211 relations: Abbasid architecture, Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806), Abdul-Salam Ojeili, Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, Al-Asharah, Al-Baladhuri, Al-Battani, Al-Mansur, Al-Nusra Front, Al-Qaeda, Alawites, Albania, Aleppo, Ali, Ambrose, Ammar ibn Yasir, Annales de Géographie, Antiochene Rite, Apostolic Administrator, Apostolic succession, Arabic, Arabs, Archbishop, Argentina, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian Genocide, Armenians, Artaxata, Ash Carter, Augustinians, Auxiliary bishop, Ayyubid dynasty, Babylon, Baghdad, Bashar al-Assad, Battle of Callinicum, Battle of Raqqa (2017), Battle of Raqqa (March 2013), Battle of Siffin, Benjamin of Tudela, Bohemia, Bolivia, Brazil, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591, Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Caliphate, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Catholic Church, Caucasian War, ..., Central Bureau of Statistics (Syria), Cestrus, Cherkess, Christian, City of Ghosts (2017 film), Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve, Congregation (Roman Curia), Cotton, Council of Chalcedon, Ctesiphon, Damascus, De facto, Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL, Diocese, Districts of Syria, Diyar Mudar, Dulaim, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Edessa, Egypt, Ernst Herzfeld, Euphrates, Exarch, Eyalet, First Fitna, Franciscans, Free Syrian Army, Germany, Governorates of Syria, Greater Khorasan, Hafez al-Assad, Hamdanid dynasty, Hanafi, Harun al-Rashid, Hellenistic period, Heraclea Cybistra, Homs, Hugh N. Kennedy, Iberian War, Idlib, Imad ad-Din Zengi, International military intervention against ISIL, Iraq, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, Iyad ibn Ghanm, Janissaries, Jihadism, Justinian I, Khalaf Ali Alkhalaf, Khosrow I, Kitab al-Aghani, Kurdish languages, Kurds, Kurds in Syria, Leo I the Thracian, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch, Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon of Los Angeles, Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn, Maronite Church, Maurice (emperor), Metropolis (religious jurisdiction), Michael the Syrian, Mongols, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Shaybani, Nahiyah, Notitiae Episcopatuum, November 2015 Paris attacks, Numayrid dynasty, Nusaybin, Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, Order of Saint Benedict, Osroene, Ottoman Empire, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Palmyra, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Premonstratensians, Priverno, Proterius of Alexandria, Qadi, Qal'at Ja'bar, Qarmatians, Qasr al-Banat, Raqqa campaign (2016–2017), Raqqa District, Raqqa Governorate, Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently, Raqqa Museum, Raqqa ware, Resafa, Rhesaina, Rio de Janeiro, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cochabamba, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Colombo, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paderborn, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tucumán, Roman Catholic Diocese of Catamarca, Roman Catholic Diocese of Gallipoli, Roman Catholic Diocese of Latina-Terracina-Sezze-Priverno, Roman Catholic Diocese of Sapë, Roman Catholic Diocese of Sezze, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Roman Empire, Roman province, Santa Prisca Church (Rome), Sasanian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator, Seleucus II Callinicus, Servite Order, Severus of Antioch, Sharia, SOAS, University of London, Sophie Kasiki, Sri Lanka, Stefan Heidemann, Suffragan bishop, Sylvestrines, Syria, Syriac Christianity, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syrian Arab News Agency, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Democratic Forces, Syrian opposition, Syrian Railways, Tabqa Dam, Tell (archaeology), Tell Zeidan, Territorial Abbey of Orosh, The Guardian, The New Yorker, Theodosius I, Time (magazine), Titular bishop, Titular see, Tulunids, Turkey, Turkish people, Tuttul, Umayyad Caliphate, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, University of Jena, Upper Mesopotamia, Urfa, Uwais al-Qarani, Uwais al-Qarni Mosque, Vali (governor), Yassin al-Haj Saleh, Zacchaeus, Zengid dynasty, 2017 Sundance Film Festival. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
Abbasid architecture developed in the Abbasid Caliphate between 750 and 945, primarily in its heartland of Mesopotamia.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor in 806 was the largest operation ever launched by the Abbasid Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire.
Abdul-Salam Ojeili (1918 - April 5, 2006) (عبد السلام العجيلي), or Abd al-Salam Ujayli, was a Syrian novelist and politician.
`Ali ibn al-Husayn ul-Iṣfahānī (أبو الفرج الأصفهاني), also known as Abu-l-Faraj or, in the West, as Abulfaraj (897–967 CE) was an historian of Arab-Quraysh origin who is noted for collecting and preserving ancient Arabic lyrics and poems in his major work, the Kitāb al-Aghānī.
Al-Asharah (العشارة, also spelled al-Ashareh or Esharah) is a town in eastern Syria, administratively part of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate, located along the Euphrates River, south of Deir ez-Zor.
ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Muslim historian.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
The Annales de Géographie is a French journal devoted to geography, first published in 1891.
Antiochene Rite or Antiochian Rite designates the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch.
An apostolic administrator in the Catholic Church is a prelate appointed by the Pope to serve as the ordinary for an apostolic administration.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.
Ashton Baldwin Carter (born September 24, 1954) is an American physicist and former Harvard University professor of Science and International Affairs who served as the 25th United States Secretary of Defense from February 2015 to January 2017.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
An auxiliary bishop is a bishop assigned to assist the diocesan bishop in meeting the pastoral and administrative needs of the diocese.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Battle of Callinicum took place on Easter Saturday, 19 April 531 AD, between the armies of the Byzantine Empire under Belisarius and a Sasanian cavalry force under Āzārethes.
The 2017 Battle of Raqqa was the fifth and final phase of the Raqqa campaign (2016–2017) launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State (ISIL) with an aim to seize the city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL since 2014.
The Battle of Raqqa (March 2013), code named by rebels as the "Raid of the Almighty", was a battle for control of the northern Syrian city of Raqqa during the Syrian Civil War between mainly Sunni Islamist rebel insurgents and the Syrian Army.
The Battle of Siffin (وقعة صفين; May–July 657 occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib who ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 was a war fought between the Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire, termed by modern historians as the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (المكتب المركزي للإحصاء) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in the Syrian Arab Republic.
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor.
Cherkess, or Cherkes (Черкесы Cherkesy; Чэркэс/Шэрджэс Čerkes/Šerdžes), is a term derived from the Russian-language name for the Circassians, a people of the North Caucasus.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
City of Ghosts is a 2017 American documentary film about the Syrian media activist group Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently, directed by Matthew Heineman.
Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh), and is composed of US military forces and personnel from over 30 countries.
The second highest-ranking departments of the Roman Curia (the central administration of the Catholic Church) are called congregations.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The 14 governorates of Syria, or muhafazat (sing. muhafazah), are divided into 65 districts, or manatiq (sing. mintaqah), including the city of Damascus.
Diyār Mudar ("abode of Mudar") is the medieval Arabic name of the westernmost of the three provinces of the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia), the other two being Diyar Bakr and Diyar Rabi'a.
Dulaim or Dulaimi or Al Duliam or Dulaym (الدليم) is an Arab royal tribe, with over seven million members.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Ernst Emil Herzfeld (23 July 1879 – 20 January 1948) was a German archaeologist and Iranologist.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Syria is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes, it is divided into fourteen governorates, also called provinces in English (Arabic muḥāfaẓāt, singular muḥāfaẓah).
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heraclea Cybistra (Hράκλεια Κύβιστρα; near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey), under the name Cybistra, had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hugh Nigel Kennedy, FRSE, FRAS, FBA (born 22 October 1947) is a British medieval historian and academic.
The Iberian War was fought from 526 to 532 between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia.
Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.
Imad ad-Din Zengi (عماد الدین زنكي; – 14 September 1146), also romanized as Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, and Zanki, was a Oghuz Turkish atabeg who ruled Mosul, Aleppo, Hama, and Edessa.
In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the first half of 2014, and its universally-condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against it in both the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
ʿIyāḍ ibn Ghanm ibn Zuhayr al-Fihrī (عياض بن غانم بن زهير الفهري) (d. 641) was an Arab general who played a leading role in the Muslim conquests of Upper Mesopotamia and northern Syria.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Khalaf Ali Alkhalaf (Arabic: خلف علي الخلف); born 10 November 1969 in Raqqa, is a Syrian poet and writer.
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.
Kitab al-Aghani (كتاب الأغاني, The Book of Songs), is an encyclopedic collection of poems and songs that runs to over 20 volumes in modern editions by the 10th-century Arabic litterateur Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (also known as al-Isbahani).
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.
Leo I (Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus; 401 – 18 January 474) was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch is the head of the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Our Lady of Lebanon (in Latin: Eparchia Dominae Nostrae Libanensis in civitate Angelorum in California Maronitarum), headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is an entity pertaining to the Apostolic Maronite Patriarchal Church of Antioch and includes the Maronite faithful in the western part of the United States.
Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn (in Latin: Eparchia Sancti Maronis Bruklyniensis Maronitarum) is an entity pertaining to the Apostolic Maronite Patriarchal Church of Antioch and is a diocese of the Maronite Church for the east coast of the United States, being headquartered in Brooklyn, New York.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province.
Michael the Syrian (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ; died 1199 AD), also known as Michael the Great (ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܪܒܐ) or Michael Syrus or Michael the Elder, to distinguish him from his nephew,William Wright, A short history of Syriac literature, p.250, n.3. was a patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 1166 to 1199. He is best known today as the author of the largest medieval Chronicle, which he composed in Syriac. Various other materials written in his own hand have survived.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī (محمد بن الحسن الشيباني; 749/50 – 805), the father of Muslim international law, was an Islamic jurist and a disciple of Abu Hanifa (later being the eponym of the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence), Malik ibn Anas and Abu Yusuf.
A nāḥiyah (ناحية, plural nawāḥī نواحي), or nahia, is a regional or local type of administrative division that usually consists of a number of villages and/or sometimes smaller towns.
The Notitiae Episcopatuum (singular: Notitia Episcopatuum) are official documents that furnish Eastern countries the list and hierarchical rank of the metropolitan and suffragan bishoprics of a church.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.
The Numayrids were an Arab dynasty based in Diyar Mudar (western Upper Mesopotamia).
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
The Congregation of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri is a pontifical society of apostolic life of Catholic priests and lay-brothers who live together in a community bound together by no formal vows but only with the bond of charity.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy (Pontificia Ecclesiastica Academia, Pontificia Accademia Ecclesiastica) is one of the Roman Colleges of the Catholic Church.
The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.
Priverno is a town, comune and former Latin Catholic bishopric in the province of Latina, Lazio, central Italy.
Hieromartyr Proterius of Alexandria (died 457) was Patriarch of Alexandria from 451 to 457.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Qal'at Ja'bar (قلعة جعبر, Caber Kalesi) is a castle on the left bank of Lake Assad in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Qasr al-Banat, Girls castle or Palace of the Ladies, are a set of brick ruins of a residence dating from 12th century in the Syrian city of Raqqa.
The Raqqa campaign (codenamed Operation Wrath of Euphrates) was a military operation launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Raqqa Governorate, with the goal of isolating and eventually capturing the Islamic State's capital city, Raqqa.
Raqqa District (Manṭiqat ar-Raqqah) is a district of the Raqqa Governorate in northern Syria.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently (RSS or RBSS) is a citizen journalist group reporting Syrian war news and human rights abuses by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and other forces occupying the northern Syrian city of Raqqa which ISIL used as its de facto capital.
The Museum of Raqqa, also known as the Ar-Raqqah Museum or Rakka Museum, is a museum in Raqqa, Syria founded in 1981 on the location of a former Palace.
Raqqa or Rakka ware is a style of ceramic pottery that was a mainstay of the economy of Raqqa in northeastern Syria during the Ayyubid dynasty.
Resafa (الرصافة), known in Byzantine times as Sergiopolis (which has namesakes) and briefly as Anastasiopolis, was a city located in the Roman province of Euphratensis, in modern-day Syria.
Rhesaina (Rhesaena) was a city in the late Roman province of Mesopotamia Secunda and a bishopric that was a suffragan of Dara Rhesaina (Rhesaena, Resaena – numerous variations of the name appear in ancient authors) was an important town at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia, near the sources of the Chaboras (now the Khabur River. It was on the way from Carrhae to Nicephorium, about eighty miles from Nisibis and forty from Dara. Nearby, Gordian III fought the Persians in 243, at the battle of Resaena. It is now Ra's al-'Ayn, Syria. Its coins show that it was a Roman colony from the time of Septimius Severus. The Notitia dignitatum (ed. Boecking, I, 400) represents it as under the jurisdiction of the governor or Dux of Osrhoene. Hierocles (Synecdemus, 714, 3) also locates it in this province but under the name of Theodosiopolis; it had in fact obtained the favour of Theodosius the Great and taken his name. It was fortified by Justinian. In 1393 it was nearly destroyed by Tamerlane's troops.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cochabamaba (Archidioecesis Cochabambensis) is an archdiocese located in the city of Cochabamba in Bolivia.
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Colombo (Archidioecesis Columbensis in Taprobane) is a Latin Metropolitan Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, whose ecclesiastical province covers all Sri Lanka plus the Maldives (which are within the archbishopric).
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples (Arcidiocesi di Napoli; Archidioecesis Neapolitana) is a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in southern Italy, the see being in Naples.
The Archdiocese of Paderborn is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany; its seat is Paderborn.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague (Praha) (Arcidiecéze pražská, Archidioecesis Pragensis) is a Metropolitan Catholic archdiocese of the Latin Rite in Bohemia, in the Czech Republic.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tucumán (Archidioecesis Tucumanensis) is in Argentina and is a metropolitan diocese.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Catamarca (Dioecesis Catamarcensis) is in Argentina and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Salta.
The Diocese of Gallipoli (Latin: Dioecesis Gallipolitanus) was a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in the province of Apulia in southern Italy.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Latina-Terracina-Sezze-Priverno (Dioecesis Latinensis-Terracinensis-Setina-Privernensis), in Lazio, has existed under this name since 1986.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Sapë (Dioecesis Sappensis, Dioqeza e Sapës) is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult of the Roman Catholic Church in northern Albania.
The Diocese of Sezze was a Latin Catholic bishopric with see in Sezze, in the Province of Latina, central Italy, about south of Rome and from the Mediterranean coast..
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Santa Prisca is a titular church of Rome, on the Aventine Hill, for Cardinal-priests.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Seleucus II Callinicus Pogon (Σέλευκος Β΄ ὁ Καλλίνικος ὁ Πώγων; Kallinikos means "gloriously triumphant"; Pogon means "the Beard"; 265–225 BCE), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC.
The Servite Order is one of the five original Catholic mendicant orders.
Saint Severus the Great of Antioch (Greek: Σεβῆρος; ܣܘܪܘܣ ܕܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ), also known as Severus of Gaza, was the Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church, from 512 until his death in 538.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Sophie Kasiki (born 1981 Kinshasa, Congo) is the pseudonym of the French-language author of the 2016 book Dans la nuit de Daech (Trans: "In the night of ISIS"), co-authored by Pauline Guéna.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stefan Heidemann (born 1961 in Versmold in Westphalia) is a German orientalist at Hamburg University, Hamburg.
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.
The Sylvestrines are a congregation of monks of the Order of St. Benedict who form the Sylvestrine Congregation.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) (الوكالة العربية السورية للأنباء) is a news agency in Syria.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
General Establishment of Syrian Railways (المؤسسة العامة للخطوط الحديدية, Chemins de fer syriens, CFS) is the national railway operator for the state of Syria, subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation.
The Tabqa Dam (سد الطبقة, Sadd al-Ṭabqa; Bendava Tebqa; Sekro d'Tabqa), or al-Thawra Dam as it is also named (سد الثورة, Sadd al-thawra, literally "Dam of the Revolution"), most commonly known as Euphrates Dam (سد الفرات, Sadd al-Furāt; Bendava Firatê; Sekro d'Frot), is an earthen dam on the Euphrates, located upstream from the city of Raqqa in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
Tell Zeidan is an archaeological site of the Ubaid culture in northern Syria, from about 5500 to 4000 BC.
The Abbey of Orosh (also known as Mirditë Abbey or St. Alexander Oroshi) was a territorial Benedictine abbey at Orosh in the region of Mirdita, Albania, was destroyed during the communist era and now rebuilt, dedicated to the martyr St. Alexander.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A titular bishop in various churches is a bishop who is not in charge of a diocese.
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Bronze Age town of Tuttul is identified with the archaeological site of Tell Bi'a in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (Riha); Ուռհա Uṙha in Armenian, and known in ancient times as Edessa, is a city with 561,465 inhabitants in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province.
Uwais ibn ʻAmir ibn Harb al-Qarni (أويس ابن أنيس القرني), was a Muslim from Yemen who lived during the lifetime of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Uwais al-Qarni Mosque (Arabic: مسجد أويس القرني) was a Shi'ite mosque in Raqqa, Syria, until it was destroyed by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant on May 31, 2014.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
Yassin al-Haj Saleh (born in Raqqa in 1961), Haus der Kulturen der Welt, 2008 is a Syrian writer and political dissident.
Zacchaeus, or Zaccheus (Ζακχαῖος,; זכי, "pure", "innocent"), was a chief tax-collector at Jericho, mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke.
The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire.
The 2017 Sundance Film Festival took place from January 19 to January 29, 2017.
Al Rakka, Al-Rafiqah, Al-Rakka, Al-Raqqa, Al-Raqqah, Alrakka, Alraqqa, Ar Raqqah, Ar raqqah, Ar-Rakka, Ar-Raqqa, Ar-Raqqah, Callincius, Callinicum dei Maroniti, Callinicum of the Maronites, Callinicum of the Romans, Ein, Syria, El Rashid, History of Al-Raqqah, History of al-Raqqah, Nicephorium, Nikephorion, Racca, Rakka, Rakkah, Raqa, Raqqa, Syria, Raqqah, Siffin.