265 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Abductive reasoning, Abrahamic religions, Ada Lovelace, Al-Farabi, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alvin Plantinga, Ancient Greece, Antonio Damasio, Arcadia (utopia), Arche, Argument, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Art, Artificial intelligence, Association (psychology), Athens, Attitude (psychology), Automated reasoning, Automated theorem proving, Autonomy, Averroes, Avicenna, Étienne Gilson, Baruch Spinoza, Behavior, Belief, Case-based reasoning, Categorical imperative, Category of being, Causality, Charles Darwin, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Taylor (philosopher), City-state, Classical antiquity, Clinical psychology, Cognition, Cognitive science, Communicative rationality, Comparative psychology, Computer science, Confirmation bias, Conformity, Consciousness, Consistency, Cosmopolitanism, Cosmos, Counterfactual thinking, ..., Critical thinking, Critique of Pure Reason, Dan Sperber, David Hume, Deductive reasoning, Democritus, Descartes' Error, Dharma, Discourse on Inequality, Douglas Hofstadter, Early modern period, Eastern philosophy, Economics, Edmund Husserl, Emile, or On Education, Empedocles, Empiricism, English language, Epistemology, Erich Auerbach, Eudaimonia, Europe, Event (philosophy), Evolution, Fact, Faith, Fallacy, False (logic), Fantasy, Fideism, First principle, Fitness (biology), Formal fallacy, Formal proof, Formal specification, Francis Bacon, Free Press (publisher), Freedom, French language, French Revolution, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friendship, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Geneva, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German idealism, Goal, Good and evil, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Great Britain, Greek language, Group selection, Henri Bergson, Heraclitus, Hinduism, History, Human, Human nature, Idealism, Imagination, Immanuel Kant, Inductive reasoning, Informal logic, Information, Institution, Intellect, Intelligence quotient, Intersubjectivity, Intuition, Iranian philosophy, Irrationality, Islamic philosophy, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jürgen Habermas, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jerusalem, Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Gottfried Herder, John Locke, Karl Marx, Knowledge, Language, Languages of Europe, Latin, Law, Law (principle), Lectures on the Philosophy of History, Leo Strauss, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Liberalism, Lifeworld, Logic, Logic and rationality, Logical form, Logical reasoning, Logos, Maimonides, Martin Heidegger, Mathematics, Max Scheler, Meno, Mental process, Merlin Donald, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Michel Foucault, Mimesis, Mind, Monotheism, Muslim, Nationalism, Natural law, Nature, Nature (philosophy), Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, Neologism, Neoplatonism, Neurophysiology, Neuropsychology, Nicomachean Ethics, Nikolas Kompridis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Noam Chomsky, Norm (philosophy), Nous, On Memory, On the Soul, Origin of language, Outline of human intelligence, Outline of thought, Paradigm, Paul Feyerabend, Phenomenon, Philosopher, Philosophy, Physis, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Plato, Platonism, Plotinus, Poetics (Aristotle), Politics (Aristotle), Pope Benedict XVI, Posterior Analytics, Practical reason, Probability, Psyche (psychology), Psychology, Psychology of reasoning, Psychotherapy, Pythagoras, Rational animal, Rational choice theory, Rationalism, Rationality, Rationalization (psychology), Reality, Reason (argument), Reflection (computer programming), Reflexivity (social theory), Religion, Renaissance, René Descartes, Republic (Plato), Revelation, Richard Rorty, Russian Revolution, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Søren Kierkegaard, Science, Secularity, Self-determination, Semantics (computer science), Seth Benardete, Sigmund Freud, Sign (linguistics), Skepticism, Software engineering, Somatic marker hypothesis, Soul, Space, Speculative reason, Springer Science+Business Media, Stephen Jay Gould, Steven Pinker, Stoicism, Subjectivity, Syllogism, Symbol, Tao, Teleology, Terrence Deacon, The Social Contract, Theology, Theory, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Thought, Thumos, Time, Tradition, Transcendental arguments, Tripurari, Truth, Type–token distinction, Universality (philosophy), Verbal reasoning, Wason selection task, Western culture, Western literature, Western world, Wisdom, World disclosure, World view. Expand index (215 more) » « Shrink index
A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,For example: abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation or set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.
Arcadia (Ἀρκαδία) refers to a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature.
Arche (ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action".
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Association in psychology refers to a mental connection between concepts, events, or mental states that usually stems from specific experiences.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person.
Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Étienne Gilson (13 June 1884 – 19 September 1978) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Case-based reasoning (CBR), broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems.
The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
In ontology, the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being; or simply categories.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Communicative rationality, or communicative reason (kommunikative Rationalität), is a theory or set of theories which describes human rationality as a necessary outcome of successful communication.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.
Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
The cosmos is the universe.
Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology that involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Dan Sperber (born 20 June 1942, Cagnes-sur-Mer) is a French social and cognitive scientist.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain is a 1994 book by neurologist António Damásio, in part a treatment of the mind/body dualism question.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Erich Auerbach (November 9, 1892 – October 13, 1957) was a German philologist and comparative scholar and critic of literature.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In philosophy, events are objects in time or instantiations of properties in objects.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.
In logic, false or untrue is the state of possessing negative truth value or a nullary logical connective.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow") is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences (called well-formed formulas in the case of a formal language), each of which is an axiom, an assumption, or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference.
In computer science, formal specifications are mathematically based techniques whose purpose are to help with the implementation of systems and software.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Iranian philosophy (Persian:فلسفه ایرانی) or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings.
Irrationality is cognition, thinking, talking, or acting without inclusion of rationality.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A law is a universal principle that describes the fundamental nature of something, the universal properties and the relationships between things, or a description that purports to explain these principles and relationships.
Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (LPH;, VPW), is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Lifeworld (Lebenswelt) may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given, a world that subjects may experience together.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
As the study of argument is of clear importance to the reasons that we hold things to be true, logic is of essential importance to rationality.
In philosophy and mathematics, a logical form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system.
Informally, two kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal deduction: induction and abduction.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Max Ferdinand Scheler (22 August 1874 – 19 May 1928) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology.
Meno (Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
Merlin Wilfred Donald (born November 17, 1939) is a Canadian psychologist, neuroanthropologist, and cognitive neuroscientist, at Case Western Reserve University.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development criticize and build upon Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Nikolas Kompridis, is a Canadian philosopher and political theorist.
Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Καζαντζάκης; 18 February 188326 October 1957) was a Greek writer.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
On Memory (Greek: Περὶ μνήμης καὶ ἀναμνήσεως; Latin: De memoria et reminiscentia) is one of the short treatises that make up Aristotle's Parva Naturalia.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human intelligence: Human intelligence is, in the human species, the mental capacities to learn, understand, and reason, including the capacities to comprehend ideas, plan, solve problems, and use language to communicate.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking): Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
The Posterior Analytics (Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge.
In philosophy, practical reason is the use of reason to decide how to act.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The psychology of reasoning is the study of how people reason, often broadly defined as the process of drawing conclusions to inform how people solve problems and make decisions.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
The term rational animal (Latin: animal rationale or animal rationabile) refers to a classical definition of humanity or human nature, associated with Aristotelianism.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
In psychology and logic, rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable—or even admirable and superior—by plausible means.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
A reason is a consideration which justifies or explains.
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.
In epistemology, and more specifically, the sociology of knowledge, reflexivity refers to circular relationships between cause and effect, especially as embedded in human belief structures.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Ruth M.J.Byrne, FTCD, MRIA (born 1962) is an Irish cognitive scientist and author of several books on human reasoning, including (2005, MIT Press), Deduction (1991, co-author Philip Johnson-Laird, Erlbaum), and Human Reasoning (1993, with Jonathan Evans & Stephen Newstead, Erlbaum).
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
Seth Benardete (April 4, 1930 – November 14, 2001) was an American classicist and philosopher, long a member of the faculties of New York University and The New School.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
A linguistic sign is a part of language used to indicate a being.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
The somatic marker hypothesis, formulated by Antonio Damasio, proposes that emotional processes guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Terrence William Deacon (born 1950) is an American Neuroanthropologist (Ph.D. in Biological Anthropology, Harvard University 1984).
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Thumos (also commonly spelled thymos; θυμός) is a Greek word expressing the concept of "spiritedness" (as in "spirited stallion" or "spirited debate").
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
A transcendental argument is a deductive philosophical argument which takes a manifest feature of experience as granted, and articulates which must be the case so that experience as such is possible.
Tripurari Swami, also known as Swami BV Tripurari, is an American author, poet, and guru, described as "a prominent master in the Gaudiya Vaishnava lineage", and "one of the leading practitioners of Bhakti-yoga in the West.".
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The type–token distinction is used in disciplines such as logic, linguistics, metalogic, typography, and computer programming to clarify what words mean.
In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.
Verbal reasoning is understanding and reasoning using concepts framed in words.
The Wason selection task (or four-card problem) is a logic puzzle devised by Peter Cathcart Wason in 1966.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
World disclosure (Erschlossenheit, literally "development, comprehension") refers to how things become intelligible and meaningfully relevant to human beings, by virtue of being part of an ontological world – i.e., a pre-interpreted and holistically structured background of meaning.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
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