315 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinide, Actinium, Aeolian processes, Al Jazeera, Allanite, Ancylite, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg, Arc lamp, Asthenosphere, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic battery, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Australia, Australian Securities Exchange, Baotou, Barriers to entry, Barron's (newspaper), Bastnäs, Bastnäsite, Bayan Obo Mining District, BBC, Beryllium, Bioaccumulation, Birth defect, Bloomberg L.P., Brazil, Bukit Merah, Perak, Cabinet department, California, Camera, Canada, Cancer, Carbonatite, Carl Axel Arrhenius, Carl Gustaf Mosander, CBC News, Ceramic capacitor, Ceres (dwarf planet), Ceres (mythology), Cerite, Cerium, Cerium(IV) oxide, Chemical element, China, China Daily, Chlorophyll, Chondrite, Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, ..., Clastic rock, Clay, Computer memory, Container ship, Control rod, Craton, Crust (geology), Crystallization, Decipium, Didymium, Dow Jones & Company, Drainage basin, Dysprosium, Earthquake, Economic sanctions, Ehime Prefecture, Eichhornia crassipes, Electronic waste, Elution, Erbium, Estonia, Eudialyte, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, Europe, European Union, Europium, Euxenite, Feldspar, Felsic, Fergusonite, Ferrocerium, Fissile material, Flare (countermeasure), Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluocerite, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorite, Forbes, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Fractional crystallization (geology), France, Frank Spedding, Fremantle, Fuel cell, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gadolinite, Gadolinium, Galfenol, Garnet, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Georges Urbain, Glass, Gold rush, Greenland, Group 3 element, Hafnium, Halls Creek, Western Australia, Hard disk drive, Heinrich Rose, Henry Moseley, High-temperature superconductivity, Hoidas Lake, Holmium, Hornblende, Hydrothermal vent, Igneous rock, Ilmenium, India, Inner Mongolia, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, J. Lawrence Smith, Japan Coast Guard, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Johan Gadolin, Kola Peninsula, KREEP, Kuantan, Kvanefjeld, La Rochelle, Lai Châu Province, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanite, Lanthanum, Laser, Laterite, Latin, LED lamp, Leukemia, Lherzolite, Liquid–liquid extraction, Loparite-(Ce), Luminous paint, Lutetia, Lutetium, Lutetium tantalate, Lynas, Magnet, Magnetostriction, Malaysia, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Marc Delafontaine, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Maser, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal-halide lamp, Metamorphic rock, Miass, Microwave, Minami-Tori-shima, Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings, Monazite, Mount Weld, Mountain Pass rare earth mine, Mountain Pass, California, MRI contrast agent, Naalakkersuisut, Nature Geoscience, Nebraska, Neodymium, Neodymium magnet, Nepheline syenite, Neptunium, Neutron capture, Ngualla, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nils Johan Berlin, Niobium, Nitric acid, North Korea, North Korea–United States relations, Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest Territories, Nuclear fission, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Oddo–Harkins rule, Oil refinery, Olivine, Optical fiber, Ore, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Paris, Parisite-(Ce), Partition coefficient, Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Pegmatite, Penny (United States coin), Perak, Periodic table, Phosphor, Placer deposit, Plutonium, Polymetal, Positron emission tomography, Praseodymium, Precipitation (chemistry), Prometheus, Promethium, Pyroxene, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth magnet, Rare-earth mineral, Recycling, Reducing agent, Refractive index, Relaxation (NMR), Respiratory disease, Rhodia (company), Riddarhyttan, Royal Academy of Turku, Royal Institution, Russia, S-process, Saint-Fons, Samarium, Samarskite-(Y), Scandinavia, Scandium, Science News, Sedimentary rock, Self-cleaning oven, Shale, Sillamäe, Soil contamination, Solubility, Sonar, South Africa, Spark plug, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopy, Spontaneous fission, Stainless steel, Steenkampskraal mine, Stillwellite-(Ce), Stockholm, Strain gauge, Subduction, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Tailings, Tantalum, Tanzania, Technetium, Terbium, Terfenol-D, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Malaysian Insider, The New York Times, Thor Lake, Thorium, Thule, Thulium, Titan (mythology), Transition metal, Treatment of cancer, Tungsten, United Nations, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, University of Tokyo, Ural Mountains, Uranium, Uranium ore, Uranium-238, Vanadium, Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Vietnam, Vitreous enamel, Waste, Welding goggles, Western Australia, Western Cape, Wilhelm Hisinger, William Crookes, World Trade Organization, World War I, X-ray crystallography, X-ray machine, X-ray tube, Xenotime, Ytterbium, Ytterby, Yttria-stabilized zirconia, Yttrialite, Yttrium, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Yttrium iron garnet, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zircon, Zirconium, 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident. 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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Allanite (also called orthite) is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare-earth elements.
Ancylite is a group of hydrous strontium carbonate minerals containing cerium, lanthanum and minor amounts of other rare-earth elements.
Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (Stockholm, Sweden, 16 January 1767 – Uppsala, Sweden, 11 February 1813) was a Swedish chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX, sometimes referred to outside Australia as the Sydney Stock Exchange) is Australia's primary securities exchange.
Baotou (ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ Buɣutu qota, Бугат хот) also known as Bugat hot is the second largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
Barron's is an American weekly newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company, a property of News Corp.
Bastnäs (Bastnäs or Bastnäsfältet) is an ore field near Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden.
The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.
Bayan'obo Mining District, (Mongolian: Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ, Баян-Овоо Уурхайн тойрог ("rich" + ovoo)), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
One of two towns in the Malaysian state of Perak.
A cabinet department or prime minister's department is a department or other government agency that directly supports the work of the government's central executive office, usually the cabinet and/or prime minister, rather than specific ministerial portfolios.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
Carl Axel Arrhenius (29 March 1757 – 20 November 1824) was a Swedish chemist.
Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Cerite is a complex silicate mineral group containing cerium, formula (Ce,La,Ca)9(Mg,Fe+3)(SiO4)6(SiO3OH)(OH)3.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.
Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (20 October 1826 – 5 November 1897) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Decipium was the proposed name for a new chemical element isolated by Marc Delafontaine from the mineral samarskite.
Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
is a prefecture in northwestern Shikoku, Japan.
Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as common water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.
Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.
In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος eu dialytos, meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites.
Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1 January 1852 – 5 March 1903) was a French chemist.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.
Ferrocerium is a synthetic pyrophoric alloy that produces hot sparks that can reach temperatures of when rapidly oxidized by the process of striking.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile.
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.
Fluocerite is a mineral, a cerium, lanthanum fluoride, formula (Ce,La)F3.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.
Fremantle is a major Australian port city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
In materials science, galfenol is the general term for an alloy of iron and gallium.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Georges Urbain (12 April 1872 – 5 November 1938 in Paris) French chemist, professor of Sorbonne.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Halls Creek is a town situated in the East Kimberley region of Western Australia.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Heinrich Rose (6 August 1795 – 27 January 1864) was a German mineralogist and analytical chemist.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.
Hoidas Lake is a remote northern Canadian lake which lies approximately 50 kilometers north of Uranium City, Saskatchewan.
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
John Lawrence Smith (December 17, 1818 – October 12, 1883) was an American chemist, born in Louisville, Kentucky, and educated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College of South Carolina (M.D., 1840), in Germany under Liebig, and in Paris under Pelouze.
The, formerly the Maritime Safety Agency, is the Japanese coast guard.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (24 April 1817 – 15 April 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and co-discovery of gadolinium in 1880.
Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
KREEP, an acronym built from the letters K (the atomic symbol for potassium), REE (rare-earth elements) and P (for phosphorus), is a geochemical component of some lunar impact breccia and basaltic rocks.
Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, Malaysia.
Kvanefjeld (or Kuannersuit), in Greenland, is the site of a mineral deposit, which is claimed to be the world's second-largest deposit of rare-earth oxides, and the sixth-largest deposit of uranium.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Lai Châu is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanites are a group of isostructural rare earth element (REE) carbonate minerals.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Lherzolite is a type of ultramafic igneous rock.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Loparite-(Ce) is a granular, brittle oxide mineral of the perovskite class.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia (also Lutetia Parisiorum in Latin, in French Lutèce) was the predecessor of present-day Paris.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Lutetium tantalate is a chemical compound of lutetium, tantalum and oxygen with the formula LuTaO4.
Lynas Corporation, Ltd.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marc Delafontaine (Born at Celigny, 1837–1911) was a Swiss chemist who in 1878, along with Jacques-Louis Soret, first observed holmium spectroscopically.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Miass (p) is a city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located west of Chelyabinsk, on the eastern slope of the Southern Ural Mountains, on the bank of the Miass River.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
, also known as Marcus Island, is an isolated Japanese coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located some southeast of Tokyo and east of the closest Japanese island, South Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between mainland Tokyo and the United States' Wake Island, further to the east-southeast.
(), is a Japanese company formed in October 2005 from the merger of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Mount Weld is a mountain and a mine site in Western Australia, located about south of Laverton and east of Leonora.
The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine is an open-pit mine of rare-earth elements (REEs) on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States.
Mountain Pass is an unincorporated community in San Bernardino County, California, United States.
MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The Naalakkersuisut is the government of Greenland, a "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of Denmark, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic country, whereby the prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Nepheline syenite is a holocrystalline plutonic rock that consists largely of nepheline and alkali feldspar.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Mount Ngualla, often referred to simply as Ngualla, is a collapsed volcano located in the remote south west of Tanzania.
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.
Nils Johan Berlin (Nils Johannes Berlin) (18 February 1812 – 27 December 1891) was a Swedish chemist and physician.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korea–United States relations have been historically hostile and developed primarily during the Korean War.
Tây Bắc (literally "Northwest") is one of the regions of Vietnam, located in the mountainous northwestern part of the country.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
The Oddo–Harkins rule holds that an element with an even atomic number (such as carbon: element 6) is more abundant than both elements with the adjacently smaller and larger odd atomic numbers (such as boron: element 5 and nitrogen: element 7, respectively for the carbon).
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parisite is a rare mineral consisting of cerium, lanthanum and calcium fluoro-carbonate, Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2.
In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.
Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
In chemistry or mining, polymetal or polymetallic is a substance composed of a combination of different metals.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Rare-earth magnets are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements.
A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the term relaxation describes how signals change with time.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Rhodia was a group specialized in fine chemistry, synthetic fibers and polymers which was acquired by the belgian Solvay group after a successful tender offer completed in September 2011.
Riddarhyttan is a locality in Skinnskatteberg Municipality, Västmanland County, Sweden, with 431 inhabitants in 2010.
The Royal Academy of Turku (Kungliga Akademin i Åbo or Åbo Kungliga Akademi, Regia Academia Aboensis, Turun akatemia) was the first university in Finland, and the only Finnish university that was founded when the country still was a part of Sweden.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Saint-Fons is a commune in the Metropolis of Lyon in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
A self-cleaning oven is an oven which uses high temperature (approximately 500 degrees Celsius or 900 degrees Fahrenheit) to burn off leftovers from baking, without the use of any chemical agents.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
The Steenkampskraal mine is a rare-earth elements (REEs) mine north of Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Stillwellite-(Ce) is a rare-earth boro-silicate mineral with formula: (Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Terfenol-D, an alloy of the formula x1−x (x ~ 0.3), is a magnetostrictive material.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Malaysian Insider (also known as TMI, The Insider, or Malay Ins Ins) was a popular Malaysian bilingual news site.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thor Lake is a deposit of rare metals located in the Blachford Lake intrusive complex.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.
Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vasili Evgrafovich Samarsky–Bykhovets (Васи́лий Евгра́фович Сама́рский-Быховец; November 7, 1803 – May 31, 1870) was a Russian mining engineer and the chief of Russian Mining Engineering Corps between 1845 and 1861.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Welding goggles provide a degree of eye protection while some forms of welding and cutting are being done.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Wilhelm Hisinger (December 23, 1766 – June 28, 1852) was a Swedish physicist and chemist who in 1807, working in coordination with Jöns Jakob Berzelius, noted that in electrolysis any given substance always went to the same pole, and that substances attracted to the same pole had other properties in common.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
An X-ray machine is any machine that involves X-rays.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.
Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a ceramic in which the crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.
Yttrialite or Yttrialite-(Y) is a rare yttrium thorium sorosilicate mineral with formula: (Y,Th)2Si2O7.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.
Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
The 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident (or the Minjinyu 5179 incident) occurred on the morning of September 7, 2010, when a Chinese trawler, Minjinyu 5179, operating in disputed waters collided with Japanese Coast Guard's patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands.
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