Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Rare-earth element

Index Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. [1]

315 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinide, Actinium, Aeolian processes, Al Jazeera, Allanite, Ancylite, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg, Arc lamp, Asthenosphere, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic battery, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Australia, Australian Securities Exchange, Baotou, Barriers to entry, Barron's (newspaper), Bastnäs, Bastnäsite, Bayan Obo Mining District, BBC, Beryllium, Bioaccumulation, Birth defect, Bloomberg L.P., Brazil, Bukit Merah, Perak, Cabinet department, California, Camera, Canada, Cancer, Carbonatite, Carl Axel Arrhenius, Carl Gustaf Mosander, CBC News, Ceramic capacitor, Ceres (dwarf planet), Ceres (mythology), Cerite, Cerium, Cerium(IV) oxide, Chemical element, China, China Daily, Chlorophyll, Chondrite, Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, ..., Clastic rock, Clay, Computer memory, Container ship, Control rod, Craton, Crust (geology), Crystallization, Decipium, Didymium, Dow Jones & Company, Drainage basin, Dysprosium, Earthquake, Economic sanctions, Ehime Prefecture, Eichhornia crassipes, Electronic waste, Elution, Erbium, Estonia, Eudialyte, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, Europe, European Union, Europium, Euxenite, Feldspar, Felsic, Fergusonite, Ferrocerium, Fissile material, Flare (countermeasure), Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluocerite, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorite, Forbes, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Fractional crystallization (geology), France, Frank Spedding, Fremantle, Fuel cell, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gadolinite, Gadolinium, Galfenol, Garnet, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Georges Urbain, Glass, Gold rush, Greenland, Group 3 element, Hafnium, Halls Creek, Western Australia, Hard disk drive, Heinrich Rose, Henry Moseley, High-temperature superconductivity, Hoidas Lake, Holmium, Hornblende, Hydrothermal vent, Igneous rock, Ilmenium, India, Inner Mongolia, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, J. Lawrence Smith, Japan Coast Guard, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Johan Gadolin, Kola Peninsula, KREEP, Kuantan, Kvanefjeld, La Rochelle, Lai Châu Province, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanite, Lanthanum, Laser, Laterite, Latin, LED lamp, Leukemia, Lherzolite, Liquid–liquid extraction, Loparite-(Ce), Luminous paint, Lutetia, Lutetium, Lutetium tantalate, Lynas, Magnet, Magnetostriction, Malaysia, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Marc Delafontaine, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Maser, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal-halide lamp, Metamorphic rock, Miass, Microwave, Minami-Tori-shima, Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings, Monazite, Mount Weld, Mountain Pass rare earth mine, Mountain Pass, California, MRI contrast agent, Naalakkersuisut, Nature Geoscience, Nebraska, Neodymium, Neodymium magnet, Nepheline syenite, Neptunium, Neutron capture, Ngualla, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nils Johan Berlin, Niobium, Nitric acid, North Korea, North Korea–United States relations, Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest Territories, Nuclear fission, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Oddo–Harkins rule, Oil refinery, Olivine, Optical fiber, Ore, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Paris, Parisite-(Ce), Partition coefficient, Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Pegmatite, Penny (United States coin), Perak, Periodic table, Phosphor, Placer deposit, Plutonium, Polymetal, Positron emission tomography, Praseodymium, Precipitation (chemistry), Prometheus, Promethium, Pyroxene, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth magnet, Rare-earth mineral, Recycling, Reducing agent, Refractive index, Relaxation (NMR), Respiratory disease, Rhodia (company), Riddarhyttan, Royal Academy of Turku, Royal Institution, Russia, S-process, Saint-Fons, Samarium, Samarskite-(Y), Scandinavia, Scandium, Science News, Sedimentary rock, Self-cleaning oven, Shale, Sillamäe, Soil contamination, Solubility, Sonar, South Africa, Spark plug, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopy, Spontaneous fission, Stainless steel, Steenkampskraal mine, Stillwellite-(Ce), Stockholm, Strain gauge, Subduction, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Tailings, Tantalum, Tanzania, Technetium, Terbium, Terfenol-D, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Malaysian Insider, The New York Times, Thor Lake, Thorium, Thule, Thulium, Titan (mythology), Transition metal, Treatment of cancer, Tungsten, United Nations, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, University of Tokyo, Ural Mountains, Uranium, Uranium ore, Uranium-238, Vanadium, Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Vietnam, Vitreous enamel, Waste, Welding goggles, Western Australia, Western Cape, Wilhelm Hisinger, William Crookes, World Trade Organization, World War I, X-ray crystallography, X-ray machine, X-ray tube, Xenotime, Ytterbium, Ytterby, Yttria-stabilized zirconia, Yttrialite, Yttrium, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Yttrium iron garnet, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zircon, Zirconium, 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident. Expand index (265 more) »

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Abundance of elements in Earth's crust · See more »


The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Actinide · See more »


Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Actinium · See more »

Aeolian processes

Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Aeolian processes · See more »

Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Al Jazeera · See more »


Allanite (also called orthite) is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare-earth elements.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Allanite · See more »


Ancylite is a group of hydrous strontium carbonate minerals containing cerium, lanthanum and minor amounts of other rare-earth elements.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ancylite · See more »

Anders Gustaf Ekeberg

Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (Stockholm, Sweden, 16 January 1767 – Uppsala, Sweden, 11 February 1813) was a Swedish chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg · See more »

Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Arc lamp · See more »


The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Asthenosphere · See more »

Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Asymptotic giant branch · See more »

Atomic battery

The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Atomic battery · See more »

Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Atomic number · See more »

Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Atomic radius · See more »


Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Australia · See more »

Australian Securities Exchange

The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX, sometimes referred to outside Australia as the Sydney Stock Exchange) is Australia's primary securities exchange.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Australian Securities Exchange · See more »


Baotou (ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ Buɣutu qota, Бугат хот) also known as Bugat hot is the second largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Baotou · See more »

Barriers to entry

In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Barriers to entry · See more »

Barron's (newspaper)

Barron's is an American weekly newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company, a property of News Corp.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Barron's (newspaper) · See more »


Bastnäs (Bastnäs or Bastnäsfältet) is an ore field near Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bastnäs · See more »


The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bastnäsite · See more »

Bayan Obo Mining District

Bayan'obo Mining District, (Mongolian: Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ, Баян-Овоо Уурхайн тойрог ("rich" + ovoo)), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bayan Obo Mining District · See more »


The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

New!!: Rare-earth element and BBC · See more »


Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Beryllium · See more »


Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bioaccumulation · See more »

Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Birth defect · See more »

Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bloomberg L.P. · See more »


Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Brazil · See more »

Bukit Merah, Perak

One of two towns in the Malaysian state of Perak.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Bukit Merah, Perak · See more »

Cabinet department

A cabinet department or prime minister's department is a department or other government agency that directly supports the work of the government's central executive office, usually the cabinet and/or prime minister, rather than specific ministerial portfolios.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Cabinet department · See more »


California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

New!!: Rare-earth element and California · See more »


A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Camera · See more »


Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Canada · See more »


Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Cancer · See more »


Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Carbonatite · See more »

Carl Axel Arrhenius

Carl Axel Arrhenius (29 March 1757 – 20 November 1824) was a Swedish chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Carl Axel Arrhenius · See more »

Carl Gustaf Mosander

Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Carl Gustaf Mosander · See more »

CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

New!!: Rare-earth element and CBC News · See more »

Ceramic capacitor

A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ceramic capacitor · See more »

Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ceres (dwarf planet) · See more »

Ceres (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ceres (mythology) · See more »


Cerite is a complex silicate mineral group containing cerium, formula (Ce,La,Ca)9(Mg,Fe+3)(SiO4)6(SiO3OH)(OH)3.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Cerite · See more »


Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Cerium · See more »

Cerium(IV) oxide

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Cerium(IV) oxide · See more »

Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Chemical element · See more »


China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

New!!: Rare-earth element and China · See more »

China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

New!!: Rare-earth element and China Daily · See more »


Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Chlorophyll · See more »


Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Chondrite · See more »

Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand

Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (20 October 1826 – 5 November 1897) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand · See more »

Clastic rock

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Clastic rock · See more »


Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Clay · See more »

Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

New!!: Rare-earth element and Computer memory · See more »

Container ship

Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Container ship · See more »

Control rod

Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Control rod · See more »


A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Craton · See more »

Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Crust (geology) · See more »


Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Crystallization · See more »


Decipium was the proposed name for a new chemical element isolated by Marc Delafontaine from the mineral samarskite.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Decipium · See more »


Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Didymium · See more »

Dow Jones & Company

Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Dow Jones & Company · See more »

Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Drainage basin · See more »


Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Dysprosium · See more »


An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Earthquake · See more »

Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Economic sanctions · See more »

Ehime Prefecture

is a prefecture in northwestern Shikoku, Japan.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ehime Prefecture · See more »

Eichhornia crassipes

Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as common water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Eichhornia crassipes · See more »

Electronic waste

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Electronic waste · See more »


In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Elution · See more »


Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Erbium · See more »


Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Estonia · See more »


Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος eu dialytos, meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Eudialyte · See more »

Eugène-Anatole Demarçay

Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1 January 1852 – 5 March 1903) was a French chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Eugène-Anatole Demarçay · See more »


Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Europe · See more »

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

New!!: Rare-earth element and European Union · See more »


Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Europium · See more »


Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Euxenite · See more »


Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Feldspar · See more »


In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Felsic · See more »


Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fergusonite · See more »


Ferrocerium is a synthetic pyrophoric alloy that produces hot sparks that can reach temperatures of when rapidly oxidized by the process of striking.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ferrocerium · See more »

Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fissile material · See more »

Flare (countermeasure)

A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Flare (countermeasure) · See more »

Fluid catalytic cracking

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fluid catalytic cracking · See more »


Fluocerite is a mineral, a cerium, lanthanum fluoride, formula (Ce,La)F3.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fluocerite · See more »

Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fluorescent lamp · See more »


Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fluorite · See more »


Forbes is an American business magazine.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Forbes · See more »

Fractional crystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fractional crystallization (chemistry) · See more »

Fractional crystallization (geology)

Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fractional crystallization (geology) · See more »


France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

New!!: Rare-earth element and France · See more »

Frank Spedding

Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Frank Spedding · See more »


Fremantle is a major Australian port city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fremantle · See more »

Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fuel cell · See more »

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster · See more »


Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Gadolinite · See more »


Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Gadolinium · See more »


In materials science, galfenol is the general term for an alloy of iron and gallium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Galfenol · See more »


Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Garnet · See more »


Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Geochemistry · See more »


Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Geochronology · See more »

Georges Urbain

Georges Urbain (12 April 1872 – 5 November 1938 in Paris) French chemist, professor of Sorbonne.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Georges Urbain · See more »


Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Glass · See more »

Gold rush

A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Gold rush · See more »


Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Greenland · See more »

Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Group 3 element · See more »


Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Hafnium · See more »

Halls Creek, Western Australia

Halls Creek is a town situated in the East Kimberley region of Western Australia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Halls Creek, Western Australia · See more »

Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Hard disk drive · See more »

Heinrich Rose

Heinrich Rose (6 August 1795 – 27 January 1864) was a German mineralogist and analytical chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Heinrich Rose · See more »

Henry Moseley

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Henry Moseley · See more »

High-temperature superconductivity

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.

New!!: Rare-earth element and High-temperature superconductivity · See more »

Hoidas Lake

Hoidas Lake is a remote northern Canadian lake which lies approximately 50 kilometers north of Uranium City, Saskatchewan.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Hoidas Lake · See more »


Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Holmium · See more »


Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Hornblende · See more »

Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Hydrothermal vent · See more »

Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Igneous rock · See more »


Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ilmenium · See more »


India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and India · See more »

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Inner Mongolia · See more »

International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

New!!: Rare-earth element and International Atomic Energy Agency · See more »

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

New!!: Rare-earth element and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry · See more »

Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ion exchange · See more »


Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Iron · See more »


Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Isotope · See more »

J. Lawrence Smith

John Lawrence Smith (December 17, 1818 – October 12, 1883) was an American chemist, born in Louisville, Kentucky, and educated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College of South Carolina (M.D., 1840), in Germany under Liebig, and in Paris under Pelouze.

New!!: Rare-earth element and J. Lawrence Smith · See more »

Japan Coast Guard

The, formerly the Maritime Safety Agency, is the Japanese coast guard.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Japan Coast Guard · See more »

Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Jöns Jacob Berzelius · See more »

Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (24 April 1817 – 15 April 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and co-discovery of gadolinium in 1880.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac · See more »

Johan Gadolin

Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Johan Gadolin · See more »

Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Kola Peninsula · See more »


KREEP, an acronym built from the letters K (the atomic symbol for potassium), REE (rare-earth elements) and P (for phosphorus), is a geochemical component of some lunar impact breccia and basaltic rocks.

New!!: Rare-earth element and KREEP · See more »


Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, Malaysia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Kuantan · See more »


Kvanefjeld (or Kuannersuit), in Greenland, is the site of a mineral deposit, which is claimed to be the world's second-largest deposit of rare-earth oxides, and the sixth-largest deposit of uranium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Kvanefjeld · See more »

La Rochelle

La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: Rare-earth element and La Rochelle · See more »

Lai Châu Province

Lai Châu is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lai Châu Province · See more »


The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lanthanide · See more »

Lanthanide contraction

The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lanthanide contraction · See more »


Lanthanites are a group of isostructural rare earth element (REE) carbonate minerals.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lanthanite · See more »


Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lanthanum · See more »


A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Laser · See more »


Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Laterite · See more »


Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Latin · See more »

LED lamp

A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).

New!!: Rare-earth element and LED lamp · See more »


Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Leukemia · See more »


Lherzolite is a type of ultramafic igneous rock.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lherzolite · See more »

Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Liquid–liquid extraction · See more »


Loparite-(Ce) is a granular, brittle oxide mineral of the perovskite class.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Loparite-(Ce) · See more »

Luminous paint

Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Luminous paint · See more »


The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia (also Lutetia Parisiorum in Latin, in French Lutèce) was the predecessor of present-day Paris.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lutetia · See more »


Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lutetium · See more »

Lutetium tantalate

Lutetium tantalate is a chemical compound of lutetium, tantalum and oxygen with the formula LuTaO4.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lutetium tantalate · See more »


Lynas Corporation, Ltd.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Lynas · See more »


A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Magnet · See more »


Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Magnetostriction · See more »


Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Malaysia · See more »

Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Manhattan Project · See more »

Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mantle (geology) · See more »

Marc Delafontaine

Marc Delafontaine (Born at Celigny, 1837–1911) was a Swiss chemist who in 1878, along with Jacques-Louis Soret, first observed holmium spectroscopically.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Marc Delafontaine · See more »

Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Martin Heinrich Klaproth · See more »


A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Maser · See more »

Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mercury-vapor lamp · See more »

Metal-halide lamp

A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Metal-halide lamp · See more »

Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

New!!: Rare-earth element and Metamorphic rock · See more »


Miass (p) is a city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located west of Chelyabinsk, on the eastern slope of the Southern Ural Mountains, on the bank of the Miass River.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Miass · See more »


Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Microwave · See more »


, also known as Marcus Island, is an isolated Japanese coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located some southeast of Tokyo and east of the closest Japanese island, South Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between mainland Tokyo and the United States' Wake Island, further to the east-southeast.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Minami-Tori-shima · See more »

Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings

(), is a Japanese company formed in October 2005 from the merger of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings · See more »


Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Monazite · See more »

Mount Weld

Mount Weld is a mountain and a mine site in Western Australia, located about south of Laverton and east of Leonora.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mount Weld · See more »

Mountain Pass rare earth mine

The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine is an open-pit mine of rare-earth elements (REEs) on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mountain Pass rare earth mine · See more »

Mountain Pass, California

Mountain Pass is an unincorporated community in San Bernardino County, California, United States.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Mountain Pass, California · See more »

MRI contrast agent

MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

New!!: Rare-earth element and MRI contrast agent · See more »


The Naalakkersuisut is the government of Greenland, a "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of Denmark, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic country, whereby the prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Naalakkersuisut · See more »

Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nature Geoscience · See more »


Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nebraska · See more »


Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Neodymium · See more »

Neodymium magnet

A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Neodymium magnet · See more »

Nepheline syenite

Nepheline syenite is a holocrystalline plutonic rock that consists largely of nepheline and alkali feldspar.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nepheline syenite · See more »


Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Neptunium · See more »

Neutron capture

Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Neutron capture · See more »


Mount Ngualla, often referred to simply as Ngualla, is a collapsed volcano located in the remote south west of Tanzania.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ngualla · See more »

Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nickel–metal hydride battery · See more »

Nils Johan Berlin

Nils Johan Berlin (Nils Johannes Berlin) (18 February 1812 – 27 December 1891) was a Swedish chemist and physician.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nils Johan Berlin · See more »


Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Niobium · See more »

Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nitric acid · See more »

North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

New!!: Rare-earth element and North Korea · See more »

North Korea–United States relations

North Korea–United States relations have been historically hostile and developed primarily during the Korean War.

New!!: Rare-earth element and North Korea–United States relations · See more »

Northwest (Vietnam)

Tây Bắc (literally "Northwest") is one of the regions of Vietnam, located in the mountainous northwestern part of the country.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Northwest (Vietnam) · See more »

Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Northwest Territories · See more »

Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nuclear fission · See more »

Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nuclear magnetic resonance · See more »

Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nuclear medicine · See more »

Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nuclear reactor · See more »

Nuclear reprocessing

Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Nuclear reprocessing · See more »

Oddo–Harkins rule

The Oddo–Harkins rule holds that an element with an even atomic number (such as carbon: element 6) is more abundant than both elements with the adjacently smaller and larger odd atomic numbers (such as boron: element 5 and nitrogen: element 7, respectively for the carbon).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Oddo–Harkins rule · See more »

Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Oil refinery · See more »


The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Olivine · See more »

Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Optical fiber · See more »


An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ore · See more »


An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Oxide · See more »

Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Oxidizing agent · See more »


Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Paris · See more »


Parisite is a rare mineral consisting of cerium, lanthanum and calcium fluoro-carbonate, Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Parisite-(Ce) · See more »

Partition coefficient

In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Partition coefficient · See more »

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran · See more »


A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Pegmatite · See more »

Penny (United States coin)

The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Penny (United States coin) · See more »


No description.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Perak · See more »

Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Periodic table · See more »


A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Phosphor · See more »

Placer deposit

In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Placer deposit · See more »


Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Plutonium · See more »


In chemistry or mining, polymetal or polymetallic is a substance composed of a combination of different metals.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Polymetal · See more »

Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Positron emission tomography · See more »


Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Praseodymium · See more »

Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Precipitation (chemistry) · See more »


In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Prometheus · See more »


Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Promethium · See more »


The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Pyroxene · See more »

Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Radioactive decay · See more »


A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Radionuclide · See more »

Rare-earth magnet

Rare-earth magnets are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Rare-earth magnet · See more »

Rare-earth mineral

A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Rare-earth mineral · See more »


Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Recycling · See more »

Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Reducing agent · See more »

Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Refractive index · See more »

Relaxation (NMR)

In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the term relaxation describes how signals change with time.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Relaxation (NMR) · See more »

Respiratory disease

Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Respiratory disease · See more »

Rhodia (company)

Rhodia was a group specialized in fine chemistry, synthetic fibers and polymers which was acquired by the belgian Solvay group after a successful tender offer completed in September 2011.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Rhodia (company) · See more »


Riddarhyttan is a locality in Skinnskatteberg Municipality, Västmanland County, Sweden, with 431 inhabitants in 2010.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Riddarhyttan · See more »

Royal Academy of Turku

The Royal Academy of Turku (Kungliga Akademin i Åbo or Åbo Kungliga Akademi, Regia Academia Aboensis, Turun akatemia) was the first university in Finland, and the only Finnish university that was founded when the country still was a part of Sweden.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Royal Academy of Turku · See more »

Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Royal Institution · See more »


Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Russia · See more »


The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.

New!!: Rare-earth element and S-process · See more »


Saint-Fons is a commune in the Metropolis of Lyon in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Saint-Fons · See more »


Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Samarium · See more »


Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Samarskite-(Y) · See more »


Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Scandinavia · See more »


Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Scandium · See more »

Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Science News · See more »

Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Sedimentary rock · See more »

Self-cleaning oven

A self-cleaning oven is an oven which uses high temperature (approximately 500 degrees Celsius or 900 degrees Fahrenheit) to burn off leftovers from baking, without the use of any chemical agents.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Self-cleaning oven · See more »


Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Shale · See more »


Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Sillamäe · See more »

Soil contamination

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Soil contamination · See more »


Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Solubility · See more »


Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Sonar · See more »

South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

New!!: Rare-earth element and South Africa · See more »

Spark plug

A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Spark plug · See more »


In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Spectrophotometry · See more »


Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Spectroscopy · See more »

Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Spontaneous fission · See more »

Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Stainless steel · See more »

Steenkampskraal mine

The Steenkampskraal mine is a rare-earth elements (REEs) mine north of Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Steenkampskraal mine · See more »


Stillwellite-(Ce) is a rare-earth boro-silicate mineral with formula: (Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Stillwellite-(Ce) · See more »


Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Stockholm · See more »

Strain gauge

A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Strain gauge · See more »


Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Subduction · See more »

Supernova nucleosynthesis

Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Supernova nucleosynthesis · See more »


Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Tailings · See more »


Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Tantalum · See more »


Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Tanzania · See more »


Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Technetium · See more »


Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Terbium · See more »


Terfenol-D, an alloy of the formula x1−x (x ~ 0.3), is a magnetostrictive material.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Terfenol-D · See more »

The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

New!!: Rare-earth element and The Daily Telegraph · See more »

The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

New!!: Rare-earth element and The Economist · See more »

The Malaysian Insider

The Malaysian Insider (also known as TMI, The Insider, or Malay Ins Ins) was a popular Malaysian bilingual news site.

New!!: Rare-earth element and The Malaysian Insider · See more »

The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

New!!: Rare-earth element and The New York Times · See more »

Thor Lake

Thor Lake is a deposit of rare metals located in the Blachford Lake intrusive complex.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Thor Lake · See more »


Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Thorium · See more »


Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Thule · See more »


Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Thulium · See more »

Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Titan (mythology) · See more »

Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Transition metal · See more »

Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Treatment of cancer · See more »


Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Tungsten · See more »

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

New!!: Rare-earth element and United Nations · See more »

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

New!!: Rare-earth element and United States · See more »

United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

New!!: Rare-earth element and United States Department of Energy · See more »

United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

New!!: Rare-earth element and United States dollar · See more »

University of Tokyo

, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

New!!: Rare-earth element and University of Tokyo · See more »

Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ural Mountains · See more »


Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Uranium · See more »

Uranium ore

Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Uranium ore · See more »


Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Uranium-238 · See more »


Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Vanadium · See more »

Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets

Vasili Evgrafovich Samarsky–Bykhovets (Васи́лий Евгра́фович Сама́рский-Быховец; November 7, 1803 – May 31, 1870) was a Russian mining engineer and the chief of Russian Mining Engineering Corps between 1845 and 1861.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets · See more »


Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Vietnam · See more »

Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Vitreous enamel · See more »


Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Waste · See more »

Welding goggles

Welding goggles provide a degree of eye protection while some forms of welding and cutting are being done.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Welding goggles · See more »

Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Western Australia · See more »

Western Cape

The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Western Cape · See more »

Wilhelm Hisinger

Wilhelm Hisinger (December 23, 1766 – June 28, 1852) was a Swedish physicist and chemist who in 1807, working in coordination with Jöns Jakob Berzelius, noted that in electrolysis any given substance always went to the same pole, and that substances attracted to the same pole had other properties in common.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Wilhelm Hisinger · See more »

William Crookes

Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.

New!!: Rare-earth element and William Crookes · See more »

World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

New!!: Rare-earth element and World Trade Organization · See more »

World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

New!!: Rare-earth element and World War I · See more »

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

New!!: Rare-earth element and X-ray crystallography · See more »

X-ray machine

An X-ray machine is any machine that involves X-rays.

New!!: Rare-earth element and X-ray machine · See more »

X-ray tube

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

New!!: Rare-earth element and X-ray tube · See more »


Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).

New!!: Rare-earth element and Xenotime · See more »


Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ytterbium · See more »


Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Ytterby · See more »

Yttria-stabilized zirconia

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a ceramic in which the crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttria-stabilized zirconia · See more »


Yttrialite or Yttrialite-(Y) is a rare yttrium thorium sorosilicate mineral with formula: (Y,Th)2Si2O7.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrialite · See more »


Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrium · See more »

Yttrium aluminium garnet

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrium aluminium garnet · See more »

Yttrium barium copper oxide

Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrium barium copper oxide · See more »

Yttrium iron garnet

Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrium iron garnet · See more »

Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Yttrium(III) oxide · See more »


Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Zircon · See more »


Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

New!!: Rare-earth element and Zirconium · See more »

2010 Senkaku boat collision incident

The 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident (or the Minjinyu 5179 incident) occurred on the morning of September 7, 2010, when a Chinese trawler, Minjinyu 5179, operating in disputed waters collided with Japanese Coast Guard's patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands.

New!!: Rare-earth element and 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident · See more »

Redirects here:

Cerium group, Cerium group element, Cerium group elements, LREE, Metals, rare earth, REEs, Rare Earth Element, Rare Earth Elements, Rare Earth element, Rare earth element, Rare earth elements, Rare earth ion, Rare earth metal, Rare earth metals, Rare earths, Rare-Earth Element, Rare-earth, Rare-earth elements, Rare-earth ion, Rare-earth metal, Rare-earth metals, Rare-earth-element, Terbium group, Terbium group element, Terbium group elements, Yttrium group, Yttrium group element, Yttrium group elements.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare-earth_element

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »