117 relations: Adolf Smekal, Alkene, Alkyne, Antibody, Arc lamp, Aztreonam, Band-stop filter, BCS theory, Bernhard Schrader, Bioanalysis, Book of Kells, C. V. Raman, Carbon nanotube, Cell (biology), Centrosymmetry, Charge-coupled device, Chemical bond, Chemical imaging, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, Confocal microscopy, Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, Counterfeit medications, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystallographic point group, Cystic fibrosis, Depolarization ratio, Distributed temperature sensing, Dosage form, Electron, Electron transport chain, Explosive material, Femtochemistry, Fluorescence, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, Gas-discharge lamp, George Placzek, Gilead Sciences, Graphene, Grigory Landsberg, Helium–neon laser, Holographic grating, Hyperspectral imaging, Inelastic scattering, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, K. S. Krishnan, ..., Laser, Lens (optics), Leonid Mandelstam, Liquid crystal, Low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA, Magnon, Martin Fleischmann, Medication, Mercury-vapor lamp, Microscopy, Mineral, Mitochondrion, Molecular symmetry, Molecular vibration, Molybdenum disulfide, Monochromator, Monochrome, Nd:YAG laser, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nonlinear optics, Optical flat, Optical tweezers, Organ (anatomy), Peptide, Phonon, Phosphorescence, Photomultiplier, Photon, Plasmon, Polarization (waves), Polarization scrambling, Polarizer, Polypropylene, Preservation (library and archival science), Protein, Quenching (fluorescence), Raman microscope, Raman optical activity, Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Resonance Raman spectroscopy, Rotational–vibrational coupling, Rule of mutual exclusion, Sérgio Pereira da Silva Porto, Scattering, Second-harmonic generation, Solid-state physics, Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy, Spectrometer, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopy, Springer Science+Business Media, Stimulated emission, Stimulated Raman spectroscopy, Stokes shift, Surface plasmon polariton, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Temperature, Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Transmission Raman spectroscopy, TU Wien, Tungsten diselenide, Turbidity, Ultraviolet, Virtual state, Visible spectrum, Wavenumber. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Gustav Stephan Smekal (12 September 1895 – 7 March 1959) was an Austrian theoretical physicist, with interests in solid state physics,"The historical development of quantum theory", by Jagdish Mehra, Helmut Rechenberg, known for the prediction of the inelastic scattering of photons (Smekal-Raman effect).
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
Aztreonam, sold under the brand name Azactam among others, is an antibiotic used primarily to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.
BCS theory or Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's 1911 discovery.
Bernhard Schrader (15 March 1931 in Quedlinburg, Germany – 8 January 2012 in Essen, Germany) was a German professor of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry and teaching until his retirement in 1996 at the University of Essen.
Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their metabolites, and biological molecules in unnatural locations or concentrations) and biotics (macromolecules, proteins, DNA, large molecule drugs, metabolites) in biological systems.
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 188821 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India presently the state of Tamil Nadu, who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In crystallography, a point group which contains an inversion center as one of its symmetry elements is centrosymmetric.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical imaging (as quantitative – chemical mapping) is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, also called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS), is a form of spectroscopy used primarily in chemistry, physics and related fields.
Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.
The conservation-restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, a crystallographic point group is a set of symmetry operations, like rotations or reflections, that leave a central point fixed while moving other directions and faces of the crystal to the positions of features of the same kind.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
In Raman spectroscopy, the depolarization ratio is the intensity ratio between the perpendicular component and the parallel component of Raman scattered light.
Distributed temperature sensing systems (DTS) are optoelectronic devices which measure temperatures by means of optical fibres functioning as linear sensors.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales (approximately 10−15 seconds or one femtosecond, hence the name) in order to study the very act of atoms within molecules (reactants) rearranging themselves to form new molecules (products).
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fourier-transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using time-domain or space-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation.
Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.
George Placzek (native name: Georg Placzek) (September 26, 1905 – October 9, 1955) was a Czech physicist.
Gilead Sciences, Inc., commonly known as Gilead Sciences or Gilead (also styled GILEAD), is an American biopharmaceutical company that researches, develops and commercializes drugs.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Grigory Samuilovich Landsberg (Russian: Григорий Самуилович Ландсберг; 22 January 1890 – 2 February 1957) was a Soviet physicist who worked in the fields of optics and spectroscopy.
A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon inside of a small electrical discharge.
A holographic grating is a type of diffraction grating formed by an interference-fringe field of two laser beams whose standing-wave pattern is exposed to a polished substrate coated with photoresist.
Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.
The Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on electroanalytical chemistry, published by Elsevier twice per month.
Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, FRS, (4 December 1898 – 14 June 1961) was an Indian physicist.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam or Mandelshtam (Belarusian: Леанід Ісаакавіч Мандэльштам, a; 4 May 1879 – 27 November 1944) was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian-Jewish background.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
Low-frequency collective motion in proteins and DNA refers to the application of statistical thermodynamics to understand low-frequency vibrations in biomolecules.
A magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electrons' spin structure in a crystal lattice.
Martin Fleischmann FRS (29 March 1927 – 3 August 2012) was a British chemist noted for his work in electrochemistry.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
Molybdenum disulfide is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur.
A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
An optical flat is an optical-grade piece of glass lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or both sides, usually within a few tens of nanometres (billionths of a meter).
Optical tweezers (originally called "single-beam gradient force trap") are scientific instruments that use a highly focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force (typically on the order of piconewtons), depending on the relative refractive index between particle and surrounding medium, to physically hold and move microscopic objects similar to tweezers.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physics, a plasmon is a quantum of plasma oscillation.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Polarization scrambling is the process of rapidly varying the polarization of light within a system using a polarization controller so that the average polarization over time is effectively randomized.
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record with as little changes to the original record as possible.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.
The Raman microscope is a laser-based microscopic device used to perform Raman spectroscopy.
Raman optical activity (ROA) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is reliant on the difference in intensity of Raman scattered right and left circularly polarised light due to molecular chirality.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RR spectroscopy) is a Raman spectroscopy technique in which the incident photon energy is close in energy to an electronic transition of a compound or material under examination.
Rotational–vibrational coupling occurs when the rotation frequency of an object is close to or identical to a natural internal vibration frequency.
In molecular spectroscopy, the rule of mutual exclusion states that no normal modes can be both Infrared and Raman active in a molecule that possesses a centre of symmetry.
Sérgio Pereira da Silva Porto (Niteroi, 19 January 1926 – Novosibirsk conference, 21 June 1979) was a Brazilian physicist.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Second harmonic generation (also called frequency doubling or SHG) is a nonlinear optical process in which two photons with the same frequency interact with a nonlinear material, are "combined", and generate a new photon with twice the energy of the initial photons (equivalently, twice the frequency and half the wavelength).
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is a variant of Raman spectroscopy that allows highly accurate chemical analysis of objects beneath obscuring surfaces, such as tissue, coatings and bottles.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
Stimulated Raman spectroscopy, also referred to as stimulated raman scattering (SRS) is a form of spectroscopy employed in physics, chemistry, biology, and other fields.
Stokes shift is the difference (in wavelength or frequency units) between positions of the band maxima of the absorption and emission spectra (fluorescence and Raman being two examples) of the same electronic transition.
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are infrared or visible-frequency electromagnetic waves that travel along a metal–dielectric or metal–air interface.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures such as plasmonic-magnetic silica nanotubes.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a specialist approach to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which enhancement of Raman scattering occurs only at the point of a near atomically sharp pin, typically coated with gold.
Transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS) is a variant of Raman spectroscopy beneficial in probing bulk content of diffusely scattering samples.
TU Wien (Technische Universität Wien; formerly: k.k. Polytechnisches Institut, Imperial and Royal Polytechnic Institute from 1815–1872; Technische Hochschule (TH Wien), College of Technology from 1872–1975; Vienna University of Technology from 1975–2014) is one of the major universities in Vienna, the capital of Austria.
Tungsten diselenide is an inorganic compound with the formula WSe2.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In quantum physics, a virtual state is a very short-lived, unobservable quantum state.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Raman frequency, Raman microscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, Raman spectrometer, Raman spectroscope, Raman spectrum, Raman studies, Raman transition, Raman transitions, Roman Spectroscopy, Spontaneous Raman Effect, Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy, Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, Surface plasmon polaritons enhanced Raman scattering.