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Index Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. [1]

149 relations: Actinide, Activation product, Acute radiation syndrome, Alpha particle, Aluminium-26, Americium dioxide, Americium-241, Amino acid, Archaeology, Argon, Astronomy, Atom, Beryllium-10, Beta particle, Biology, Bismuth, Bismuth-209, Caesium-137, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-14, Carbonate rock, Chemical element, Cherenkov luminescence imaging, Chlorine-36, Cobalt-60, Cosmic ray, Cosmogenic nuclide, Cyclotron, Decay chain, Demos Medical Publishing, Deuterium, DNA replication, Ecology, Electron, Electron capture, Electronvolt, Environmental radioactivity, Exponential decay, Fissile material, Fluorine-18, Food preservation, Gamma ray, Geiger counter, Geology, Glenn T. Seaborg, Haematopoiesis, Half-life, Human brain, Hydrogen, ..., Hyperaccumulators table – 3, Industry, Internal conversion, Iodine-129, Iodine-131, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of barium, Isotopes of cadmium, Isotopes of calcium, Isotopes of californium, Isotopes of cobalt, Isotopes of europium, Isotopes of gadolinium, Isotopes of iridium, Isotopes of lithium, Isotopes of manganese, Isotopes of molybdenum, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of niobium, Isotopes of polonium, Isotopes of radon, Isotopes of rubidium, Isotopes of sodium, Isotopes of thallium, Isotopes of thorium, Isotopes of zinc, K–Ar dating, Lead, List of nuclides, Long-lived fission product, Medication, Mining, Neutron, Neutron cross section, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Paleontology, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Physical cosmology, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko, Polonium, Positron emission tomography, Potassium-40, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Proton decay, Radiation burn, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radioactive waste, Radioactivity in the life sciences, Radiocarbon dating, Radiogenic nuclide, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radioluminescence, Radiometric dating, Radionuclide cisternogram, Radiopharmaceutical, Radium, Running total, Scientific American, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Smoke detector, Spacecraft, Specific activity, Spontaneous fission, Springer Publishing, Stable nuclide, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Sterilization (microbiology), Strontium-90, Supernova, Technetium, Technetium-99, Technetium-99m, Technetium-99m generator, The Lancet, Thermonuclear weapon, Thorium, Thorium fuel cycle, Tonne, Tritium, Uranium, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Uses of radioactivity in oil and gas wells, Xenon-135. Expand index (99 more) »


The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Activation product

Activation products are materials made radioactive by neutron activation.

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Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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Aluminium-26, 26Al, is a radioactive isotope of the chemical element aluminium, decaying by either of the modes beta-plus or electron capture, both resulting in the stable nuclide magnesium-26.

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Americium dioxide

Americium dioxide (AmO2) is a black compound of americium.

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Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Beryllium-10 (10Be) is a radioactive isotope of beryllium.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).

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Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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Carbonate rock

Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Cherenkov luminescence imaging

Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging imaging modality, similar to bioluminescence imaging, that captures visible photons emitted by Cherenkov radiation.

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Chlorine-36 is an isotope of chlorine.

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Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Cosmogenic nuclide

Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).

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A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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Decay chain

In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.

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Demos Medical Publishing

Demos Medical Publishing, now an imprint of Springer Publishing Company, publishes books on neurology, oncology, pathology, and other medical subjects.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Environmental radioactivity

Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.

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Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.

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Food preservation

Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Geiger counter

The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hyperaccumulators table – 3

This list covers hyperaccumulators, plant species which accumulate, or are tolerant of radionuclides (Cd, Cs-137, Co, Pu-238, Ra, Sr, U-234, 235, 238), hydrocarbons and organic solvents (Benzene, BTEX, DDT, Dieldrin, Endosulfan, Fluoranthene, MTBE, PCB, PCNB, TCE and by-products), and inorganic solvents (Potassium ferrocyanide).

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Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Internal conversion

Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.

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Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.

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Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Ionization chamber

The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isotopes of barium

Naturally occurring barium (56Ba) is a mix of six stable isotopes and one very long-lived radioactive primordial isotope, barium-130, recently identified as being unstable by geochemical means (from analysis of the presence of its daughter xenon-130 in rocks).

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Isotopes of cadmium

Naturally occurring cadmium (48Cd) is composed of 8 isotopes.

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Isotopes of calcium

Calcium (20Ca) has 24 isotopes, from 34Ca to 57Ca.

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Isotopes of californium

Californium (98Cf) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of cobalt

Naturally occurring cobalt (27Co) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59Co.

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Isotopes of europium

Naturally occurring europium (63Eu) is composed of 2 isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu, with 153Eu being the most abundant (52.2% natural abundance).

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Isotopes of gadolinium

Naturally occurring gadolinium (64Gd) is composed of 6 stable isotopes, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd, and 1 radioisotope, 152Gd, with 158Gd being the most abundant (24.84% natural abundance).

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Isotopes of iridium

There are two natural isotopes of iridium (77Ir), and 34 radioisotopes, the most stable radioisotope being 192Ir with a half-life of 73.83 days, and many nuclear isomers, the most stable of which is 192m2Ir with a half-life of 241 years.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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Isotopes of manganese

Naturally occurring manganese (25Mn) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 55Mn.

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Isotopes of molybdenum

There are 33 known isotopes of molybdenum (42Mo) ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 115, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers.

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Isotopes of neptunium

Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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Isotopes of niobium

Naturally occurring niobium (41Nb), is composed of one stable isotope (93Nb).

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Isotopes of polonium

Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.

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Isotopes of radon

There are 35 known isotopes of radon (86Rn) from 195Rn to 229Rn; all are radioactive.

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Isotopes of rubidium

Rubidium (37Rb) has 32 isotopes, with naturally occurring rubidium being composed of just two isotopes; 85Rb (72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%).

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Isotopes of sodium

There are twenty recognized isotopes of sodium (11Na), ranging from to and two isomers (and). is the only stable (and the only primordial) isotope.

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Isotopes of thallium

Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212.

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Isotopes of thorium

Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.

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Isotopes of zinc

Naturally occurring zinc (30Zn) is composed of the 5 stable isotopes 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn with 64Zn being the most abundant (48.6% natural abundance).

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K–Ar dating

Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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List of nuclides

This list of nuclides shows observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.

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Long-lived fission product

Long-lived fission products (LLFPs) are radioactive materials with a long half-life (more than 200,000 years) produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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Neutron cross section

In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.

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Nuclear fallout

Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physics beyond the Standard Model

Physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) refers to the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies of the Standard Model, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

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Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.

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Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) and KGB, who fled from court prosecution in Russia and received political asylum in the United Kingdom.

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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

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Radiation burn

A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.

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Radioactive contamination

Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.

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Radioactivity in the life sciences

Radioactivity is generally used in life sciences for highly sensitive and direct measurements of biological phenomena, and for visualizing the location of biomolecules radiolabelled with a radioisotope.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Radiogenic nuclide

A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.

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Radioisotope thermoelectric generator

A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.

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Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.

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Radiometric dating

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.

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Radionuclide cisternogram

A radionuclide cisternogram is a medical imaging study which involves injecting a radionuclide by lumbar puncture (spinal tap) into a patient's cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) to determine if there is abnormal CSF flow within the brain and spinal canal which can be altered by hydrocephalus, Arnold–Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, or an arachnoid cyst.

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Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.

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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.

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Running total

A running total is the summation of a sequence of numbers which is updated each time a new number is added to the sequence, by adding the value of the new number to the previous running total.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.

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Smoke detector

A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Specific activity

Specific activity is the activity per quantity of a radionuclide and is a physical property of that radionuclide.

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Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

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Springer Publishing

Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).

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Stable nuclide

Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.

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Sterilization (microbiology)

Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.

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Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Technetium-99 (99Tc) is an isotope of technetium which decays with a half-life of 211,000 years to stable ruthenium-99, emitting beta particles, but no gamma rays.

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Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Technetium-99m generator

A technetium-99m generator, or colloquially a technetium cow or moly cow, is a device used to extract the metastable isotope 99mTc of technetium from a source of decaying molybdenum-99.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.

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Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Thorium fuel cycle

The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Uses of radioactivity in oil and gas wells

Radioactive sources are used for logging formation parameters.

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Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radionuclide

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