98 relations: Acyl-protein thioesterase, Adenylyl cyclase, Alpha helix, Amino acid, Animal, Apoptosis, Arfaptin, Beta sheet, Cancer, Cdc25, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell migration, Cellular differentiation, Conformational change, Cytoskeleton, DIRAS3 (gene), Edward Scolnick, Effector (biology), Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Farnesyltransferase, Farnesyltransferase inhibitor, G protein, GEM (gene), Geoffrey M. Cooper, Golgi apparatus, GTPase, GTPase-activating protein, Guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Guanosine, Guanosine diphosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Herpes simplex virus, Heterotrimeric G protein, HRAS, Hydrolysis, ICMT, Institute of Cancer Research, Ion, KRAS, Magnesium in biology, MAPK/ERK pathway, Mariano Barbacid, Metastasis, Methyltransferase, Michael Wigler, MRAS, ..., Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog, Neurofibromatosis, Neurofibromin 1, NKIRAS2, Nucleophile, Nucleotide, Oncogene, Palmitoylation, Pancreatic cancer, Pfam, Phosphate, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Prenylation, Protein Data Bank, Protein family, Protein splicing, PTPN11, RALA, RALB, RAP1A, RAP1B, RAP2A, RAP2B, Ras superfamily, RASD1, RASD2, RasGEF domain, RASL11B, RCE1, Reolysin, Reoviridae, RERG, Robert Weinberg, Robin Weiss, RRAD, RRAS, RRAS2, Sarcoma, Secretion, Signal transduction, Small GTPase, Son of Sevenless, Stuart A. Aaronson, Transcription (biology), Tumor suppressor, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Walker motifs. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Acyl-protein thioesterases are enzymes that cleave off lipid modifications on proteins, located on the sulfur atom of cysteine residues linked via a thioester bond.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
In molecular biology, the arfaptin domain is a protein domain which interacts with ARF1, a small GTPase involved in vesicle budding at the Golgi complex and immature secretory granules.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
GTP-binding protein Di-Ras3 (DIRAS3) also known as aplysia ras homology member I (ARHI) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIRAS3 gene.
Edward Scolnick is a core investigator at the Broad Institute, the former founding director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute, and former head of research and development at Merck Research Laboratories.
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Farnesyltransferase is one of the three enzymes in the prenyltransferase group.
The farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are a class of experimental cancer drugs that target protein farnesyltransferase with the downstream effect of preventing the proper functioning of the Ras (protein), which is commonly abnormally active in cancer.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
GTP-binding protein GEM is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEM gene.
Geoffrey M. Cooper is professor of biology at Boston University.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event.
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to allow binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
GTPase HRas also known as transforming protein p21 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HRAS gene.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ICMT gene.
The Institute of Cancer Research (the ICR) is a public research institute and a constituent college of the University of London in London, United Kingdom, specialising in oncology.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
KRAS (K-ras or Ki-ras) is a gene that acts as an on/off switch in cell signalling.
Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Mariano Barbacid (born 4 October 1949 in Madrid) is a Spanish molecular biochemist who discovered the first oncogene.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Methyltransferases are a large group of enzymes that all methylate their substrates but can be split into several subclasses based on their structural features.
Michael Howard Wigler (born September 3, 1947 in New York) is an American molecular biologist who has directed a laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory since 1978 and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Ras-related protein M-Ras, also known as muscle RAS oncogene homolog and R-Ras3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRAS gene on chromosome 3.
NRAS is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NRAS gene.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a group of three conditions in which tumors grow in the nervous system.
Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) is a gene in humans that is located on chromosome 17.
NF-κB inhibitor interacting Ras-like 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKIRAS2 gene.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
Pfam is a database of protein families that includes their annotations and multiple sequence alignments generated using hidden Markov models.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
Protein splicing is an intramolecular reaction of a particular protein in which an internal protein segment (called an intein) is removed from a precursor protein with a ligation of C-terminal and N-terminal external proteins (called exteins) on both sides.
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11) also known as protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1D (PTP-1D), SHP-2, or protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2C (PTP-2C) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN11 gene.
Ras-related protein Ral-A (RalA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RALA gene on chromosome 7.
Ras-related protein Ral-B (RalB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RALB gene on chromosome 2.
Ras-related protein Rap-1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP1A gene.
Ras-related protein Rap-1b, also known as GTP-binding protein smg p21B, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP1B gene.
Ras-related protein Rap-2a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP2A gene.
Ras-related protein Rap-2b is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAP2B gene.
The Ras superfamily is a protein superfamily of small GTPases.
Dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (RASD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASD1 gene on chromosome 17.
GTP-binding protein Rhes is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASD2 gene.
RasGEF domain is domain found in the CDC25 family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Ras-like small GTPases.
Ras-like protein family member 11B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASL11B gene.
CAAX prenyl protease 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RCE1 gene.
REOLYSIN® (pelareorep; Wild-Type Reovirus; Serotype 3 Dearing; Oncolytics Biotech Inc.), is a proprietary isolate of the unmodified human reovirus (reovirus) being developed as a first-in-class systemically administered immuno-oncology viral agent for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies.
Reoviridae is a family of viruses.
RAS-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor is a protein in humans that is encoded by the RERG gene.
Robert Allan Weinberg (born November 11, 1942) is a biologist, Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), director of the Ludwig Center of the MIT, and American Cancer Society Research Professor.
Robert Anthony "Robin" Weiss (born 20 February 1940) is a British molecular biologist, Professor of Viral Oncology at University College London and a member of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
GTP-binding protein RAD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRAD gene.
Ras-related protein R-Ras is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRAS gene.
Ras-related protein R-Ras2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRAS2 gene.
A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Small GTPases, also known as small G-proteins, are a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
In cell signalling, Son of Sevenless (SOS) refers to a set of genes encoding guanine nucleotide exchange factors that act on the Ras subfamily of small GTPases.
Stuart A. Aaronson, M.D., is an American author and internationally recognized cancer biologist.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The Walker A and Walker B motifs are protein sequence motifs, known to have highly conserved three-dimensional structures.