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Rain shadow

Index Rain shadow

A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind). [1]

231 relations: Aberdeen, Adiabatic process, Adirondack Mountains, Alborz, Algeria, Alps, Andes, Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Arabian Sea, Arakan Mountains, Aravalli Range, Arid, Arid Diagonal, Asti, Atacama Desert, Athens, Atlantic Ocean, Atlas Mountains, Australia, Bakersfield, California, Basin and Range Province, Bay of Biscay, Beed, Beqaa Valley, Bergen, Black Rock Desert, Blue Ridge Mountains, Briançon, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, California, Canada, Cantabrian Mountains, Cape Fold Belt, Cascade Range, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, Central Asia, Cerdanya, Chaîne des Puys, Champlain Valley, Chihuahuan Desert, Chile, Chitral, Clermont-Ferrand, Columbia River drainage basin, Continental Divide of the Americas, Cuba, Cuyo (Argentina), Danakil Desert, ..., Darling Scarp, Dasht-e Lut, Dead Sea, Death Valley, Deccan Plateau, Denver, Desert, Dew point, Djibouti, Dwellingup, Western Australia, Eastern Washington, Edinburgh, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Equator, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Highlands, Foehn wind, Forez, Forks, Washington, Fort William, Highland, France, Front Range Urban Corridor, Gap, Hautes-Alpes, Geelong, Gilgit, Glasgow, Gobi Desert, Great Basin, Great Otway National Park, Great Southern (Western Australia), Greater Khingan, Green Spain, Guajira Peninsula, Haleakalā, Hawaii, Hindu Kush, Hispaniola, Horn of Africa, Indian Ocean, Interior Plains, Isobaric process, Jamaica, Jordan, Judaean Desert, Judaean Mountains, Kahoolawe, Karakum Desert, Karoo, Kauai, Kazakh Steppe, Kerala, Kyzylkum Desert, Lake District, Lake-effect snow, Latitude, Lena River, Limagne, List of municipalities of Norway, Little River, Victoria, Longreach, Queensland, Lophozonia cunninghamii, Madagascar, Manchester, Mandurah, Massif Central, Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, Middle latitudes, Moab, Mojave Desert, Monaro (New South Wales), Mongolia, Monsoon of South Asia, Morocco, Mount Lebanon, Myanmar, Narrogin, Western Australia, Nevada, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand, Nhill, Nor'west arch, North American Cordillera, North Karnataka, Northern Hemisphere, Northwest Territories, Oceanic climate, Okanagan, Olympic Mountains, Ordos Desert, Oregon, Orographic lift, Orography, Oslo, Osmanabad, Owens Valley, Oymyakon, Pacific Coast Ranges, Pacific Ocean, Pamir Mountains, Patagonia, Patagonian Desert, Pennines, Peru, Piedmont, Pindus, Port Angeles, Washington, Port Phillip, Precipitation, Precipitation types, Prevailing winds, Prokletije, Province of Alicante, Province of Almería, Pueblo, Colorado, Puerto Rico, Pyrenees, Rakhine State, Réunion, Region of Murcia, Roaring Forties, Rocky Mountains, Sahara, Sakha Republic, San Francisco Bay Area, San Joaquin Valley, San Jose, California, Sandy Point, Tristan da Cunha, Santa Cruz Mountains, Scandinavian Mountains, Scottish Highlands, Sea level, Semi-arid climate, Sequim, Washington, Sheffield, Shenandoah Valley, Siberia, Siberian High, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Skjåk, Skopje, Skye, Solapur, Somalia, Sonoran Desert, Southern Hemisphere, Switzerland, Tasmania, Thar Desert, Trade winds, Tristan da Cunha, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropics, Tunisia, United States, USA Today, Utah, Vancouver Island, Vardar, Verkhoyansk, Verkhoyansk Range, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, British Columbia, Vidarbha, Washington (state), Werribee, Victoria, Westerlies, Western Australia, Western Cape, Western Ghats, Wheatbelt (Western Australia), Windward and leeward, Worcester, Western Cape, Yakutsk, Yellowknife, Yin Mountains, Zagros Mountains, Zernez. Expand index (181 more) »


Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.

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Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Adirondack Mountains

The Adirondack Mountains form a massif in northeastern New York, United States.

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The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.

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Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anti-Lebanon Mountains

The Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Jibāl Lubnān ash-Sharqiyyah, "Eastern Mountains of Lebanon"; Lebanese Arabic:, Jbel esh-Shar'iyyeh, "Eastern Mountains") are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms most of the border between Syria and Lebanon.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Arakan Mountains

The Arakan Mountains (Arakan Range, Rakhine Range, Rakhine Yoma, Arakan Yoma, Rakhine Roma, Arakan Roma; ရခိုင်ရိုးမ) is a mountain range in western Burma (Myanmar), between the coast of Rakhine State and the Central Burma Basin, in which flows the Irrawaddy River.

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Aravalli Range

The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.

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A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.

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Arid Diagonal

BWk climate running from Ecuador to Southern Patagonia. The Arid Diagonal (diagonal árida/arreica) is a contiguous zone of arid and semi-arid climate that traverses South America from coastal Peru in the Northwest to Argentine Patagonia in Southeast including large swathes of Bolivia and Chile.

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Asti is a city and comune of 76 164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River.

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Atacama Desert

The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bakersfield, California

Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, California, United States.

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Basin and Range Province

The Basin and Range Province is a vast physiographic region covering much of the inland Western United States and northwestern Mexico.

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Bay of Biscay

The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.

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Beed is a city in central region of Maharashtra state in India.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.

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Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.

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Black Rock Desert

The Black Rock Desert is a semi-arid region (in the Great Basin shrub steppe eco-region), of lava beds and playa, or alkali flats, situated in the Black Rock Desert–High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area, a silt playa north of Reno, Nevada that encompasses more than of land and contains more than of historic trails.

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Blue Ridge Mountains

The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range.

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Briançon is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

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Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park

Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in the southeastern corner of Spain, is Andalusia's largest coastal protected area, a wild and isolated landscape with some of Europe's most original geological features.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cantabrian Mountains

The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.

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Cape Fold Belt

The Cape Fold Belt is a fold and thrust belt of late Paleozoic age, which affected the sequence of sedimentary rock layers of the Cape Supergroup in the southwestern corner of South Africa.

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Cascade Range

The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya (Latin: Ceretani or Ceritania, Cerdagne, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain.

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Chaîne des Puys

The Chaîne des Puys is a north-south oriented chain of cinder cones, lava domes, and maars in the Massif Central of France.

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Champlain Valley

The Champlain Valley is a region of the United States around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York extending north slightly into Quebec, Canada.

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Chihuahuan Desert

The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of Mexico and the United States.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chitral (Pashto/چترال; چھترار, Khowar for "field") is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergnat Clharmou, Augustonemetum) is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569 (2012).

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Columbia River drainage basin

The Columbia River drainage basin is the drainage basin of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

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Continental Divide of the Americas

The Continental Divide of the Americas (also known as the Great Divide, the Continental Gulf of Division, or merely the Continental Divide) is the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cuyo (Argentina)

Cuyo is the name given to the wine-producing, mountainous area of central-west Argentina.

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Danakil Desert

The Danakil Desert is a desert in northeast Ethiopia, southern Eritrea, and northwestern Djibouti.

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Darling Scarp

The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north-south to the east of the Swan Coastal Plain and Perth, Western Australia.

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Dasht-e Lut

The Lut Desert, widely referred to as Dasht-e Lut (دشت لوت, "Emptiness Plain"), is a large salt desert located in the provinces of Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Death Valley

Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert.

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Deccan Plateau

The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.

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Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Dew point

The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.

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Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Dwellingup, Western Australia

Dwellingup is a town in Western Australia, located in a timber and fruitgrowing area in the Darling Range east-south-east of Pinjarra.

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Eastern Washington

Eastern Washington is the portion of the US state of Washington east of the Cascade Range.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is the main settlement of the island of Tristan da Cunha, in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopian Highlands

The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.

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Foehn wind

A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.

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Forez is a former province of France, corresponding approximately to the central part of the modern Loire département and a part of the Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme départements.

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Forks, Washington

Forks is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States.

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Fort William, Highland

Fort William (An Gearasdan "The Garrison") is a town in the Scottish Highlands, located on the eastern shore of Loch Linnhe.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Front Range Urban Corridor

The Front Range Urban Corridor is an oblong region of urban population located along the eastern face of the Southern Rocky Mountains, encompassing 18 counties in the U.S. states of Colorado and Wyoming.

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Gap, Hautes-Alpes

Gap is a commune in southeastern France, the capital and largest town of the Hautes-Alpes department.

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Geelong is a port city located on Corio Bay and the Barwon River, in the state of Victoria, Australia.Geelong is south-west of the state capital, Melbourne.

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Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.

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Great Basin

The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America.

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Great Otway National Park

The Great Otway National Park, located in the Barwon South West region of Victoria, Australia.

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Great Southern (Western Australia)

The Great Southern Region is one of the nine regions of Western Australia, as defined by the Regional Development Commissions Act 1993, for the purposes of economic development.

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Greater Khingan

The Greater Khingan Range (IPA:; Их Хянганы нуруу, Ih Hyangani’ nurū; Manchu: Amba Hinggan), is a volcanic mountain range in northeast China.

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Green Spain

Green Spain (direct translation into English of the Spanish España Verde) is the name given to a lush natural region in Northern Spain, stretching along the Atlantic coast from the border with Portugal to the border with France.

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Guajira Peninsula

Guajira Peninsula (Peninsula de La Guajira, also spelled Goajira, mainly in colonial period texts), is a peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in the Caribbean.

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Haleakalā (Hawaiian), or the East Maui Volcano, is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Interior Plains

The Interior Plains is a vast physiographic region that spreads across the Laurentian craton of central North America.

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Isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP.

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Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

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Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Judaean Desert

The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; صحراء يهودا Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea.

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Judaean Mountains

The Judaean Mountains, or Judaean Hills (הרי יהודה Harei Yehuda, جبال الخليل Jibal Al Khalil), is a mountain range in Israel and the West Bank where Jerusalem and several other biblical cities are located.

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ʻKahoolawe (Hawaiian) is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands.

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Karakum Desert

The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara-Gum (Garagum,; kərɐˈkumɨ), is a desert in Central Asia.

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The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.

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Kauai, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands.

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Kazakh Steppe

The Kazakh Steppe (Qazaq dalasy, Қазақ даласы, also Uly dala, Ұлы дала "Great Steppe"), also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe.

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Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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Kyzylkum Desert

The Kyzylkum Desert (Qizilqum/Қизилқум, قىزىلقۇم; Qyzylqum, قىزىلقۇم, Кызылкум) is the 16th largest desert in the world.

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Lake District

The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.

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Lake-effect snow

Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lena River

The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).

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The Limagne is large plain in the Auvergne region of France in the valley of the Allier river, on the edge of the Massif Central.

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List of municipalities of Norway

Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties (fylker in Norwegian, singular: fylke), and 422 municipalities (kommuner/-ar, singular: kommune – cf. communes).

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Little River, Victoria

Little River is a town in Victoria, Australia, that is located about south-west of the Melbourne central business district, located within the Cities of Greater Geelong and Wyndham local government areas.

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Longreach, Queensland

Longreach is a town in Central West Queensland, Australia, approximately from the coast, west of Rockhampton.

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Lophozonia cunninghamii

Lophozonia cunninghamii, the myrtle beech, is an evergreen tree native to Tasmania and Victoria, Australia.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Mandurah is a coastal city in Western Australia, situated approximately south of the state capital, Perth.

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Massif Central

The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle latitudes

The middle latitudes (also called the mid-latitudes, sometimes midlatitudes, or moderate latitudes) of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south.

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Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.

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Mojave Desert

The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America.

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Monaro (New South Wales)

Monaro, once frequently spelled "Manaro", is the name of a region in the south of New South Wales, Australia.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Monsoon of South Asia

The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Narrogin, Western Australia

Narrogin is a large town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, southeast of Perth on the Great Southern Highway between Pingelly and Wagin.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nhill is a town in the Wimmera, in western Victoria, Australia.

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Nor'west arch

The Nor'west arch is a weather pattern peculiar to the east coast of New Zealand's South Island.

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North American Cordillera

The North American Cordillera is the North American portion of the American Cordillera which is a mountain chain (cordillera) along the western side of the Americas.

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North Karnataka

North Karnataka, locally known as Uttara Karnataka, is a geographical region consisting of mostly semi-arid plateau from elevation that constitutes the northern part of the South Indian state of Karnataka.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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The Okanagan, also known as the Okanagan Valley and sometimes as the Okanagan Country, is a region in the Canadian province of British Columbia defined by the basin of Okanagan Lake and the Canadian portion of the Okanagan River.

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Olympic Mountains

The Olympic Mountains are a mountain range on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington in the United States.

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Ordos Desert

The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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Orographic lift

Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.

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Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Osmanabad (transliterated in Marathi as Usmanabad) is a city and a municipal council in Osmanabad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Osmanabad derives its name from the last ruler of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan.

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Owens Valley

Owens Valley is the colonial name of Payahǖǖnadǖ (Numic: place of flowing water), the, now, arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin section.

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Oymyakon (Оймяко́н,; Өймөкөөн, Öymököön) is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway.

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Pacific Coast Ranges

The Pacific Coast Ranges (officially gazetted as the Pacific Mountain System in the United States but referred to as the Pacific Coast Ranges), are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patagonian Desert

The Patagonian Desert, also known as the Patagonia Desert, Patagonian Steppe, or Magellanic Steppe, is the largest desert in Argentina and is the 8th largest desert in the world by area, occupying 673,000 square kilometers (260,000 mi2).

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The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos) (Πίνδος) mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania.

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Port Angeles, Washington

Port Angeles is a city in and the county seat of Clallam County, Washington, United States.

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Port Phillip

Port Phillip (also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay or (locally) just The Bay), is a large bay in southern Victoria, Australia; it is the location of Melbourne.

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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Precipitation types

In meteorology, "precipitation types" can include the character or phase of the precipitation which is falling to ground level.

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Prevailing winds

Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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Prokletije (Проклетије,; Bjeshkët e Nemuna; both translated as "cursed mountains"), also known as the Albanian Alps (Alpet Shqiptare) and the Accursed Mountains, is a mountain range on the western Balkan peninsula, extending from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro.

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Province of Alicante

Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community.

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Province of Almería

Almería is a province of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Pueblo, Colorado

Pueblo is a home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, Colorado, United States.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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Rakhine State

Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).

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Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.

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Region of Murcia

The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.

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Roaring Forties

The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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San Francisco Bay Area

The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.

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San Joaquin Valley

The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River.

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San Jose, California

San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.

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Sandy Point, Tristan da Cunha

Sandy Point is the easternmost extremity of the island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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Santa Cruz Mountains

The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States.

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Scandinavian Mountains

The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.

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Scottish Highlands

The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Sequim, Washington

Sequim is a city in Clallam County, Washington, United States.

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Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.

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Shenandoah Valley

The Shenandoah Valley is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberian High

The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.

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Sierra Nevada (U.S.)

The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.

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Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia.

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Skjåk is a municipality in Oppland county, Norway.

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Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Skye, or the Isle of Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.

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Solapur is a city located in the south-western region of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Sonoran Desert

The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Thar Desert

The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.

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Trade winds

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.

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Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.

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Tropic of Capricorn

The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vancouver Island

Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.

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The Vardar (Вардар) or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and also a major river of Greece.

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Verkhoyansk (p; Верхоянскай, Verkhoyanskay) is a town in Verkhoyansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Yana River near the Arctic Circle, from Batagay, the administrative center of the district, and north of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic.

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Verkhoyansk Range

The Verkhoyansk Range (Верхоянский хребет, Verchojanskij chrebet; Үөһээ Дьааҥы сис хайата, Üöhee Caañı sis xayata) is a mountain range of eastern Siberia spanning roughly 1000 km (600 mi.) across the Sakha Republic.

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.

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Victoria, British Columbia

Victoria, the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, is on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast.

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Vidarbha is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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Werribee, Victoria

Werribee is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 32 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Wyndham local government area.

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The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Western Cape

The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.

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Western Ghats

Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.

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Wheatbelt (Western Australia)

The Wheatbelt is one of the nine regions of Western Australia.

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Windward and leeward

Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.

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Worcester, Western Cape

Worcester is a town in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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Yakutsk (p; Дьокуускай, D'okuuskay) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about south of the Arctic Circle.

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Yellowknife is the capital and only city, as well as the largest community, in the Northwest Territories (NT or NWT), Canada.

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Yin Mountains

The Yin Mountains, also known colloquially as the Daqing Mountains, and in Mongolian as Dalan Qara, Dalan Terigün, Dalan Khar, Moni Agula, and Moni Uul, are mountains in the steppe forming the southern border of the eastern Gobi Desert of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, as well as the northern part of Hebei province.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Zernez is a village and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

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Redirects here:

Barrier effect (climate), Barrier effect (climatology), Precipitation shadow, Rain Shadow, Rain shadow effect, Rainshadow, Rainshadow effect.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rain_shadow

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