110 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Aerobic organism, Ageing, Alzheimer's disease, Antioxidant, Antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols, Apoptosis, Apoptosome, Autophagy, Benignity, Blebbishield emergency program, Blood, Brain, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cardiovascular disease, Carotenoid, Catalase, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, Chemical species, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Cisplatin, Cochlea, Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, Cognitive test, Copper, Disproportionation, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA damage theory of aging, DNA fragmentation, Drosophila, Electron transport chain, Free-radical theory of aging, Gene, Gerbil, Glutathione, Glutathione peroxidase, Health effects from noise, Hearing loss, Hippocampus, Homeostasis, Hormesis, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroperoxyl, Hydroxyl radical, Immune system, Injury, Iodide, ..., Ionizing radiation, Iron, Ischemia, James Watson, Jasmonate, Lipid peroxidation, Male infertility, Manganese, Melanin, Metabolism, Metabolite, Mitochondrion, Mitogen, Molecule, Mouse, Myocardial infarction, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), NADPH oxidase, Necrosis, Neocortex, Nickel, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Oxidation state, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Oxygen toxicity, Peroxide, Peroxiredoxin, Peroxisome, Phagocytosis, Photosensitizer, Photosynthesis, Physical fitness, Physiology, Plastoquinone, Platelet, Pro-oxidant, Protein, Radiolysis, Rat, Reactive nitrogen species, Reactive oxygen species production in marine microalgae, RNA, Second messenger system, Signal transduction, Singlet oxygen, Spermatozoon, Spin trapping, Stroke, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, T cell, Tissue (biology), Tocopherol, Ultraviolet, White blood cell, Wound, Xenobiotic, 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The apoptosome is a large quaternary protein structure formed in the process of apoptosis.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.
Blebbishield emergency program is a process which acts as a last line of defense for cancer stem cells after induction of apoptosis where the apoptotic blebs fuse to shield the cells/nucleus from the destructive force of apoptosis by forming blebbishields.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
The coenzyme Q: cytochrome c – oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain, playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).
Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages.
DNA fragmentation is the separation or breaking of DNA strands into pieces.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the perhydroxyl radical, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based plant hormones that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development.
Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative degradation of lipids.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.
The NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex that faces the extracellular space.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs,; HGNC root symbol PRDX) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that also control cytokine-induced peroxide levels and thereby mediate signal transduction in mammalian cells.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
A photosensitizer is a molecule that produces a chemical change in another molecule in a photochemical process.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plastoquinone (PQ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either by generating reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant systems.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by ionizing radiation.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are a family of antimicrobial molecules derived from nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (O2•−) produced via the enzymatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and NADPH oxidase respectively.
All living cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a byproduct of metabolism.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Spin trapping is an analytical technique employed in chemistry and biology for the detection and identification of short-lived free radicals through the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is an oxidized derivative of deoxyguanosine.