241 relations: Actinium, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, American Cancer Society, André-Louis Debierne, Andrew Gelman, Angular momentum coupling, Annals of Oncology, Antarctica, Antimony pentafluoride, Apollo 15, Appalachian Mountains, Aquifer, Aristarchus (crater), Arthritis, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Autoimmune disease, Ångström, Świeradów-Zdrój, Background radiation, Bad Brambach, Bad Gastein, Bad Kreuznach, Basin, Montana, Becquerel, Beryllium, Beta decay, Bismuth, Bohemia, Bond length, Boulder, Montana, Brachytherapy, Canadian Journal of Research, Canadian Shield, Cancer, Cancer Causes & Control, Carbonyl group, Carcinogen, ChemComm, Chemical element, Chemische Berichte, Chlorine, Chlorine trifluoride, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Cold War, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, ..., Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Condensation, Curie, Decay chain, Decay product, Density, Destination spa, Diffusion, Dioxygen difluoride, Dose–Response, Earth, Planets and Space, Earthquake prediction, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Environmental Health Perspectives, Epidemiology, Ernest Rutherford, European Physical Journal H, European Union, Fault (geology), Fluoride, Fluorine, Friedrich Ernst Dorn, Fullerene, Gamma ray, Geometric mean, Geometric standard deviation, Geophysical Research Letters, Georgius Agricola, Geothermal gradient, Geothermal power, Glacial period, Granite, Groundwater, Half-life, Harriet Brooks, Health effects of radon, Health Physics (journal), Health Protection Agency, Home inspection, Hydrate, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrology, Indoor air quality, Industrial radiography, Inert gas, Inert pair effect, Interhalogen, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, International Radon Project, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Inversion (meteorology), Ion, Ionization energy, Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Isotope, Isotopes of radium, Isotopes of radon, JAMA (journal), Jáchymov, Johann Radon, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the Chemical Society, Kansas State University, Kowary, Landfill, Lądek-Zdrój, Lead, Leukemia, Linear molecular geometry, Linear no-threshold model, Log-normal distribution, Lucas cell, Lunar Prospector, Lung cancer, Mallow, County Cork, Marie Curie, Mastectomy, McGill University, McMaster University, Measurement Science and Technology, Medical Physics (journal), Melting point, Miercurea Ciuc, Misasa, Tottori, Monatomic gas, Montreal, Moon, NASA, National Geographic, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Safety Council, Natural gas, Nature (journal), Nature Chemistry, Neoplasm, Neptunium, Noble gas, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Nuclear reactor, Octahedral molecular geometry, Oil refinery, Oil well, Onsen, Oxide, Paracelsus, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Perxenate, Petroleum, Philosophical Magazine, Phosphorus pentoxide, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Physical Review Letters, Pico-, Pierre Curie, Polonium, Polyhedron (journal), Potassium hydroxide, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Propane, Quackery, R. William Field, Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Radiation hormesis, Radiation Measurements, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Radiation therapy, Radical (chemistry), Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radiohalo, Radioluminescence, Radiolysis, Radium, Radon difluoride, Radon mitigation, Redox, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Robert Bowie Owens, Robert Whytlaw-Gray, Russian Chemical Reviews, Science (journal), Shale, SI derived unit, Solubility, Sorption, South Australia, Southwestern United States, Spring (hydrology), Stable isotope ratio, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard electrode potential, Standard enthalpy of formation, Stream, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur dioxide, Surface water, The BMJ, The Linde Group, The New York Times Company, Thorium, Tottori Prefecture, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uranium, Uranium mining, Uranium ore, Uranium tailings, Uranium-238, Vadose zone, Valence (chemistry), Volatilisation, Volatility (chemistry), William Ramsay, Wjm (journal), Working level, Xenon, Xenon hexafluoride, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 68–95–99.7 rule. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
André-Louis Debierne (14 July 1874 – 31 August 1949) was a French chemist and is considered the discoverer of the element actinium.
Andrew Gelman (born February 11, 1965) is an American statistician, professor of statistics and political science, and director of the Applied Statistics Center at Columbia University.
In quantum mechanics, the procedure of constructing eigenstates of total angular momentum out of eigenstates of separate angular momenta is called angular momentum coupling.
The Annals of Oncology is a peer-reviewed medical journal of oncology, published by Oxford University Press.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Aristarchus, named after the Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the northwest part of the Moon's near side.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Świeradów-Zdrój (Bad Flinsberg) is a spa town in Lubań County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland near the border with the Czech Republic.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Bad Brambach is a municipality in the Vogtlandkreis district, in Saxony, Germany.
Bad Gastein (formerly Badgastein) is a spa town in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, in the Austrian state of Salzburg.
Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Basin is a census-designated place (CDP) in Jefferson County, Montana, United States.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
Boulder is a town in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Montana, United States.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
The Canadian Journal of Research is a defunct peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1929 by the National Research Council of Canada.
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer Causes & Control is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media, covering research on the epidemiology, causes, and control of cancer.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
ChemComm (or Chemical Communications), formerly known as Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications (1969–1971), Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1972–1995), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) is an international scientific committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) under its Division of Inorganic Chemistry.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A destination spa is a resort centered on a spa, such as a mineral spa.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dioxygen difluoride is a compound of fluorine and oxygen with the molecular formula.
Dose–Response is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the dose-response relationship, especially hormesis.
Earth, Planets and Space is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media and Terra Scientific Publishing Company on behalf of five Japanese learned societies: the Seismological Society of Japan, Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, Volcanological Society of Japan, Geodetic Society of Japan, and the Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.
Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with the specification of the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits, and particularly "the determination of parameters for the next strong earthquake to occur in a region.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
The European Physical Journal H: Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics (EPJ H) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on the history of modern physics.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Friedrich Ernst Dorn (27 July 1848 – 16 December 1916) was a German physicist who was the first to discover that a radioactive substance, later named radon, is emitted from radium.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).
In probability theory and statistics, the geometric standard deviation describes how spread out are a set of numbers whose preferred average is the geometric mean.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Geothermal power is power generated by geothermal energy.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Harriet Brooks (July 2, 1876 – April 17, 1933) was the first Canadian female nuclear physicist.
Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of radium.
Health Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.
A home inspection is a limited, non-invasive examination of the condition of a home, often in connection with the sale of that home.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic ''s'' orbital to remain unionized or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals.
An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Journal of Quantum Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original, primary research and review articles on all aspects of quantum chemistry, including an expanded scope focusing on aspects of materials science, biochemistry, biophysics, quantum physics, quantum information theory, etc.
The International Radon Project (IRP) is a World Health Organization initiative to reduce the lung cancer risk around the world.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Iowa City is a city in Johnson County, Iowa, United States.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
There are 35 known isotopes of radon (86Rn) from 195Rn to 229Rn; all are radioactive.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
Johann Karl August Radon (16 December 1887 – 25 May 1956) was an Austrian mathematician.
The Journal of Clinical Oncology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 3 times a month by the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A is a scientific journal which reports research on the chemistry of molecules - including their dynamics, spectroscopy, kinetics, structure, bonding, and quantum chemistry.
The Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Journal of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal established by the Chemical Society in 1849 as the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society.
Kansas State University (KSU), commonly shortened to Kansas State or K-State, is a public research university with its main campus in Manhattan, Kansas, United States.
Kowary (Schmiedeberg im Riesengebirge) is a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, with a population of around 12,000 (2014).
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Lądek-Zdrój (Bad Landeck; Landek) is a town in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
In chemistry, the linear molecular geometry describes the geometry around a central atom bonded to two other atoms (or ligands) placed at a bond-angle of 180°.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
In probability theory, a log-normal (or lognormal) distribution is a continuous probability distribution of a random variable whose logarithm is normally distributed.
A Lucas cell is a type of scintillation counter.
Lunar Prospector was the third mission selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Mallow (Magh Eala) is a town in County Cork, Ireland, about thirty-five kilometres north of Cork.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
McMaster University (commonly referred to as McMaster or Mac) is a public research university in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Measurement Science and Technology (MST) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing and covering the areas of measurement, instrumentation, and sensor technology in the sciences.
Medical Physics is a monthly peer reviewed scientific journal covering research on medical physics.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Miercurea Ciuc (Csíkszereda,,; Szeklerburg) is the county seat of Harghita County, Romania.
is a town located in Tōhaku District, Tottori Prefecture, Japan.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Chemistry is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research (Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res.) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
An onsen is a Japanese hot spring; the term also extends to cover the bathing facilities and traditional inns frequently situated around a spring.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
In chemistry, perxenates are salts of the yellow xenon-containing anion.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research and review articles on any aspect of physical chemistry, chemical physics, and biophysical chemistry.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Pico- (symbol p) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting one trillionth, a factor of 10−12.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Polyhedron is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of inorganic chemistry.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people, including atomic veterans, who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to radon gas and other radioactive isotopes while undertaking uranium mining, milling or the transportation of ore.
Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation.
Radiation Measurements is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on nuclear science and radiation physics.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering radiobiology, especially dosimetry and radiation monitoring for both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radiohalos or pleochroic halos are microscopic, spherical shells of discolouration within minerals such as biotite that occur in granite and other igneous rocks.
Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by ionizing radiation.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon difluoride is a compound of radon, a noble gas.
Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon gas concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings, or radon from water supplies.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Robert "Bobby" Bowie Owens (October 29, 1870 – November 3, 1940) was a U.S. electrical engineer.
Robert H. Whytlaw-Gray, FRS (1877 – 1958) was an English chemist, born in London.
The Russian Chemical Reviews is a translation of Journal Uspekhi Khimii which is a monthly Russian scientific journal on chemistry, established in 1932.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Sorption is a physical and chemical process by which one substance becomes attached to another.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Linde Group, registered as Linde AG, is a German multinational chemical company founded in 1879.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium tailings are a waste byproduct (tailings) of uranium mining.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
The vadose zone, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater (the water in the soil's pores) is at atmospheric pressure ("vadose" is from the Latin for "shallow").
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
Volatilization is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
wjm was a peer-reviewed medical journal.
Working level (WL) is a historical unit of concentration of radioactive decay products of radon, applied to uranium mining environment.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6 and the highest of the three known binary fluorides of xenon, the other two being XeF2 and XeF4.
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dealing with inorganic chemistry, published by Wiley-VCH.
In statistics, the 68–95–99.7 rule is a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values that lie within a band around the mean in a normal distribution with a width of two, four and six standard deviations, respectively; more accurately, 68.27%, 95.45% and 99.73% of the values lie within one, two and three standard deviations of the mean, respectively.