176 relations: Actinium, Age of the Earth, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Amalgam (chemistry), Americium, Ammonia, Amount of substance, André-Louis Debierne, Anemia, Aplastic anemia, Aqueous solution, Astatine, Atomic number, Austria-Hungary, Azide, Barium, Barium chloride, Barium hydroxide, Base (chemistry), Beryllium, Beta particle, Biraco, Bismuth, Boiling point, Bone marrow, Bone seeker, Bone tumor, By-product, Caesium, Caesium-137, Calcium, Cancer, Carmine, Carnotite, Cathode, Cervical cancer, Chemical element, Chloride, Circulatory system, Cobalt-60, Colorado, Congener (chemistry), Coordination complex, Coprecipitation, Covalent bond, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Crust (geology), ..., Cubic crystal system, Curie, Decay chain, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Destination spa, Electrolysis, Electroscope, Feces, Fluorescence, Fluorine, Food and Drug Administration, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), French Academy of Sciences, Gamma ray, Genetics, Gram, Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Ground state, Half-life, HeLa, Helium, Henri Becquerel, Henrietta Lacks, Howard Atwood Kelly, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Industrial radiography, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, Isotopes of radium, Isotopes of radon, Jáchymov, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Kilogram, Labour law, Lead, Litre, Luminescence, Luminous paint, Manhattan Project, Marie Curie, Mass number, Medicine, Melting point, Mercury (element), Metal, Metastasis, Mineral, Misasa, Tottori, Mutation, Nationalization, Nauka (publisher), Neoplasm, Neutron activation, Neutron source, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear Physics (journal), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Occupational disease, Olen, Belgium, Optical spectrometer, Orders of magnitude (mass), Osteocyte, Parts-per notation, Periodic table, Periodic trends, Periodic Videos, Picometre, Pierre Curie, Polonium, Potassium, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Radioactive decay, Radioactive quackery, Radiography, Radioluminescence, Radiolysis, Radionuclide, Radithor, Radium and radon in the environment, Radium bromide, Radium chloride, Radium Girls, Radium Ore Revigator, Radium-223, Radon, Reactivity (chemistry), Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rubidium, Russia, Seawater, Silver, Slovakia, Spectral line, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard electrode potential, Strontium, Synthetic radioisotope, Syphilis, Temperature, Thermal decomposition, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Thorium, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Ton, Tritium, Ulcer (dermatology), Union Minière du Haut Katanga, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Radium Corporation, Uraninite, Uranium, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Volatility (chemistry), Volt, Wiley-VCH. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.
André-Louis Debierne (14 July 1874 – 31 August 1949) was a French chemist and is considered the discoverer of the element actinium.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2.
Barium hydroxide are chemical compounds with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Biraco is the acronym of Bismuth, Radium, and Cobalt.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
A bone seeker is an element, often a radioisotope, that tends to accumulate in the bones of humans and other animals when it is introduced into the body.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carmine, also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In chemistry, coprecipitation (CPT) or co-precipitation is the carrying down by a precipitate of substances normally soluble under the conditions employed.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A destination spa is a resort centered on a spa, such as a mineral spa.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electroscope is an early scientific instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The Great Bear Lake (Slavey: Sahtú; Grand lac de l'Ours) is the largest lake entirely in Canada (Lake Superior and Lake Huron straddling the Canada–US border are larger), the fourth largest in North America, and the eighth largest in the world.
The Great Slave Lake (Grand lac des Esclaves) is the second-largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada (after Great Bear Lake), the deepest lake in North America at, and the tenth-largest lake in the world.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Henrietta Lacks (born Loretta Pleasant; August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951) Note: Some sources report her birthday as August 2, 1920, vs.
Howard Atwood Kelly (February 20, 1858 – January 12, 1943), M.D., was an American gynecologist.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (IEER) focuses on the environmental safety of nuclear weapons production, ozone layer depletion, and other issues relating to energy.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
There are 35 known isotopes of radon (86Rn) from 195Rn to 229Rn; all are radioactive.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
is a town located in Tōhaku District, Tottori Prefecture, Japan.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is a consortium of American universities headquartered in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with an office in Washington, D.C., and staff at several other locations across the country.
An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
Olen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp.
An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.
An osteocyte, a star-shaped type of bone cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone tissue, and can live as long as the organism itself.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive quackery is quackery that improperly promotes radioactivity as a therapy for illnesses.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by ionizing radiation.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radithor was a patent medicine that is a well-known example of radioactive quackery and specifically of excessively broad and pseudoscientific application of the principle of radiation hormesis.
Radium and radon are important contributors to environmental radioactivity.
Radium bromide is the bromide salt of radium, with the formula RaBr2.
Radium chloride (RaCl2) is a chemical compound of radium and chlorine, and the first radium compound isolated in a pure state.
The Radium Girls were female factory workers who contracted radiation poisoning from painting watch dials with self-luminous paint.
The Radium Ore Revigator was a pseudoscientific medical device consisting of a ceramic water crock lined with radioactive materials.
Radium-223 (Ra-223, 223Ra) is an isotope of radium with an 11.4-day half-life, in contrast to the more common isotope radium-226, discovered by the Curies, which has a 1601-year half-life.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
A synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.
The Union Minière du Haut-Katanga (French; "Mining Union of Upper Katanga"), often abbreviated to Union Minière or UMHK, was a Belgian mining company which operated in the former Congo Free State and Belgian Congo between 1906 and 1966.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Radium Corporation was a company, most notorious for its operations between the years 1917 to 1926 in Orange, New Jersey, in the United States that led to stronger worker protection laws.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.