288 relations: A Natural History of Rape, Abrasion (medical), Abuse of power, Abusive power and control, Acquaintance rape, Actus reus, Against Our Will, Age of consent, Albrecht Dürer, American Psychological Association, Amnesty International, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Anger, Animal bite, Anus, Arrow Cross Party, Artemisia Gentileschi, Augustus, Azerbaijan, Basil of Caesarea, Battle of Monte Cassino, Benzodiazepine, Bias, Biblical law, Birth control, Blackmail, Body fluid, Botswana, Bride price, Bruise, Buggery, Buggery Act 1533, Byzantine Empire, Campus sexual assault, Capital punishment, Caregiver, Causes of sexual violence, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cervix, Chain of custody, Chastity, Child grooming, Child sexual abuse, Chlamydia infection, Chronic pain, Clinical psychology, Code of Hammurabi, Coercion, ..., Coitus interruptus, Colonialism, Colposcopy, Comfort women, Common law, Complete blood count, Complications of pregnancy, Consecrated virgin, Consent, Constantine the Great, Council of Trent, Counsel, Courtship disorder, Creatinine, Crimes against humanity, Criminal charge, Criminal transmission of HIV, Daphne Hampson, Date rape, David Lisak, Debris, Dentistry, Depression (mood), Der Spiegel, Destruction under the Mongol Empire, Doctor of Law, Domestic violence, Droit du seigneur, Drug-facilitated sexual assault, Durangaldea, Eating disorder, Ejaculation, Elopement, Emergency contraception, Emergency department, Empire of Japan, Emtricitabine, Enkarterri, Eurasia, Europa (mythology), Evidence, Extradition, Factors associated with being a victim of sexual violence, False accusation, Family Relations (journal), Fatigue, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fiber, Fight-or-flight response, First Mongol invasion of Hungary, Flirting, Forced marriage, Forensic science, Fraternity, Frenulum of labia minora, Gang rape, Gender, Gender role, Generalized anxiety disorder, Genocide, Geoffrey Chaucer, Global Forum for Health Research, Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B vaccine, History of ancient Israel and Judah, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Honor killing, Human Rights Watch, Hypermasculinity, Hypoesthesia, Idaho, Immunization, Incest, Infertility, Informed consent, Ingenui, Injury, Intellectual disability, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, IRIN, Just-world hypothesis, Justinian I, Krisztián Ungváry, Lamivudine, Late antiquity, Latin, Legislation.gov.uk, Lex Scantinia, List of anti-sexual assault organizations in the United States, List of causes of genital pain, List of counseling topics, Lithuania, Liver function tests, Lopinavir, Lucretia, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Major trauma, Marital rape, Marocchinate, Masturbation, Median, Menopause, Merriam-Webster, Microbiological culture, Middle English, Minority group, Miscarriage, Mongol Empire, Mongols, Moroccan Goumier, Nanking Massacre, National Institute of Justice, Navi Pillay, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Nun, Obligation, Oral sex, Overthrow of the Roman monarchy, Papua New Guinea, Past & Present (journal), Pelvic examination, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Perineum, Persian Empire, Pharynx, Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Power (social and political), Preadolescence, Pregnancy from rape, Prison rape, Provocation (legal), Psychological trauma, Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Psychomotor agitation, PsycINFO, Purdue University, Quintilian, Rachel Jewkes, Rape, Rape by gender, Rape culture, Rape during the liberation of France, Rape kit, Rape myth, Rape of males, Rectal pain, Rectum, Rembrandt, Reproductive system disease, Review of General Psychology, Rhodes University, Ritonavir, Roger of Torre Maggiore, Roman Kingdom, Roman law, Roman Republic, Routledge, SAGE Publications, Saliva, Scar, Self-harm, Semen, Serfdom, Serial rapist, Sex worker, Sexual assault, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual intercourse, Sexual orientation, Sexual penetration, Sexual sadism disorder, Sexual slavery, Sexual violence, Sexual violence by intimate partners, Sexualization, Media, and Society, Sexually transmitted infection, Siege of Budapest, Sociobiological theories of rape, Sodomy, Sodomy law, Somatic symptom disorder, Special Victims Unit, Specific phobia, Stab wound, Startle response, Statutory rape, Suicide, Swelling (medical), Tarquin and Lucretia, Tenofovir disoproxil, Tension headache, Tetanus, Thailand, The Daily Telegraph, The New York Times, The Rape of Lucrece, The Rape of the Lock, The Rape of the Sabine Women, The Story of Lucretia (Botticelli), The Washington Post, Therapy, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Heywood, Timeline of the Mongol Empire, Tissue (biology), Titian, Tomography, Transmission (medicine), Treason, Trichomoniasis, Unintended pregnancy, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, University of Massachusetts Boston, University of Missouri, Unsafe abortion, Vagina, Vaginal discharge, Vaginitis, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, Vicarious traumatization, Victims' rights, Violence, Violence & Victims, Violence Against Women (journal), Virginity, War crime, Wartime sexual violence, Western world, Women Against Rape, World Health Organization, World War II, Wound, X-ray, Zidovudine. Expand index (238 more) » « Shrink index
A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion is a 2000 book by the biologist Randy Thornhill and the anthropologist Craig T. Palmer, in which the authors argue that rape should be understood through evolutionary psychology, and criticize the idea, popularized by the feminist author Susan Brownmiller in Against Our Will (1975), that it is an expression of male domination that is not sexually motivated.
An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis.
Abuse of power, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct," is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties.
Abusive power and control (also controlling behavior, coercive control and sharp power) is the way that an abusive person gains and maintains power and control over another person, as a victim, in order to subject that person to psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse.
Acquaintance rape is rape that is perpetrated by a person who is known to the victim.
Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.
Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape is a 1975 book about rape by Susan Brownmiller, in which the author argues that rape is "a conscious process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a state of fear." Brownmiller's book is widely credited with changing public outlooks and attitudes about rape.
The age of consent is the age below which a minor is considered to be legally incompetent to consent to sexual acts.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
An animal bite is a wound, usually a puncture or laceration, caused by the teeth.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a Nazi party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity.
Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593c. 1656) was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Biblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible, the holy scriptures of Judaism and Christianity.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
The British English term buggery is very close in meaning to the term sodomy, often used interchangeably in law and popular speech.
The Buggery Act 1533, formally An Acte for the punishment of the vice of Buggerie (25 Hen. 8 c. 6), was an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed during the reign of Henry VIII.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Campus sexual assault is defined as the sexual assault of a student attending an institution of higher learning, such as a college or university.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.
Causes of sexual violence are debated and explanations of the cause include military conquest, socioeconomics, anger, power, sadism, sexual pleasure, psychopathy, ethical standards, laws, attitudes toward the victims and evolutionary pressures.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chain of custody (CoC), in legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail that records the sequence of custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.
Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.
Child grooming is befriending and establishing an emotional connection with a child, and sometimes the family, to lower the child's inhibitions with the objective of sexual abuse.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Coitus interruptus, also known as the rejected sexual intercourse, withdrawal or pull-out method, is a method of birth control in which a man, during sexual intercourse, withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina prior to orgasm (and ejaculation) and then directs his ejaculate (semen) away from the vagina in an effort to avoid insemination.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colposcopy (hollow, womb, vagina + skopos "look at") is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are caused by pregnancy.
In the Catholic Church, a consecrated virgin is a woman who has been consecrated by the church to a life of perpetual virginity in the service of God.
In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
A counsel or a counsellor at law is a person who gives advice and deals with various issues, particularly in legal matters.
Courtship disorder is a theoretical construct in sexology in which a certain set of paraphilias are seen as specific instances of anomalous courtship instincts in men.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A criminal charge is a formal accusation made by a governmental authority (usually the public prosecutor or the police) asserting that somebody has committed a crime.
Criminal transmission of HIV is the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Margaret Daphne Hampson (born 1944) is a British theologian.
Date rape is a form of acquaintance rape.
David Lisak is an American clinical psychologist.
Debris or débris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The death and destruction during the 13th century Mongol conquests have been widely noted in both the scholarly literature and popular memory.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Droit du seigneur ('lord's right'), also known as jus primae noctis ('right of the first night'), refers to a supposed legal right in medieval Europe, and elsewhere, allowing feudal lords to have sexual relations with subordinate women (the "wedding night" detail is specific to some variants).
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a sexual assault (rape or otherwise) carried out on a person after the person has become incapacitated due to being under the influence of any mind-altering substances, such as having consumed alcohol or been intentionally administered another date rape drug.
Durangaldea (Spanish: Duranguesado) is a comarca of Biscay located in the Basque Country, Spain.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
To elope, most literally, means to run away and to not come back to the point of origin.
Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, are birth control measures that may be used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Emtricitabine (commonly called FTC, systematic name 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine), with trade name Emtriva (formerly Coviracil), is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection in adults and children.
Enkarterri (Spanish: Las Encartaciones) is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
In Greek mythology, Europa (Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) was the mother of King Minos of Crete, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe was named.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Extradition is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction.
One of the most common forms of sexual violence around the world is that which is perpetrated by an intimate partner, leading to the conclusion that one of the most important risk factors for people in terms of their vulnerability to sexual assault is being married or cohabiting with a partner.
False accusations (or groundless accusations or unfounded accusations or false allegations or false claims) can be in any of the following contexts.
Family Relations is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the National Council on Family Relations.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
The first Mongol invasion of Hungary started in March 1241 and started to withdraw in late March 1242.
Flirting or coquetry is a social and sexual behavior involving verbal or written communication, as well as body language, by one person to another, either to suggest interest in a deeper relationship with the other person, or if done playfully, for amusement.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
A fraternity (from Latin frater: "brother"; "brotherhood"), fraternal order or fraternal organization is an organization, a society or a club of men associated together for various religious or secular aims.
The frenulum of labia minora (fourchette or posterior commissure of the labia minora) is a frenulum where the labia minora meet posteriorly.
Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
The Global Forum for Health Research is an international foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland established in 1997 to increase the amount of research into global health issues.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hypermasculinity is a psychological term for the exaggeration of male stereotypical behavior, such as an emphasis on physical strength, aggression, and sexuality.
Hypoesthesia (also spelled as hypesthesia) is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Ingenui or ingenuitas (singular ingenuus), was a legal term of ancient Rome indicating those freemen who were born free, as distinct from, for example, freedmen, who were freemen who had once been slaves.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The just-world hypothesis or just-world fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions are inherently inclined to bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, to the end of all noble actions being eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Krisztián Ungváry (born 30 October 1969) is a Hungarian historian of 20th century political and military history.
Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legislation.gov.uk, formerly the UK Statute Law Database, is the official web-accessible database of the statute law of the United Kingdom, hosted by The National Archives.
The Lex Scantinia (less often Scatinia) is a poorly documented ancient Roman law that penalized a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor (ingenuus or praetextatus).
The following is a list of anti-sexual assault organizations in the United States.
Genital pain and pelvic pain can arise from a variety of conditions, crimes, trauma, medical treatments, physical diseases, mental illness and infections.
Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Lopinavir (ABT-378) is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class.
According to Roman tradition, Lucretia or Lucrece (Lucretia; died) was a noblewoman in ancient Rome whose rape by Sextus Tarquinius (Tarquin), an Etruscan king's son, was the cause of a rebellion that overthrew the Roman monarchy and led to the transition of Roman government from a kingdom to a republic.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.
Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent.
Marocchinate (Italian for "Moroccans’ deeds") is a term applied to the mass rape and killings committed during World War II after the Battle of Monte Cassino in Italy.
Masturbation is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Moroccan Goumiers (Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral.
Oral sex, sometimes referred to as oral intercourse, is sexual activity involving the stimulation of the genitalia of a person by another person using the mouth (including the lips, tongue or teeth) or throat.
The overthrow of the Roman monarchy, a political revolution in ancient Rome, took place around 509 BC and resulted in the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Past & Present is a British historical academic journal, which was a leading force in the development of social history.
A pelvic examination is the physical examination of the external and internal female pelvic organs.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
After a sexual assault or rape, victims are often subjected to scrutiny and, in some cases, mistreatment.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.
Pregnancy is a potential result of rape.
Prison rape or jail rape is rape occurring in prison.
Provocation is a set of events that might be adequate to cause a reasonable person to lose self control, whereby a criminal act is less morally culpable than a premeditated act done out of pure malice (malice aforethought).
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Psychology of Men and Masculinity is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association on behalf of Division 51.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
PsycINFO is a database of abstracts of literature in the field of psychology.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
Rachel Jewkes is Unit Director of the Gender and Health Unit of the Medical Research Council, based in Pretoria, South Africa, and a member of the National Council Against Gender-Based Violence in South Africa.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rape by gender classifies types of rape by the sex or gender of both the rapist and the victim.
Rape culture is a sociological concept for a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality.
Rape during the liberation of France is documented both during and after the advance of United States forces across France against Nazi Germany in later stages of World War II.
A rape kit—also known as a sexual assault kit (SAK), a sexual assault forensic evidence (SAFE) kit, a sexual assault evidence collection kit (SAECK), a sexual offense evidence collection (SOEC) kit, or a physical evidence recovery kit (PERK).
Rape myths are prejudicial, stereotyped and false beliefs about sexual assaults, rapists, and rape victims.
A significant proportion of victims of rape or other sexual violence incidents are male.
Rectal pain is the symptom of pain in the area of the rectum.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
A reproductive system disease is any disease of the reproductive system.
Review of General Psychology is the quarterly scientific journal of the American Psychological Association Division 1: The Society for General Psychology.
Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Roger of Torre Maggiore or Master Roger (Rogerius mester; 1205 in Torre Maggiore – April 14, 1266 in Split) was an Italian prelate active in the Kingdom of Hungary in the middle of the 13th century.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
A serial rapist is a rapist who rapes more than one person over a period of time.
A sex worker is a person who is employed in the sex industry.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sexual penetration is the insertion of a body part or other object into a body orifice, such as the vagina, anus or mouth, as part of human sexual activity or animal sexual behavior.
Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim.
Sexual violence by intimate partners deals with the incidence by country of physical abuse, forced sex, or marital rape within the context of domestic violence.
Sexualization, Media, and Society (SMS) is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary open-access academic journal, published by Sage, to provide a resource for diverse scholars and activists interested in critically examining the phenomenon of sexualized media as it affects individuals, relationships, communities, and societies.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
The Siege of Budapest or Battle of Budapest was the 50-day-long encirclement by Soviet forces of the Hungarian capital of Budapest, near the end of World War II.
Sociobiological theories of rape explore how evolutionary adaptation influences the psychology of rapists.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
The Special Victims Unit (SVU) is the name of a specialized division within some police departments.
A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.
A stab wound is a specific form of penetrating trauma to the skin that results from a knife or a similar pointed object that is "deeper than it is wide".
In animals, including humans, the startle response is a largely unconscious defensive response to sudden or threatening stimuli, such as sudden noise or sharp movement, and is associated with negative affect.
In some common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is nonforcible sexual activity in which one of the individuals is below the age of consent (the age required to legally consent to the behavior).
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
Tarquin and Lucretia is an oil painting by Titian completed in 1571, when the artist was in his eighties, for Philip II of Spain.
Tenofovir disoproxil, sold under the trade name Viread among others, is a medication used to treat chronic hepatitis B and to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Rape of Lucrece (1594) is a narrative poem by William Shakespeare about the legendary Lucretia.
The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic narrative poem written by Alexander Pope.
The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region.
The Tragedy of Lucretia is a tempera and oil painting on a wood cassone or spalliera panel by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, painted between 1496 and 1504.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Heywood (early 1570s – 16 August 1641) was an English playwright, actor, and author.
This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from the birth of Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, to the end of the Yuan dynasty in 1368, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the rulers of the Northern Yuan dynasty, a far less powerful successor entity, until 1634.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The University of Massachusetts Boston, also known as UMass Boston, is an urban public research university and the third-largest campus in the five-campus University of Massachusetts system.
The University of Missouri (also, Mizzou, or MU) is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri.
An unsafe abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by people lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards, or both.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal discharge is a mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricates and protects the vagina.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for syphilis that was developed by the eponymous lab.
Vicarious traumatization (VT) is a transformation in the self of a trauma worker or helper that results from empathic engagement with traumatized clients and their reports of traumatic experiences.
Victims' rights are legal rights afforded to victims of crime.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Violence and Victims is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering theory, research, policy, and clinical practice in the area of interpersonal violence and victimization, touching diverse disciplines such as psychology, sociology, criminology, law, medicine, nursing, psychiatry, and social work.
Violence Against Women is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of women's studies.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Women Against Rape (WAR) is a British organisation founded in 1976.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Anal rape, Ass rape, Ass-rape, Ass-raped, Assrape, Assraped, Attempt to commit rape, Attempted rape, Blitz rape, Butt rape, Coersive sex, Forced sex, Forced unlawful carnal knowledge, Forcible rape, Non-consensual sex, Nonconsensual sex, Oral rape, R@pe, RAPE, Rape by fear, Rape by force, Rape by force, fear or threats, Rape by threat, Rape by threats, Rape on College Campuses, Rape on college campuses, Raped, Rapes, Raping, Rapist, Rapists, Ravishment, Sex without consent, Sleep rape, To rape and in pregnate, Unwanted sex, Violent sexuality.