113 relations: Absorbed dose, Airport security, Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, American Society of Radiologic Technologists, Ancient Greek, Aneurysm, Angiography, Angioplasty, Attenuation, Attenuation length, Autoradiograph, Background radiation, Backscatter X-ray, Betatron, Biopsy, Birmingham, Bone, Bone fracture, Bone scintigraphy, Bucky-Potter grid, Caesium iodide, Caesium-137, Calcaneus, Calcium, Cancer, Carbon steel, Cathode ray, Charge-coupled device, Cobalt-60, Computer-aided diagnosis, Contrast agent, Crookes tube, CT pulmonary angiogram, CT scan, Dartmouth College, Diagnosis, Digitization, Dosimeter, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Electromagnetic radiation, Femur, Flat panel detector, Fluorescence, Fluoroscopy, Gamma ray, Gas-filled tube, Geiger counter, Human musculoskeletal system, ..., Imaging science, Imaging technology, Industrial computed tomography, Industrial radiography, International Atomic Energy Agency, Iodinated contrast, Ionization chamber, Isotopes of iridium, Ivan Puluj, John Hall-Edwards, Lead, Linear particle accelerator, List of civilian radiation accidents, Lumbar vertebrae, Lung, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammography, Marie Curie, Massachusetts General Hospital, Medical imaging, Medical imaging in pregnancy, Mica, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nondestructive testing, Nuclear medicine, Optical transfer function, Osteoporosis, Photocathode, Photographic film, Photographic plate, Photon, Photostimulated luminescence, Platinocyanide, Positron emission tomography, Projectional radiography, Radiation, Radiation exposure, Radiation length, Radiation protection, Radiation therapy, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radiocontrast agent, Radiographer, Radiographic anatomy, Radiology, Screening (medicine), Society for Pediatric Radiology, Solid-state electronics, Synchrotron, Thermography, Thin-film transistor, Thrombosis, Two-dimensional space, Ultrasound, Wavelength, Wilhelm Röntgen, World Health Organization, X-ray, X-ray detector, X-ray generator, X-ray image intensifier, X-ray tube. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and planes which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton FRS (18 October 1863 – 19 February 1930) was a Scottish consulting electrical engineer, who provided the theoretical basis for the electronic television, two decades before the technology existed to implement it.
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a scientific, educational, and professional organization of Medical Physicists.
The (ACR), founded in 1923, is a professional medical society representing more than 38,000 diagnostic radiologists, radiation oncologists, interventional radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians and medical physicists.
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is a professional membership association for medical imaging technologists, radiation therapists and radiologic science students.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology.
A betatron is a type of cyclic particle accelerator.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
A bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique of the bone.
The Bucky-Potter grid is a device invented by German radiologist Gustav Bucky and improved by American radiologist Hollis E. Potter that enhances the quality of diagnostic medical x-ray images.
Caesium iodide or cesium iodide (chemical formula CsI) is the ionic compound of caesium and iodine.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are systems that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.
A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA) is a means of measuring bone mineral density (BMD).
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
Flat panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Imaging science is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the generation, collection, duplication, analysis, modification, and visualization of images,Joseph P. Hornak, Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) including imaging things that the human eye cannot detect.
Imaging technology is the application of materials and methods to create, preserve, or duplicate images.
Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually X-ray computed tomography, that uses irradiation to produce three-dimensional internal and external representations of a scanned object.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
Iodinated contrast is a form of intravenous radiocontrast (radiographic dye) containing iodine, which enhances the visibility of vascular structures and organs during radiographic procedures.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
There are two natural isotopes of iridium (77Ir), and 34 radioisotopes, the most stable radioisotope being 192Ir with a half-life of 73.83 days, and many nuclear isomers, the most stable of which is 192m2Ir with a half-life of 241 years.
Ivan Pului (son of Iwan Pului Іва́н Пулю́й, син Па́вла Пулю́я; Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 – 31 January 1918) was a Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging.
John Francis Hall-Edwards FRSE (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a British physician and pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
This article lists notable civilian accidents involving radioactive materials or involving ionizing radiation from artificial sources such as x-ray tubes and particle accelerators.
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical imaging in pregnancy may be indicated because of pregnancy complications, intercurrent diseases or routine prenatal care.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The optical transfer function (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera, microscope, human eye, or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are handled by the system.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is the release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal.
A platinocyanide is a salt containing the anion 2−.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation exposure is a measure of the ionization of air due to ionizing radiation from photons; that is, gamma rays and X-rays.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.
Radioanatomy (x-ray anatomy) is anatomy discipline which involves the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic films.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
The Society for Pediatric Radiology is a professional association of pediatric radiologists.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
A thin-film transistor (TFT) is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of an active semiconductor layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting (but non-conducting) substrate.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray detectors are devices used to measure the flux, spatial distribution, spectrum, and/or other properties of X-rays.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.
An x-ray image intensifier (XRII) is an image intensifier that converts x-rays into visible light at higher intensity than mere fluorescent screens do.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
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