete, ..., Contamination, Cosmic ray, County council, Crust (geology), Cumbria, Curie, Dangerous goods, Daniel Poneman, Decay chain, Decay product, Deep borehole disposal, Deep geological repository, Denaturation (fissile materials), Depleted uranium, Deuterium, Developing country, Double-decker bus, Dry cask storage, Ducrete, Dust storm, Effluent, Electricity generation, ENEA (Italy), Enriched uranium, Environmental racism, Environmental remediation, European Union, Fast-neutron reactor, Fernald Feed Materials Production Center, Ferric, Fetus, Fission product yield, Flocculation, Fly ash, Food irradiation, Fusion power, Gamete, Gamma ray, Generation IV reactor, Geochemistry, Geoforecasting, Geomelting, Glass, Goiânia accident, Granite, Half-life, Heat, Heavy metals, High-level radioactive waste management, High-level waste, Hot cell, Human, Human Interference Task Force, Hydroxide, Industry, Inert gas, Integral fast reactor, International Atomic Energy Agency, Into Eternity (film), Intravenous therapy, Iodine-129, Iodine-131, Ion exchange, Ionizing radiation, Iridium, Isotopes of americium, Isotopes of iodine, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of ruthenium, ITER, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Keel, Kentucky, Kinetic energy penetrator, Lake District, Lake Karachay, Launch vehicle, Lead, Legambiente, Light-water reactor, Linear no-threshold model, Liquid–liquid extraction, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Low-level waste, Lymphoma, Mainichi Shimbun, Mantle (geology), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maxey Flat, Messenger RNA, Microbial corrosion, Minor actinide, Mixed waste (radioactive/hazardous), Mongolia, Morris Operation, MOX fuel, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Natural environment, Natural gas, Naturally occurring radioactive material, Neutron emission, Neutron poison, New Mexico, Non-rocket spacelaunch, Nuclear Control Institute, Nuclear decommissioning, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear flask, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor core, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear technology, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclide, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Ocean disposal of radioactive waste, Ocean floor disposal, Ohio, Oil well, Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository, Ore, Palladium, Paper, Pen Duick, Perovskite, Personal protective equipment, Petroleum, Pharmacokinetics, Phosphate, Phosphate glass, Plasma (physics), Plutonium, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, Plutonium-241, Polonium, Portland cement, Potassium, Potassium-40, Propane, PUREX, Pyrex, Pyrochlore, Radiation protection, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive scrap metal, Radiobiology, Radioecology, Radiography, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radionuclide, Radiopharmacology, Radium, Radon, Raffinate, Reactor-grade plutonium, Regulation, Relative biological effectiveness, Resin, Reuse, Roentgen equivalent man, Ruthenium, Ruthenium tetroxide, SCK•CEN, Sellafield, Shale, Sievert, Slag, Solubility, Somalia, Soviet Union, Space elevator, Spent fuel pool, Spent nuclear fuel, Stable nuclide, Stainless steel, Steel, Stewardship cessation, Strontium, Strontium-90, Subcritical reactor, Subduction, Sugar, Synroc, Technetium-99m, Tellurium, Thorium, Thyroid, Thyroid cancer, Tokamak, Tonne, Tool, Toxic waste, Transuranic waste, Transuranium element, Tricastin Nuclear Power Plant, Tritium, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, Tunnel boring machine, Unconventional oil, United Arab Emirates, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uraninite, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium mining, Uranium-233, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Utah, Vitrification, Waste, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Waste management, Watt, Welding, Whistleblower, World Nuclear Association, Yellowcake, Yttrium, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, Zirconolite. Expand index (240 more) »


The 'Ndràngheta is an organized crime group centered in Calabria, Italy.

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Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

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Abyssal plain

An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.

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The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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American Physical Society

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.

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Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.

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Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium.

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Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.

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Anti-tank warfare

Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Atomic Energy Act of 1946

The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.

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Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

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Background radiation

Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Basic law

The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to "constitution", implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment of constitution.

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Basketball court

In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with baskets at either end.

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The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.

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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Biomedical waste

Biomedical waste is any kind of waste containing infectious (or potentially infectious) materials.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bone tumor

A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.

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Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

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Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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Breeder reactor

A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.

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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".

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Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Channel Tunnel

The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

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Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Collective dose

The collective effective dose, dose quantity S, is calculated as the sum of all individual effective doses over the time period or during the operation being considered due to ionizing radiation.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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County council

A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.

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The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.

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Dangerous goods

Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.

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Daniel Poneman

Daniel Bruce Poneman (born March 12, 1956) is an American politician who was the United States Deputy Secretary of Energy from 2009 to 2014 and is currently a Distinguished Fellow at the Paulson Institute at the University of Chicago.

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Decay chain

In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.

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Decay product

In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.

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Deep borehole disposal

Deep borehole disposal is the concept of disposing high-level radioactive waste from nuclear reactors in extremely deep boreholes instead of in more traditional deep geological repositories that are excavated like mines.

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Deep geological repository

A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).

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Denaturation (fissile materials)

Denaturation of fissile materials suitable for nuclear weapons is the process of transforming them into a form that is not suitable for weapons use and can not easily be reversely transformed.

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Depleted uranium

Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Double-decker bus

A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks.

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Dry cask storage

Dry cask storage is a method of storing high-level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year and often as much as ten years.

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DUCRETE (Depleted Uranium Concrete) is a high density concrete alternative investigated for use in construction of casks for storage of radioactive waste.

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Dust storm

A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.

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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

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ENEA (Italy)

The Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA) (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) is an Italian Government-sponsored research and development agency.

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Enriched uranium

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

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Environmental racism

Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.

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Environmental remediation

Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fast-neutron reactor

A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.

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Fernald Feed Materials Production Center

The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (commonly referred to simply as Fernald or later NLO) is a Superfund site located within Crosby Township in Hamilton County, Ohio, as well as Ross Township in Butler County, Ohio.

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Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fission product yield

Nuclear fission splits a heavy nucleus such as uranium or plutonium into two lighter nuclei, which are called fission products.

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Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.

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Fly ash

Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.

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Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Generation IV reactor

Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched for commercial applications by the Generation IV International Forum, with Technology readiness levels varying between the level requiring a demonstration, to economical competitive implementation.

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Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

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Geoforecasting is the science of predicting the movement of tectonic plates and the future climate, shape, and other geological elements of the planet.

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GeoMelt is a process by which dangerous, contaminated material (such as radioactive waste and heavy metals) is mixed with clean soil, a blend of industrial minerals, and/or glass frit and melted to create an extremely hard and leach-resistant glass product.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Goiânia accident

The Goiânia accident was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on September 13, 1987, at Goiânia, in the Brazilian state of Goiás, after a forgotten radiotherapy source was taken from an abandoned hospital site in the city.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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High-level radioactive waste management

High-level radioactive waste management concerns how radioactive materials created during production of nuclear power and nuclear weapons are dealt with.

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High-level waste

High-level waste (HLW) is a type of nuclear waste created by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

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Hot cell

Shielded nuclear radiation containment chambers are commonly referred to as hot cells.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human Interference Task Force

The field of nuclear semiotics arose in 1981 when a team of engineers, anthropologists, nuclear physicists, behavioral scientists and others was convened on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy and Bechtel Corp.

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Integral fast reactor

The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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Into Eternity (film)

Into Eternity is a feature documentary film directed by Danish director Michael Madsen, released in 2010.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.

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Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.

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Isotopes of americium

Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of iodine

There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (53I) from 108I to 144I; all undergo radioactive decay except 127I, which is stable.

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Isotopes of neptunium

Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of ruthenium

Naturally occurring ruthenium (44Ru) is composed of seven stable isotopes.

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ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.

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Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management is a 1997 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) treaty.

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On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.

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Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Kinetic energy penetrator

A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.

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Lake District

The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.

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Lake Karachay

Lake Karachay (Карача́й), sometimes spelled Karachai or Karachaj, was a small lake in the southern Ural mountains in central Russia.

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Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Legambiente is an Italian environmentalist association with roots in the anti-nuclear movement that developed in Italy and throughout the Western world in the second half of the '70s.

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Light-water reactor

The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.

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Linear no-threshold model

The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents

These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.

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Low-level waste

Low-level waste (LLW) is nuclear waste that does not fit into the categorical definitions for intermediate-level waste (ILW), high-level waste (HLW), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), transuranic waste (TRU), or certain byproduct materials known as 11e(2) wastes, such as uranium mill tailings.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Mainichi Shimbun

The is one of the major newspapers in Japan, published by.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Maxey Flat

The Maxey Flat Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) facility is a Superfund site in Kentucky.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Microbial corrosion

Microbial corrosion, also called bacterial corrosion, bio-corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion, or microbially induced corrosion (MIC), is corrosion caused or promoted by microorganisms, usually chemoautotrophs.

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Minor actinide

The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major actinides.

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Mixed waste (radioactive/hazardous)

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, mixed waste (MW) is a waste type defined as follows; "MW contains both hazardous waste (as defined by RCRA and its amendments) and radioactive waste (as defined by AEA and its amendments).

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Morris Operation

The Morris Operation in Grundy County, Illinois, United States, is the location of the only de facto high-level radioactive waste storage site in the United States and holds 772 tons of spent nuclear fuel.

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MOX fuel

Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), formerly the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements, and before that the Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection (ACXRP), is a U.S. organization.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Naturally occurring radioactive material

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by-products enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon.

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Neutron emission

Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.

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Neutron poison

In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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Non-rocket spacelaunch

Non-rocket spacelaunch refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something other than rockets, or by other than expendable rockets.

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Nuclear Control Institute

The Nuclear Control Institute is a research and advocacy center for preventing nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism.

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Nuclear decommissioning

Nuclear decommissioning is the process whereby a nuclear facility is dismantled to the point that it no longer requires measures for radiation protection.

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Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, formed by the Energy Act 2004.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Nuclear flask

A nuclear flask is a shipping container that is used to transport active nuclear materials between nuclear power station and spent fuel reprocessing facilities.

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Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.

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Nuclear fuel cycle

The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear reactor core

A nuclear reactor core is the portion of a nuclear reactor containing the nuclear fuel components where the nuclear reactions take place and the heat is generated.

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Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.

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Nuclear reprocessing

Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.

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Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.

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Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

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Ocean disposal of radioactive waste

From 1946 through 1993, thirteen countries (fourteen, if the USSR and Russia are considered separately) used ocean disposal or ocean dumping as a method to dispose of nuclear/radioactive waste.

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Ocean floor disposal

Ocean floor disposal is a method of sequestering radioactive waste in ocean floor sediment where it is unlikely to be disturbed either geologically or by human activity.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Oil well

An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.

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Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository

The Onkalo spent nuclear fuel repository is a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the first such repository in the world.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Pen Duick

The Pen Duick yachts are ocean racing yachts from the 1960s and 1970s.

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Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).

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Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphate glass

Phosphate glass is a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.

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Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.

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Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) is an isotope of plutonium formed when plutonium-240 captures a neutron.

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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.

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Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.

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Pyrochlore (Na,Ca)2Nb2O6(OH,F) is a mineral group of the niobium end member of the pyrochlore supergroup.

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Radiation protection

Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".

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Radioactive contamination

Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radioactive scrap metal

Radioactive scrap metal is created when radioactive material enters the metal recycling process and contaminates scrap metal.

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Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation.

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Radioecology is a branch of ecology, which studies how radioactive substances interact with nature; how different mechanisms affect the substances' migration and uptake in food chains and ecosystems.

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Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.

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Radioisotope thermoelectric generator

A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive).

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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In chemical separation terminology, the raffinate (from French raffiner, to refine) is a product which has had a component or components removed.

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Reactor-grade plutonium

Reactor-grade plutonium/RGPu is the isotopic grade of plutonium that is found in spent nuclear fuel after the primary fuel, that of Uranium-235 that a nuclear power reactor uses, has (burnt up/burnup).

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Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

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Relative biological effectiveness

In radiobiology, the relative biological effectiveness (often abbreviated as RBE) is the ratio of biological effectiveness of one type of ionizing radiation relative to another, given the same amount of absorbed energy.

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In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Reuse is the action or practice of using something again, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfil a different function (creative reuse or repurposing).

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Roentgen equivalent man

The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.

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Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.

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Ruthenium tetroxide

Ruthenium tetroxide (Ruthenium(VIII) oxide) is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO4.

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SCK • CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie; Centre d'Étude de l'énergie Nucléaire) is the Belgian nuclear research centre located in Mol, Belgium, more specific near the township of Donk.

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Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.

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Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space elevator

A space elevator is a proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.

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Spent fuel pool

Spent fuel pools (SFP) are storage pools for spent fuel from nuclear reactors.

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Spent nuclear fuel

Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).

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Stable nuclide

Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stewardship cessation

Stewardship cessation is a concept useful in system engineering.

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Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.

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Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.

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Subcritical reactor

A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor concept that produces fission without achieving criticality.

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Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Synroc, a portmanteau of "synthetic rock", is a means of safely storing radioactive waste.

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Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.

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A tokamak (Токамáк) is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Toxic waste

Toxic waste is any unwanted material in all forms that can cause harm (e.g. by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin).

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Transuranic waste

Transuranic waste (TRU) is, as stated by U.S. regulations and independent of state or origin, waste which has been contaminated with alpha emitting transuranic radionuclides possessing half-lives greater than 20 years and in concentrations greater than 100 nCi/g (3.7 MBq/kg).

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Transuranium element

The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).

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Tricastin Nuclear Power Plant

The Tricastin Nuclear Power Plant (Centrale Nucléaire du Tricastin) is a nuclear power plant consisting of 4 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) of CP1 type with 915 MW electrical power output each.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj

Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (Cahiagín Elbegdorj; also referred to as Mongolyin Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj; born 30 March 1963) is a Mongolian politician who served as President of Mongolia from 2009 to 2017.

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Tunnel boring machine

A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata.

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Unconventional oil

Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium dioxide

Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.

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Uranium hexafluoride

Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Uranium mining

Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.

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Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.

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Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.

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Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.

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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid.

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Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

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Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after closure of Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years that is left from the research and production of nuclear weapons.

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Waste management

Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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World Nuclear Association

The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.

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Yellowcake (also called urania) is a type of uranium concentrate powder obtained from leach solutions, in an intermediate step in the processing of uranium ores.

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Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository

The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, as designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, is to be a deep geological repository storage facility within Yucca Mountain for spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste in the United States.

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Zirconolite is a mineral, calcium zirconium titanate; formula CaZrTi2O7.

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Atomic waste, Chemistry of radioactive waste, Classification of nuclear waste, Classification of radioactive waste, Classifications of nuclear waste, Intermediate-level nuclear waste, Intermediate-level waste, Low and intermediate level waste, Low and intermediate-level waste, NUCLEAR POLLUTION, Nuclear Waste, Nuclear dumping, Nuclear residue, Nuclear waste, Nuclear waste disposal, Nuclear waste dump, Nuclear waste management, Nuclear waste storage, Radioactive Waste, Radioactive dump, Radioactive gases, Radioactive pollutants, Radioactive pollution, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive wastes, Radwaste, Reuse of radioactive waste, Waste, radioactive.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_waste

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