103 relations: Access time, Address decoder, BIOS, Bit, Bottleneck (engineering), Cache (computing), Calculator, Carbon nanotube, CAS latency, Cathode ray tube, CD-ROM, CD-RW, Central processing unit, Chip creep, Computer data storage, Computer memory, Core rope memory, CPU cache, Crocus Technology, Data, Data storage, Delay line memory, DIMM, Diode matrix, Drum memory, DVD recordable, DVD-RAM, Dynamic random-access memory, ECC memory, EEPROM, Electronic circuit, Embedded system, Field-effect transistor, Flash memory, Flip-flop (electronics), Gibibyte, Hard disk drive, Hybrid Memory Cube, IBM, Infineon Technologies, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 1103, Interleaved memory, Kibibyte, Leakage (electronics), Lifehacker, Low-power electronics, Machine code, Magnetic tape data storage, ..., Magnetic-core memory, Magnetoresistive random-access memory, Manchester Baby, Mebibyte, Mechanical counter, Memory cell (computing), Memory geometry, Memory rank, Motherboard, Multi-channel memory architecture, Multiplexer, Multiplexing, Nano-RAM, Non-volatile memory, Non-volatile random-access memory, Operating system, Paging, Parity bit, Persistence (computer science), Personal computer, Processor register, Rainer Waser, RAM drive, RAM parity, Random access, RC circuit, Read-only memory, Reading (computer), Registered memory, Relay, Robert H. Dennard, Science Museum, London, Server (computing), Server farm, SK Hynix, Solid-state drive, Spin-transfer torque, Static random-access memory, Testbed, Thermal-assisted switching, Thrashing (computer science), Three-dimensional integrated circuit, Toshiba, Transistor, Triode, Tunnel magnetoresistance, USB, Vacuum tube, Victoria University of Manchester, Virtual memory, Volatile memory, Williams tube, Workstation. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Access time is the time delay or latency between a request to an electronic system, and the access being completed or the requested data returned.
In digital electronics, an address decoder is a binary decoder that has two or more inputs for address bits and one or more outputs for device selection signals.
BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In engineering, a bottleneck is a phenomenon by which the performance or capacity of an entire system is severely limited by a single component.
In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Column Access Strobe (CAS) latency, or CL, is the delay time between the moment a memory controller tells the memory module to access a particular memory column on a RAM module, and the moment the data from the given array location is available on the module's output pins.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.
CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a digital optical disc storage format.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Chip creep refers to the problem of an integrated circuit (chip) working its way out of its socket over time.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Core rope memory is a form of read-only memory (ROM) for computers, first used in the 1960s by early NASA Mars space probes and then in the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) designed and programmed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Instrumentation Lab and built by Raytheon.
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
Crocus Technology, founded in 2006, is a venture-capital-backed semiconductor startup company developing magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) technology.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.
A DIMM or dual in-line memory module comprises a series of dynamic random-access memory integrated circuits.
A diode matrix is a two-dimensional grid of wires: each "intersection" wherein one row crosses over another has either a diode connecting them, or the wires are isolated from each other.
Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.
DVD recordable and DVD rewritable refer to part of optical disc recording technologies.
DVD-RAM (DVD Random Access Memory) is a disc specification presented in 1996 by the DVD Forum, which specifies rewritable DVD-RAM media and the appropriate DVD writers.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.
Error-correcting code memory (ECC memory) is a type of computer data storage that can detect and correct the most common kinds of internal data corruption.
EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.
The gibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) is a high-performance RAM interface for through-silicon vias (TSV)-based stacked DRAM memory competing with the incompatible rival interface High Bandwidth Memory (HBM).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Infineon Technologies AG is a German semiconductor manufacturer founded on 1 April 1999, when the semiconductor operations of the parent company Siemens AG were spun off to form a separate legal entity.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The 1103 is a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) integrated circuit (IC) developed and fabricated by Intel.
In computing, interleaved memory is a design made to compensate for the relatively slow speed of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) or core memory, by spreading memory addresses evenly across memory banks.
The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
In electronics, leakage may refer to a gradual loss of energy from a charged capacitor.
Lifehacker is a weblog about life hacks and software which launched on January 31, 2005.
Low-power electronics are electronics, such as notebook processors, that have been designed to use less electric power.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile random-access memory technology available today that began its development in mid-1980s.
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
File:Teller (3).jpg|Mechanical counter wheels showing both sides.
The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory.
In the design of modern computers, memory geometry describes the internal structure of random-access memory.
A memory rank is a set of DRAM chips connected to the same chip select, which are therefore accessed simultaneously.
A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.
In the fields of digital electronics and computer hardware, multi-channel memory architecture is a technology that increases the data transfer rate between the DRAM memory and the memory controller by adding more channels of communication between them.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Nano-RAM is a proprietary computer memory technology from the company Nantero.
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.
Non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is random-access memory that retains its information when power is turned off.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd.
In computer science, persistence refers to the characteristic of state that outlives the process that created it.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Rainer Waser (born September 16, 1955, in Frankfurt) is a German professor of Electrical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University (Aachen).
A RAM drive (also called a RAM disk) is a block of random-access memory (primary storage or volatile memory) that a computer's software is treating as if the memory were a disk drive (secondary storage).
RAM parity checking is the storing of a redundant parity bit representing the parity (odd or even) of a small amount of computer data (typically one byte) stored in random access memory, and the subsequent comparison of the stored and the computed parity to detect whether a data error has occurred.
In computer science, random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set.
A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
Reading is an action performed by computers, to acquire data from a source and place it into their volatile memory for processing.
Registered (also called buffered) memory modules have a register between the DRAM modules and the system's memory controller.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Robert Dennard (born September 5, 1932) is an American electrical engineer and inventor.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
A server farm or server cluster is a collection of computer servers – usually maintained by an organization to supply server functionality far beyond the capability of a single machine.
SK Hynix Inc. is a South Korean memory semiconductor supplier of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips and flash memory chips.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.
Spin-transfer torque is an effect in which the orientation of a magnetic layer in a magnetic tunnel junction or spin valve can be modified using a spin-polarized current.
Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.
A testbed (also spelled test bed) is a platform for conducting rigorous, transparent, and replicable testing of scientific theories, computational tools, and new technologies.
Thermal-assisted switching, or TAS, is one of the new second-generation approaches to magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) currently being developed.
In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory resources become saturated, leading to a constant state of paging (rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk), to the exclusion of most application-level processing.
In microelectronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) is an integrated circuit manufactured by stacking silicon wafers or dies and interconnecting them vertically using, for instance, through-silicon vias (TSVs) or Cu-Cu connections, so that they behave as a single device to achieve performance improvements at reduced power and smaller footprint than conventional two dimensional processes.
, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).
Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is a magnetoresistive effect that occurs in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which is a component consisting of two ferromagnets separated by a thin insulator.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
The former Victoria University of Manchester, now the University of Manchester, was founded in 1851 as Owens College.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.
The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams (26 June 1911 – 11 August 1977), and Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001), is an early form of computer memory.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
Computer RAM memory, Memory wall, R.A.M., RAM, RAM (memory), RAM chip, Random Access Memory, Random access memory, Random-Access Memory, Shadow RAM, Shadow Random Access Memory, Shadow ram, Shadow random access memory, Single sided RAM, Single sided random access memory, Single-sided RAM, Single-sided random access memory.