276 relations: Abortion, Abrahamic religions, Accra, African diaspora, African Herbsman, African nationalism, Afro-Jamaican, Afrocentrism, Afterlife, Akete, Alcohol, Amen, Amharic, Anthony B, Archibald Dunkley, Atlantic slave trade, Awake Zion, Babylon, Back-to-Africa movement, Bible, Biblical literalism, Birmingham, Birth control, Black nationalism, Black Power, Black separatism, Black supremacy, Bob Marley, Bob Marley and the Wailers, Bobo Ashanti, Bolgatanga, Bong, Book of Daniel, Book of Leviticus, Book of Numbers, Book of Revelation, Bordeaux, Bristol, British African-Caribbean people, Brixton, Buju Banton, Bull Bay, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Burru, Calypso music, Cannabis (drug), Cannabis and religion, Cannabis sativa, Cape Coast, Capitalism, ..., Capleton, Catechism, Charles Edwards (Rastafari), Chillum (pipe), Chinese Jamaicans, Chosen people, Christianity, Cigarette, Cocaine, Colonialism, Colony of Jamaica, Count Ossie, Counterculture, Creed, Creolization, Cult, Cultural heritage, Dancehall, David, Democratic socialism, Derg, Devil, Don Drummond, Dreadlocks, Edward Wilmot Blyden, England and Wales, English language, Entheogenic use of cannabis, Environmental justice, Ermias Sahle Selassie, Ethiopian movement, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian suit, Ethiopian World Federation, Evil, Feminism, Fetish priest, Fitz Balintine Pettersburg, Flag of Ethiopia, Flag of Jamaica, Flying Spaghetti Monster, Food steamer, Free Villages, Gad (son of Jacob), Gang, George Jackson (activist), George V, Ghanaian general election, 2000, God the Father, God the Son, Gospel of John, Great Depression, Haile Selassie, Haitian Vodou, Hebrew calendar, Heroin, Heterodoxy, Hijab, Hinduism, Holy Piby, Holy Spirit, Homophobia, Imperial Ethiopian World Federation Incorporated Political Party, Indentured servitude, Indo-Jamaicans, Internet, Invented tradition, Islam, Israel, Israelites, Ital, Jacob, Jah, Jamaica, Jamaicans in Ethiopia, Japan, Jérémie K. Dagnini, Jehovah, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewish diaspora, Joint (cannabis), Joseph Hibbert, Judaism, Judeo-Christian, Junior Byles, Kashrut, Kikuyu people, King James Version, Kongo people, Kumina, Kwame Nkrumah, Lafayette, Louisiana, Legality of cannabis, Leicester, Leonard Howell, Lion of Judah, List of Caribbean membranophones, List of topics related to the African diaspora, Liverpool, Livity (spiritual concept), Luciano, Maasai people, Malcolm X, Manchester, Mansions of Rastafari, Marcus Garvey, Mau Mau Uprising, Māori people, Mengistu Haile Mariam, Menstruation, Mento, Mesopotamia, Messiah, Michael Manley, Michael X, Millenarianism, Monotheism, Mulatto, Mutabaruka, Mysticism, Nairobi, New Internationalist, New Jewel Movement, New religious movement, New social movements, New Testament, New York (state), Notting Hill, Nuclear warfare, Nyabinghi, Old Testament, Organic farming, Oromo people, Orthodoxy, Pan-Africanism, Paris, Patois, Patriarchy, Paul the Apostle, Pentecostalism, Percussion instrument, Persecution of Rastafari, Peter B. Clarke, Peter Tosh, Phonetics, Pilgrimage, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Promised Land, Psalms, Queen of Sheba, Race Relations Act 1976, Racism, Rattle (percussion instrument), Reggae, Reincarnation, Religion, Religious conversion, Religious studies, Reuters, Revitalization movement, Rivers of Babylon, Robert Athlyi Rogers, Rocky Dawuni, Roman Empire, Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, Rude boy, Sacrament, Sadhu, Safeway Inc., Saint Thomas Parish, Jamaica, Samson, Santería, Second Coming, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second-class citizen, Sect, Sexism, Sexual objectification, Shashamane, Sizzla, Ska, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Social commentary, Social justice, Social movement, Socialism, Solomon, Solomonic dynasty, Somalis, Spanish Town, Stephen D. Glazier, Sunday school, Surinamese people in the Netherlands, Tam o' shanter (cap), Tamale, Ghana, Tambourine, Tema, The Bible and homosexuality, The Melodians, The New York Review of Books, The Promised Key, Tommy Cowan, Toronto, Traditional African religions, Trinity, Twelve Tribes of Israel (Rastafari), United Kingdom census, 2001, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations, United States invasion of Grenada, Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, Vegetarianism, Vegetarianism and religion, Veneration of the dead, Vernon Carrington, W. E. B. Du Bois, Walter Rodney, West Kingston, Jamaica, Western world, White Jamaicans, Whore of Babylon, World religions, Yekuno Amlak, Zion, 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia. Expand index (226 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African Herbsman is a compilation of the Wailers songs, released by Trojan Records in 1973, shortly after their major-label debut album Catch a Fire had been released by Island Records.
African nationalism is an umbrella term which refers to a group of political ideologies, mainly within Sub-Saharan Africa, which are based on the idea of national self-determination and the creation of nation states.
Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans who are entirely or of partial African descent.
Afrocentrism (also Afrocentricity) is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Akete (or kete) are drums commonly used in Nyabinghi music, and kete is sometimes used to refer to one of these drums, the "repeater".
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The word amen (Hebrew אָמֵן, Greek ἀμήν, Arabic آمِينَ) is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Keith Blair (born 31 March 1976, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica), better known by the stage name Anthony B, is a Jamaican deejay and member of the Rastafari movement.
Henry Archibald Dunkley was, along with Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, and Robert Hinds, one of the first preachers of the Rastafari movement in Jamaica following the coronation of Ras Tafari as Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia on 2 November 1930.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Awake Zion is a 2005 documentary by Monica Haim that documents a connection between Jews and Rastafarians.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or After slave act, originated in the United States in the 19th century.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.
Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for those of African descent in societies, particularly in the United States.
Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people are superior to people of other races.
Robert Nesta Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter who became an international musical and cultural icon, blending mostly reggae, ska, and rocksteady in his compositions.
Bob Marley and the Wailers was a Jamaican reggae band led by Bob Marley.
Bobo Ashanti ("Ashanti" to pay homage to their Asante ancestors of the Akan tribe in present-day Ghana), also called the Ethiopian International Congress, is a religious group based in Bull Bay near Kingston, Jamaica.
Bolgatanga, colloquially known as Bolga, is a town and the capital of the Bolgatanga Municipal District and Upper East Region of north Ghana.
A bong (also water pipe, billy, bing, or moof) is a filtration device generally used for smoking cannabis, tobacco, or other herbal substances.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
British African Caribbean (or Afro-Caribbean) people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were primarily indigenous to Africa.
Brixton is a district of south London, England, within the London Borough of Lambeth.
Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie; 15 July 1973)Larkin, Colin (1998) "The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae", Virgin Books, is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae musician.
Bull Bay is located on the south east coast of Jamaica 10 miles to the east of Kingston on the border between St Andrew and St Thomas, beside its lesser-known sister, Cow Bay.
The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.
Burru is an Ashanti-Jamaican style of drumming.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Different religions have varying stances on the use of cannabis, historically and presently.
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.
Cape Coast, or Cabo Corso, is a city, fishing port, and the capital of Cape Coast Metropolitan District and Central Region of south Ghana.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Clifton George Bailey III (born 13 April 1967),Thompson, Dave (2002) Reggae & Caribbean Music, Backbeat Books,, pp.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
Charles Edwards (1915 –1994), called "Emmanuel" by his followers, was a Jamaican Rastafari who founded the Bobo Shanti order in 1958 in Bull Bay in Jamaica, and is held by that group to be a member of the holy Trinity, along with Haile Selassie I and Marcus Garvey.
A chillum, or chilam, is a straight conical pipe with end-to-end channel, traditionally made of clay and used since at least the eighteenth century by Hindu monks, known as sadhus in India.
Chinese Jamaicans are Jamaican people of Chinese ancestry, which include descendants of migrants from China to Jamaica.
Throughout history, various groups of people have considered themselves to be chosen people by a deity for a purpose, such as to act as the deity's agent on earth.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain) or 1670 (when Spain formally ceded Jamaica to the English), and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent.
Count Ossie, born Oswald Williams (1926 – 18 October 1976)Moskowitz, David V. (2006) Caribbean Popular Music: an Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, and Dancehall, Greenwood Press,, p. 317-8 was a Jamaican Rastafari drummer and band leader.
A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.
The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Don Drummond (12 March 1932Cane-Honeysett, L: Don Drummond Memorial Album, liner notes. Trojan 2009. – 6 May 1969) was a Jamaican ska trombonist and composer.
Dreadlocks, also locs, dreads, or in Sanskrit, Jaṭā, are ropelike strands of hair formed by matting or braiding hair.
Edward Wilmot Blyden (3 August 1832 – 7 February 1912) was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician primarily in Liberia.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Cannabis has been used in an entheogenic context—a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context—in India and Nepal since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.
Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie (born 14 June 1960 in Addis Ababa) is the only son of Prince Sahle Selassie of Ethiopia and Princess Mahisente Habte Mariam.
The Ethiopian movement is a religious movement that began in southern Africa towards the end of the 19th century, when two groups broke away from the Anglican and Methodist churches.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
An Ethiopian suit is the name given in America to the traditional formal wear of the men of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian World Federation (EWF) was established in the United States in 1937.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
In Ghana, Togo, Benin and other countries of West Africa, a fetish priest is a person who serves as a mediator between the spirit and the living.
Reverend Fitz Balintine Pettersburg was a proto-Rastafari preacher, and author of the Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy, published in 1926.
The national flag of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ሰንደቅ ዓላማ, ye-Ityoppya Sendeq Alama) was adopted on 31 October 1996.
The flag of Jamaica was adopted on 6 August 1962, the original Jamaican Independence Day, the country having gained independence from the British-protected Federation of the West Indies.
The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, or Pastafarianism.
A food steamer or steam cooker is a small kitchen appliance used to cook or prepare various foods with steam heat by means of holding the food in a closed vessel reducing steam escape.
Free Villages is the term used for Caribbean settlements, particularly in Jamaica, founded in the 1830s and 1840s with land for freedmen independent of the control of plantation owners and other major estates.
Gad was, according to the Book of Genesis, the first son of Jacob and Zilpah, the seventh of Jacob overall, and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Gad.
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, and possibly violent, behavior.
George Lester Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was an African-American activist and author.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
General elections were held in Ghana on 7 December 2000, with a second round of the presidential election on 28 December.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Haitian Vodou (also written as Vaudou; known commonly as Voodoo, sometimes as Vodun, Vodoun, Vodu, or Vaudoux) is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Holy Piby is a proto-Rastafari text written by an Anguillan, Robert Athlyi Rogers (d. 1931), for the use of an Afrocentric religion in the West Indies founded by Rogers in the 1920s, known as the Afro-Athlican Constructive Gaathly.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
The Imperial Ethiopian World Federation Incorporated Political Party is a political party in Jamaica.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
Indo-Jamaicans or Indian Jamaicans are the descendants of people who came from the Indian subcontinent to Jamaica and are or the descendants of citizens or nationals of Jamaica.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The invention of tradition is a concept made prominent in the eponymous 1983 book edited by British Marxist intellectual E. J. Hobsbawm and T. O. Ranger.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Ital, also spelled I-tal, is food often celebrated by those in the Rastafari movement.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jah or Yah (יהּ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH יהוה, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jamaicans in Ethiopia comprise Jamaican emigrants and expatriates residing in Ethiopia and their descendants born in Ethiopia.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jérémie K. Dagnini is a French academic, specializing in Jamaican popular music.
Jehovah is a Latinization of the Hebrew, one vocalization of the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), the proper name of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible and one of the seven names of God in Judaism.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
A joint, spliff, jay, or doobie, is a rolled marijuana cigarette.
Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert (1894 – September 18, 1986) was, along with Leonard Howell, Archibald Dunkley, and Robert Hinds, one of the first preachers of the Rastafari movement in Jamaica following the coronation of Ras Tafari as Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia on 2 November 1930.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Kerrie Byles (born 17 July 1948 in Kingston, Jamaica), also known as "Junior Byles", "Chubby", or "King Chubby", is a Jamaican reggae singer.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
The Kikuyu (also Akikûyu/Agikuyu/Gikuyu) is the largest ethnic group in Kenya.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kongo people (Kongo: Esikongo (singular: Mwisikngo, also Bakongo (singular: Mukongo) "since about 1910 it is not uncommon for the term Bakongo (singular Mukongo) to be used, especially in areas north of the Zaire river, and by intellectuals and anthropologists adopting a standard nomenclature for Bantu-speaking peoples." J. K. Thornton, "Mbanza Kongo / São Salvador" in Anderson (ed.), Africa's Urban Past (2000)) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well organized Kongo kingdom, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and north of Luanda, Angola., Encyclopædia Britannica They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 10,220,000. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, and began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in.
Kumina is an African Jamaican religion and practices that include secular ceremonies, dance and music that developed from the beliefs and traditions brought to the island by BaKongo enslaved people and indentured labourers, from the Congo region of West Central Africa, during the post-emancipation era.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
Lafayette is a city in and the parish seat of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, located along the Vermilion River in the southwestern part of the state.
The legality of cannabis for general or recreational use varies from country to country.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Leonard Percival Howell (June 16, 1898 – February 25, 1981), also known as The Gong or G.G. Maragh (for Gong Guru), was a Jamaican religious figure.
The Lion of Judah is the symbol of the Hebrew tribe of Judah (the Jewish tribe).
This is a list of membranophones used in the Caribbean music area, including the islands of the Caribbean Sea, as well as the musics of Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Belize, Garifuna music, and Bermuda.
This is a list of topics related to the African diaspora.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Livity is the Rastafarian concept of righteous, everliving living.
Luciano is an Italian, Spanish and Portuguese given name and surname.
Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mansions of Rastafari is an umbrella term for the various groups of the Rastafari movement.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. ONH (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a proponent of Black nationalism in the United States and most importantly Jamaica.
The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1964), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920–63).
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Michael Norman Manley ON OCC (10 December 1924 – 6 March 1997) was a Jamaican politician who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992.
Michael X (1933 – 16 May 1975), born Michael de Freitas in Trinidad and Tobago, was a self-styled black revolutionary and civil rights activist in 1960s London.
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Allan Hope, better known as Mutabaruka, is a Jamaican Rastafari dub poet, musician, actor, educator, and talk-show host, who developed two of Jamaica's most popular radio programs, The Cutting Edge and Steppin' Razor.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
New Internationalist (NI) is an independent, non-profit, publishing co-operative, based in Oxford, United Kingdom.
The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM) was a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada that was led by Maurice Bishop.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The term new social movements (NSMs) is a theory of social movements that attempts to explain the plethora of new movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i.e. in a post-industrial economy) which are claimed to depart significantly from the conventional social movement paradigm.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Notting Hill is a district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea (with eastern sections of Westbourne Grove merging into the City of Westminster).
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Nyabinghi is the oldest of the Mansions of Rastafari.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis.
Peter Bernard Clarke (25 October 1940 – June 2011) was a British scholar of religion and founding editor of the Journal of Contemporary Religion.
Peter Tosh, OM (born Winston Hubert McIntosh; 19 October 1944 – 11 September 1987) was a Jamaican reggae musician.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Promised Land (הארץ המובטחת, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; أرض الميعاد, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Queen of Sheba (Musnad: 𐩣𐩡𐩫𐩩𐩪𐩨𐩱) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
The Race Relations Act 1976 was established by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to prevent discrimination on the grounds of race.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
In 1956, Anthony F. C. Wallace published a paper called "Revitalization Movements" to describe how cultures change themselves.
"Rivers of Babylon" is a Rastafari song written and recorded by Brent Dowe and Trevor McNaughton of the Jamaican reggae group The Melodians in 1970.
Robert Athlyi Rogers (Shepherd Robert Athlyi Rogers), born in Anguilla, was the author of the Holy Piby, generally recognized as one of the most important foundational texts in Rastafarian theology, although not strictly speaking a Rastafarian document.
Rocky Dawuni is a Ghanaian singer and songwriter who performs his signature 'Afro Roots' sound which is a mixture of Reggae, Afrobeat, Highlife and soul music.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy is a text from Jamaica, written during the 1920s by a proto-Rastafari preacher, Fitz Balintine Pettersburg.
Rude boy, rudeboy, rudie, rudi, and rudy are slang terms that originated in 1960s Jamaican street culture, and that are still used today.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.
Safeway, Inc., is an American supermarket chain founded in 1915.
Saint Thomas, once known as Saint Thomas in the East, is a suburban parish situated at the south eastern end of Jamaica, within the county of Surrey.
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire.
Shashamane (or Shashemene, Oromo) is a town and a separate woreda in West Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
Miguel Orlando Collins (born 17 April 1976), known by his stage name Sizzla Kalonji or Sizzla, is a Jamaican reggae musician.
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
Social commentary is the act of using rhetorical means to provide commentary on issues in a society.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Spanish Town is the capital and the largest town in the parish of St. Catherine in the historic county of Middlesex, Jamaica.
Stephen D. Glazier (born Mystic, Connecticut) is an American anthropologist.
A Sunday School is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christian, which catered to children and other young people who would be working on weekdays.
Surinamese people in the Netherlands are people in the Netherlands who come from a Surinamese background.
A tam o' shanter (in the British military often abbreviated to ToS) is a name given to the traditional Scottish bonnet worn by men.
Tamale (Akan), officially called Tamale Metropolitan Area, is the capital town of the Northern Region of Ghana.
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils".
Tema is a city on the Bight of Benin and Atlantic coast of Ghana.
Passages in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament have been interpreted as involving same-sex sexual acts and desires.
The Melodians are a rocksteady band formed in the Greenwich Town area of Kingston, Jamaica, in 1963, by Tony Brevett (born 1949, nephew of The Skatalites bassist, Lloyd Brevett), Brent Dowe and Trevor McNaughton.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The Promised Key, sometimes known as The Promise Key, is a 1935 Rastafari movement tract by Jamaican preacher Leonard Howell, written under Howell's Hindu pen name G. G. Maragh (for Gong Guru).
Tommy Cowan CD (b. Thomas Lincoln Cowan, 6 April 1946, Saint Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica) is a producer and singer, initially working in reggae but later concentrating on gospel, who has been involved in the music business since the 1960s.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
The Twelve Tribes of Israel is a Rastafari religious group and one of the Mansions of Rastafari.
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States invasion of Grenada was a 1983 invasion led by the United States of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located north of Venezuela, that resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of weeks.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in 1914 by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Vegetarianism is strongly linked with a number of religions that originated in ancient India (Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism).
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vernon Carrington (November 1, 1936 – March 22, 2005) founded the Twelve Tribes of Israel branch of the Rastafari movement in 1968.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Walter Anthony Rodney (23 March 1942 – 13 June 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian, political activist and academic.
West Kingston is an area of Kingston, Jamaica that includes the communities of Tivoli Gardens and Seaview Gardens.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
White Jamaicans or European Jamaicans are Jamaicans whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably England, Ireland, Scotland, Spain, Germany, and Portugal As of 2013, people of solely European descent are a small minority in Jamaica making up only 0.2% of the population.
The Whore of Babylon or Babylon the Great is a mythological female figure and also place of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible.
World religions is a category used in the study of religion to demarcate the five—and in some cases six—largest and most internationally widespread religious movements.
Emperor Yekuno Amlak (ይኵኖ አምላክ; throne name Tasfa Iyasus) was an Amhara prince from Bet Amhara province (in today's Wollo region) who became king of kings of Ethiopia following the defeat of the last Zagwe king.
Zion (צִיּוֹן Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem as well as for the biblical Land of Israel as a whole.
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia from 1983 to 1985.
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