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Rare-earth element

Index Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. [1]

315 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinide, Actinium, Aeolian processes, Al Jazeera, Allanite, Ancylite, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg, Arc lamp, Asthenosphere, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic battery, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Australia, Australian Securities Exchange, Baotou, Barriers to entry, Barron's (newspaper), Bastnäs, Bastnäsite, Bayan Obo Mining District, BBC, Beryllium, Bioaccumulation, Birth defect, Bloomberg L.P., Brazil, Bukit Merah, Perak, Cabinet department, California, Camera, Canada, Cancer, Carbonatite, Carl Axel Arrhenius, Carl Gustaf Mosander, CBC News, Ceramic capacitor, Ceres (dwarf planet), Ceres (mythology), Cerite, Cerium, Cerium(IV) oxide, Chemical element, China, China Daily, Chlorophyll, Chondrite, Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, ..., Clastic rock, Clay, Computer memory, Container ship, Control rod, Craton, Crust (geology), Crystallization, Decipium, Didymium, Dow Jones & Company, Drainage basin, Dysprosium, Earthquake, Economic sanctions, Ehime Prefecture, Eichhornia crassipes, Electronic waste, Elution, Erbium, Estonia, Eudialyte, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, Europe, European Union, Europium, Euxenite, Feldspar, Felsic, Fergusonite, Ferrocerium, Fissile material, Flare (countermeasure), Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluocerite, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorite, Forbes, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Fractional crystallization (geology), France, Frank Spedding, Fremantle, Fuel cell, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gadolinite, Gadolinium, Galfenol, Garnet, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Georges Urbain, Glass, Gold rush, Greenland, Group 3 element, Hafnium, Halls Creek, Western Australia, Hard disk drive, Heinrich Rose, Henry Moseley, High-temperature superconductivity, Hoidas Lake, Holmium, Hornblende, Hydrothermal vent, Igneous rock, Ilmenium, India, Inner Mongolia, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, J. Lawrence Smith, Japan Coast Guard, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Johan Gadolin, Kola Peninsula, KREEP, Kuantan, Kvanefjeld, La Rochelle, Lai Châu Province, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanite, Lanthanum, Laser, Laterite, Latin, LED lamp, Leukemia, Lherzolite, Liquid–liquid extraction, Loparite-(Ce), Luminous paint, Lutetia, Lutetium, Lutetium tantalate, Lynas, Magnet, Magnetostriction, Malaysia, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Marc Delafontaine, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Maser, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal-halide lamp, Metamorphic rock, Miass, Microwave, Minami-Tori-shima, Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings, Monazite, Mount Weld, Mountain Pass rare earth mine, Mountain Pass, California, MRI contrast agent, Naalakkersuisut, Nature Geoscience, Nebraska, Neodymium, Neodymium magnet, Nepheline syenite, Neptunium, Neutron capture, Ngualla, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nils Johan Berlin, Niobium, Nitric acid, North Korea, North Korea–United States relations, Northwest (Vietnam), Northwest Territories, Nuclear fission, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Oddo–Harkins rule, Oil refinery, Olivine, Optical fiber, Ore, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Paris, Parisite-(Ce), Partition coefficient, Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Pegmatite, Penny (United States coin), Perak, Periodic table, Phosphor, Placer deposit, Plutonium, Polymetal, Positron emission tomography, Praseodymium, Precipitation (chemistry), Prometheus, Promethium, Pyroxene, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth magnet, Rare-earth mineral, Recycling, Reducing agent, Refractive index, Relaxation (NMR), Respiratory disease, Rhodia (company), Riddarhyttan, Royal Academy of Turku, Royal Institution, Russia, S-process, Saint-Fons, Samarium, Samarskite-(Y), Scandinavia, Scandium, Science News, Sedimentary rock, Self-cleaning oven, Shale, Sillamäe, Soil contamination, Solubility, Sonar, South Africa, Spark plug, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopy, Spontaneous fission, Stainless steel, Steenkampskraal mine, Stillwellite-(Ce), Stockholm, Strain gauge, Subduction, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Tailings, Tantalum, Tanzania, Technetium, Terbium, Terfenol-D, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Malaysian Insider, The New York Times, Thor Lake, Thorium, Thule, Thulium, Titan (mythology), Transition metal, Treatment of cancer, Tungsten, United Nations, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, University of Tokyo, Ural Mountains, Uranium, Uranium ore, Uranium-238, Vanadium, Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Vietnam, Vitreous enamel, Waste, Welding goggles, Western Australia, Western Cape, Wilhelm Hisinger, William Crookes, World Trade Organization, World War I, X-ray crystallography, X-ray machine, X-ray tube, Xenotime, Ytterbium, Ytterby, Yttria-stabilized zirconia, Yttrialite, Yttrium, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Yttrium iron garnet, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zircon, Zirconium, 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident. Expand index (265 more) »

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

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Actinide

The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Actinium

Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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Aeolian processes

Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Allanite

Allanite (also called orthite) is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare-earth elements.

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Ancylite

Ancylite is a group of hydrous strontium carbonate minerals containing cerium, lanthanum and minor amounts of other rare-earth elements.

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Anders Gustaf Ekeberg

Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (Stockholm, Sweden, 16 January 1767 – Uppsala, Sweden, 11 February 1813) was a Swedish chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802.

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Asthenosphere

The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.

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Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

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Atomic battery

The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Securities Exchange

The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX, sometimes referred to outside Australia as the Sydney Stock Exchange) is Australia's primary securities exchange.

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Baotou

Baotou (ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ Buɣutu qota, Бугат хот) also known as Bugat hot is the second largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia.

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Barriers to entry

In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.

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Barron's (newspaper)

Barron's is an American weekly newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company, a property of News Corp.

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Bastnäs

Bastnäs (Bastnäs or Bastnäsfältet) is an ore field near Riddarhyttan, Västmanland, Sweden.

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Bastnäsite

The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.

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Bayan Obo Mining District

Bayan'obo Mining District, (Mongolian: Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ, Баян-Овоо Уурхайн тойрог ("rich" + ovoo)), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bukit Merah, Perak

One of two towns in the Malaysian state of Perak.

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Cabinet department

A cabinet department or prime minister's department is a department or other government agency that directly supports the work of the government's central executive office, usually the cabinet and/or prime minister, rather than specific ministerial portfolios.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Camera

A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carbonatite

Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.

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Carl Axel Arrhenius

Carl Axel Arrhenius (29 March 1757 – 20 November 1824) was a Swedish chemist.

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Carl Gustaf Mosander

Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Ceramic capacitor

A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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Ceres (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.

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Cerite

Cerite is a complex silicate mineral group containing cerium, formula (Ce,La,Ca)9(Mg,Fe+3)(SiO4)6(SiO3OH)(OH)3.

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Cerium

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.

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Cerium(IV) oxide

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Chondrite

Chondrites are stony (non-metallic) meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body.

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Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand

Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (20 October 1826 – 5 November 1897) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist.

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Clastic rock

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.

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Clay

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Container ship

Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.

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Control rod

Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.

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Craton

A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Crystallization

Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Decipium

Decipium was the proposed name for a new chemical element isolated by Marc Delafontaine from the mineral samarskite.

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Didymium

Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.

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Dow Jones & Company

Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Dysprosium

Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Ehime Prefecture

is a prefecture in northwestern Shikoku, Japan.

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Eichhornia crassipes

Eichhornia crassipes, commonly known as common water hyacinth, is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon basin, and is often a highly problematic invasive species outside its native range.

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Electronic waste

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.

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Elution

In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.

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Erbium

Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Eudialyte

Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος eu dialytos, meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites.

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Eugène-Anatole Demarçay

Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1 January 1852 – 5 March 1903) was a French chemist.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Europium

Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.

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Euxenite

Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Felsic

In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.

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Fergusonite

Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.

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Ferrocerium

Ferrocerium is a synthetic pyrophoric alloy that produces hot sparks that can reach temperatures of when rapidly oxidized by the process of striking.

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Fissile material

In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.

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Flare (countermeasure)

A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile.

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Fluid catalytic cracking

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.

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Fluocerite

Fluocerite is a mineral, a cerium, lanthanum fluoride, formula (Ce,La)F3.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Fluorite

Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Fractional crystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.

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Fractional crystallization (geology)

Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank Spedding

Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.

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Fremantle

Fremantle is a major Australian port city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River.

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Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.

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Gadolinite

Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.

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Gadolinium

Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.

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Galfenol

In materials science, galfenol is the general term for an alloy of iron and gallium.

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Garnet

Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

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Geochemistry

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

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Geochronology

Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.

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Georges Urbain

Georges Urbain (12 April 1872 – 5 November 1938 in Paris) French chemist, professor of Sorbonne.

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Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Gold rush

A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Group 3 element

Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Hafnium

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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Halls Creek, Western Australia

Halls Creek is a town situated in the East Kimberley region of Western Australia.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Heinrich Rose

Heinrich Rose (6 August 1795 – 27 January 1864) was a German mineralogist and analytical chemist.

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Henry Moseley

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.

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High-temperature superconductivity

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.

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Hoidas Lake

Hoidas Lake is a remote northern Canadian lake which lies approximately 50 kilometers north of Uranium City, Saskatchewan.

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Holmium

Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.

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Hornblende

Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

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Ilmenium

Ilmenium was the proposed name for a new element found by the chemist R. Hermann in 1847.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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J. Lawrence Smith

John Lawrence Smith (December 17, 1818 – October 12, 1883) was an American chemist, born in Louisville, Kentucky, and educated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College of South Carolina (M.D., 1840), in Germany under Liebig, and in Paris under Pelouze.

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Japan Coast Guard

The, formerly the Maritime Safety Agency, is the Japanese coast guard.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (24 April 1817 – 15 April 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and co-discovery of gadolinium in 1880.

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Johan Gadolin

Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist.

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Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

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KREEP

KREEP, an acronym built from the letters K (the atomic symbol for potassium), REE (rare-earth elements) and P (for phosphorus), is a geochemical component of some lunar impact breccia and basaltic rocks.

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Kuantan

Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, Malaysia.

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Kvanefjeld

Kvanefjeld (or Kuannersuit), in Greenland, is the site of a mineral deposit, which is claimed to be the world's second-largest deposit of rare-earth oxides, and the sixth-largest deposit of uranium.

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La Rochelle

La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Lai Châu Province

Lai Châu is a province in the Northwest region of Vietnam.

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Lanthanide

The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Lanthanide contraction

The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.

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Lanthanite

Lanthanites are a group of isostructural rare earth element (REE) carbonate minerals.

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Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laterite

Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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LED lamp

A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).

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Leukemia

Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Lherzolite

Lherzolite is a type of ultramafic igneous rock.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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Loparite-(Ce)

Loparite-(Ce) is a granular, brittle oxide mineral of the perovskite class.

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Luminous paint

Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.

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Lutetia

The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia (also Lutetia Parisiorum in Latin, in French Lutèce) was the predecessor of present-day Paris.

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Lutetium

Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.

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Lutetium tantalate

Lutetium tantalate is a chemical compound of lutetium, tantalum and oxygen with the formula LuTaO4.

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Lynas

Lynas Corporation, Ltd.

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Magnet

A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetostriction

Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Marc Delafontaine

Marc Delafontaine (Born at Celigny, 1837–1911) was a Swiss chemist who in 1878, along with Jacques-Louis Soret, first observed holmium spectroscopically.

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Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).

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Maser

A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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Metal-halide lamp

A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Miass

Miass (p) is a city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located west of Chelyabinsk, on the eastern slope of the Southern Ural Mountains, on the bank of the Miass River.

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Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Minami-Tori-shima

, also known as Marcus Island, is an isolated Japanese coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located some southeast of Tokyo and east of the closest Japanese island, South Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between mainland Tokyo and the United States' Wake Island, further to the east-southeast.

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Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings

(), is a Japanese company formed in October 2005 from the merger of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation.

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Monazite

Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.

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Mount Weld

Mount Weld is a mountain and a mine site in Western Australia, located about south of Laverton and east of Leonora.

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Mountain Pass rare earth mine

The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine is an open-pit mine of rare-earth elements (REEs) on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States.

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Mountain Pass, California

Mountain Pass is an unincorporated community in San Bernardino County, California, United States.

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MRI contrast agent

MRI contrast agents are contrast agents used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Naalakkersuisut

The Naalakkersuisut is the government of Greenland, a "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of Denmark, takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic country, whereby the prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

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Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nebraska

Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.

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Neodymium

Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

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Neodymium magnet

A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.

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Nepheline syenite

Nepheline syenite is a holocrystalline plutonic rock that consists largely of nepheline and alkali feldspar.

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Neptunium

Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

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Neutron capture

Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.

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Ngualla

Mount Ngualla, often referred to simply as Ngualla, is a collapsed volcano located in the remote south west of Tanzania.

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Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

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Nils Johan Berlin

Nils Johan Berlin (Nils Johannes Berlin) (18 February 1812 – 27 December 1891) was a Swedish chemist and physician.

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Niobium

Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North Korea–United States relations

North Korea–United States relations have been historically hostile and developed primarily during the Korean War.

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Northwest (Vietnam)

Tây Bắc (literally "Northwest") is one of the regions of Vietnam, located in the mountainous northwestern part of the country.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear reprocessing

Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.

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Oddo–Harkins rule

The Oddo–Harkins rule holds that an element with an even atomic number (such as carbon: element 6) is more abundant than both elements with the adjacently smaller and larger odd atomic numbers (such as boron: element 5 and nitrogen: element 7, respectively for the carbon).

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Olivine

The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Ore

An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parisite-(Ce)

Parisite is a rare mineral consisting of cerium, lanthanum and calcium fluoro-carbonate, Ca(Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2.

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Partition coefficient

In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.

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Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.

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Pegmatite

A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.

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Penny (United States coin)

The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.

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Perak

No description.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Phosphor

A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Placer deposit

In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Polymetal

In chemistry or mining, polymetal or polymetallic is a substance composed of a combination of different metals.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Praseodymium

Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Prometheus

In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.

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Promethium

Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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Pyroxene

The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Rare-earth magnet

Rare-earth magnets are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements.

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Rare-earth mineral

A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents.

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Recycling

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Relaxation (NMR)

In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the term relaxation describes how signals change with time.

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Respiratory disease

Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.

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Rhodia (company)

Rhodia was a group specialized in fine chemistry, synthetic fibers and polymers which was acquired by the belgian Solvay group after a successful tender offer completed in September 2011.

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Riddarhyttan

Riddarhyttan is a locality in Skinnskatteberg Municipality, Västmanland County, Sweden, with 431 inhabitants in 2010.

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Royal Academy of Turku

The Royal Academy of Turku (Kungliga Akademin i Åbo or Åbo Kungliga Akademi, Regia Academia Aboensis, Turun akatemia) was the first university in Finland, and the only Finnish university that was founded when the country still was a part of Sweden.

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Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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S-process

The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.

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Saint-Fons

Saint-Fons is a commune in the Metropolis of Lyon in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France.

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Samarium

Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.

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Samarskite-(Y)

Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scandium

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Self-cleaning oven

A self-cleaning oven is an oven which uses high temperature (approximately 500 degrees Celsius or 900 degrees Fahrenheit) to burn off leftovers from baking, without the use of any chemical agents.

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Shale

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Sillamäe

Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.

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Soil contamination

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Sonar

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Spark plug

A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.

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Spectrophotometry

In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spontaneous fission

Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Steenkampskraal mine

The Steenkampskraal mine is a rare-earth elements (REEs) mine north of Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

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Stillwellite-(Ce)

Stillwellite-(Ce) is a rare-earth boro-silicate mineral with formula: (Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Strain gauge

A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.

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Subduction

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Supernova nucleosynthesis

Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.

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Tailings

Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.

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Tantalum

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Technetium

Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Terbium

Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.

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Terfenol-D

Terfenol-D, an alloy of the formula x1−x (x ~ 0.3), is a magnetostrictive material.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Malaysian Insider

The Malaysian Insider (also known as TMI, The Insider, or Malay Ins Ins) was a popular Malaysian bilingual news site.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thor Lake

Thor Lake is a deposit of rare metals located in the Blachford Lake intrusive complex.

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Thorium

Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Thule

Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.

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Thulium

Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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University of Tokyo

, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium ore

Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.

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Uranium-238

Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets

Vasili Evgrafovich Samarsky–Bykhovets (Васи́лий Евгра́фович Сама́рский-Быховец; November 7, 1803 – May 31, 1870) was a Russian mining engineer and the chief of Russian Mining Engineering Corps between 1845 and 1861.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

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Waste

Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

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Welding goggles

Welding goggles provide a degree of eye protection while some forms of welding and cutting are being done.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Western Cape

The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.

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Wilhelm Hisinger

Wilhelm Hisinger (December 23, 1766 – June 28, 1852) was a Swedish physicist and chemist who in 1807, working in coordination with Jöns Jakob Berzelius, noted that in electrolysis any given substance always went to the same pole, and that substances attracted to the same pole had other properties in common.

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William Crookes

Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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X-ray machine

An X-ray machine is any machine that involves X-rays.

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X-ray tube

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

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Xenotime

Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).

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Ytterbium

Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.

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Ytterby

Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.

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Yttria-stabilized zirconia

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a ceramic in which the crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.

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Yttrialite

Yttrialite or Yttrialite-(Y) is a rare yttrium thorium sorosilicate mineral with formula: (Y,Th)2Si2O7.

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Yttrium

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yttrium aluminium garnet

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.

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Yttrium barium copper oxide

Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.

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Yttrium iron garnet

Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.

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Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.

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Zircon

Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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2010 Senkaku boat collision incident

The 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident (or the Minjinyu 5179 incident) occurred on the morning of September 7, 2010, when a Chinese trawler, Minjinyu 5179, operating in disputed waters collided with Japanese Coast Guard's patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rare-earth_element

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