140 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Activation-synthesis hypothesis, Allan Hobson, Amniote, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anagram, Antidepressant, Apparent death, Aqueous humour, Atony, Binocular vision, Bird, Birendra Nath Mallick, Blood pressure, Brain connectivity estimators, Brainstem, Carbachol, Cardiac output, Cataplexy, Central bearded dragon, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cholinergic, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Clitoris, Cocaine, Corticocortical coherence, Creativity, David M. Maurice, Delta wave, Development of the nervous system in humans, Diurnality, Dog, Dream, Electroencephalography, Elsevier, Emotion, Emotion and memory, Episodic memory, Erection, Eugene Aserinsky, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Explicit memory, Eye, Eye movement, Fetus, Focus (optics), ..., Foraging, Forebrain, Francis Crick, Gamma wave, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Heart rate, Hippocampus, Histamine, Homeostasis, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypnagogia, Infant, Insular cortex, Intraparietal sulcus, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Limbic system, Locus coeruleus, Lotka–Volterra equations, Lucid dream, Major depressive disorder, Mammal, Medial frontal gyrus, Medical Hypotheses, Medulla oblongata, Membrane potential, Memory, Methylphenidate, Michel Jouvet, Mind, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Motor neuron, Muscle tone, Narcolepsy, Narrative, Nathaniel Kleitman, Neocortex, Neural circuit, Neural oscillation, Neuromodulation, Neuroscience of sleep, Neurosurgery, Neurotransmitter, Nocturnal clitoral tumescence, Nocturnal penile tumescence, Nocturnality, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Norepinephrine, Orexin, Paralimbic cortex, Pedunculopontine nucleus, Penis, PGO waves, Polysomnography, Pons, Pontine tegmentum, Positron emission tomography, Priming (psychology), Procedural memory, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, REM rebound, Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory rate, Reticular formation, Reverse learning, Robert McCarley, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensory deprivation, Serotonin, Shivering, Sleep, Sleep and learning, Sleep cycle, Sleep paralysis, Sleepwalking, Slow-wave sleep, Spatial memory, Superior frontal gyrus, Superior parietal lobule, Tachypnea, Thermal neutral zone, Thermoregulation, Theta wave, Tricyclic antidepressant, University of Chicago, Visual cortex, Visual impairment, Volumetric heat capacity, William C. Dement. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The activation-synthesis hypothesis, proposed by Harvard University psychiatrists John Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley, is a neurobiological theory of dreams first published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in December 1977.
John Allan Hobson (born June 3, 1933) is an American psychiatrist and dream researcher.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Apparent death, colloquially known as playing dead, feigning death, or playing possum, is a behavior in which animals take on the appearance of being dead.
The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.
In medicine, atony (also atonia) is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Birendra Nath Mallick (born 1 August 1956) is an Indian neurobiologist and a professor of neurobiology at the School of Life Sciences of Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Brain connectivity estimators represent patterns of links in the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Carbachol (Carbastat, Carboptic, Isopto Carbachol, Miostat), also known as carbamylcholine, is a cholinomimetic drug that binds and activates acetylcholine receptors.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.
Pogona vitticeps, the central (or inland) bearded dragon, is a species of agamid lizard occurring in a wide range of arid to semiarid regions of Australia.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Corticocortical Coherence is referred to the synchrony in the neural activity of different cortical brain areas.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
David M. Maurice (3 April 1922 in London – 20 July 2002 in Manhattan) was a British ophthalmologist, noted for his contributions to the development of the specular microscope used for examination of the cornea.
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
The study of neural development in humans draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Eugene Aserinsky (May 6, 1921 – July 22, 1998), a pioneer in sleep research, was a graduate student at the University of Chicago in 1953 when he discovered REM sleep.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
Foraging is searching for wild food resources.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Hypnagogia, also referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is located on the lateral surface of the parietal lobe, and consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the predator–prey equations, are a pair of first-order nonlinear differential equations, frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two species interact, one as a predator and the other as prey.
A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The superior frontal gyrus is situated above the superior frontal sulcus and is continued on to the medial surface of the hemisphere, the medial frontal gyrus.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Michel Valentin Marcel Jouvet (16 November 1925 – 3 October 2017) was a Professor of Experimental Medicine at the University of Lyon.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Nathaniel Kleitman (April 26, 1895 Kishinev – August 13, 1999 Los Angeles) was a physiologist and sleep researcher who served as Professor Emeritus in Physiology at the University of Chicago.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nocturnal clitoral tumescence (NCT) is a spontaneous swelling of the clitoris during sleep or when waking up.
Nocturnal penile tumescence (abbreviated as NPT) is a spontaneous erection of the penis during sleep or when waking up.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
The paralimbic cortex is an area of three-layered cortex that includes the following regions: the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex just above the corpus callosum.
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of neurons located in the upper pons in the brainstem.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Ponto-geniculo-occipital waves or PGO waves are phasic field potentials.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The pontine tegmentum, or dorsal pons, is located within the brainstem, and is one of two parts of the pons, the other being the ventral pons or basilar part of the pons.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.
REM rebound is the lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which occurs after periods of sleep deprivation.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
Reverse learning is a neurobiological theory of dreams.
Robert W. McCarley, MD, (1937–2017) was Chair and Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the VA Boston Healthcare System.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Multiple hypotheses explain the possible connections between sleep and learning in humans.
The sleep cycle is an oscillation between the slow-wave and REM (paradoxical) phases of sleep, sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep–dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness.
Sleep paralysis is when, during awakening or falling asleep, a person is aware but unable to move or speak.
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is that part of the memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation.
The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) makes up about one third of the frontal lobe of the human brain.
The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
A class of endothermic organisms known as homeotherms maintain internal temperatures, with minimal metabolic regulation, within a range of ambient temperatures called The thermal neutral zone (TNZ).
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
William Charles Dement (born July 29, 1928) is an American sleep researcher and founder of the Sleep Research Center at Stanford University.
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