128 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accent perception, Affricate consonant, Alexander John Ellis, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American English, Antonia Fraser, Approximant consonant, Archbishop of Canterbury, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, BBC News, Boris Johnson, British English, British Library, British royal family, Cape Coloureds, Cardinal vowels, Carey Mulligan, Central vowel, Christopher Hitchens, Clipping (phonetics), Clive Upton, Close back unrounded vowel, Close vowel, Coarticulation, Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Conservative Received Pronunciation, Cot–caught merger, Creaky voice, Daniel Jones (phonetician), David Attenborough, David Cameron, Deborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dialect, Diphthong, Early Modern English, East Anglian English, East Midlands, East Midlands English, Edward Stourton (journalist), Elizabeth II, English language in England, English Pronouncing Dictionary, English-language spelling reform, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Flapping, ..., Fortis and lenis, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, General American, Geoff Lindsey, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Grammar, H-dropping, Harry Enfield, Helen Mirren, Henry Cecil Kennedy Wyld, Interdental consonant, Jack Windsor Lewis, Jane Setter, Jeremy Paxman, John C. Wells, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, Judi Dench, Justin Welby, K. M. Petyt, Labial consonant, Lexical set, Linguistic prescription, Liquid consonant, List of dialects of the English language, Margaret Thatcher, Mayor of London, Mid vowel, Mid-Atlantic accent, Monophthong, Monophthongization, Nasal consonant, Natural history, Northern England, Open vowel, Oxford University Press, Palatal consonant, Peter Roach (phonetician), Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, Peter Trudgill, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological history of English high back vowels, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Rhoticity in English, Rowan Williams, Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Rupert Everett, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Sonorant, Southern England, Standard English, Stop consonant, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Triphthong, U and non-U English, United Kingdom, University of Oxford, Vanessa Kirby, Velar consonant, Velarization, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Vowel length, Wilfred Pickles, William Ewart Gladstone, Wirral Peninsula, World War II. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Accents are the distinctive variations in the pronunciation of a language.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alexander John Ellis, (14 June 1814 – 28 October 1890) was an English mathematician, philologist and early phonetician, who also influenced the field of musicology.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.
Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages.
Carey Hannah MulliganEngland & Wales, 1984-2004. Gives name at birth as "Carey Hannah Mulligan" (born 28 May 1985) is an English actress and singer.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
In phonetics, clipping is the process of shortening the articulation of a phonetic segment, usually a vowel.
Clive Upton is a professor of English language at the University of Leeds, England, specializing in dialectology and sociolinguistics.
The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Coarticulation in its general sense refers to a situation in which a conceptually isolated speech sound is influenced by, and becomes more like, a preceding or following speech sound.
Henry Watson Fowler The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries.
Conservative Received Pronunciation (Conservative RP) is a conservative standard of pronunciation of British English.
The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
Sir David Frederick Attenborough (born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster and naturalist.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Deborah Vivien Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, (born Deborah Freeman-Mitford; 31 March 1920 – 24 September 2014) was an English aristocrat, writer, memoirist and socialite.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
East Anglian English is a dialect of English spoken in East Anglia.
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
East Midlands English is a traditional dialect with modern local and social variations spoken in those parts of the Midlands loosely lying east of Watling Street separating it from West Midlands English, north of a variable isogloss of the variant of Southern English of Oxfordshire and East Anglian English of Cambridgeshire and south of another that separates it from Yorkshire dialect.
Edward John Ivo Stourton (born 24 November 1957) is a BBC broadcaster and presenter of the BBC Radio 4 programme Sunday, and a frequent contributor to the Today programme, where for ten years he was one of the main presenters.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.
The English Pronouncing Dictionary (EPD) was created by the British phonetician Daniel Jones and was first published in 1917.
For centuries, there has been a movement to reform the spelling of English.
In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
Geoff Lindsey is a British writer and director who has written episodes for television series including the BBC soap opera EastEnders and The Bill.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.
Henry Richard Enfield (born 30 May 1961) is an English comedian, actor, writer, and director.
Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, (born 26 July 1945) is an English actor.
Henry Cecil Kennedy Wyld (1870–1945) was a notable English lexicographer and philologist.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
Jack Windsor Lewis (born 1926) is a British phonetician.
Jane Setter is a British phonetician.
Jeremy Dickson Paxman (born 11 May 1950) is a British broadcaster, journalist, and author.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
The Journal of the International Phonetic Association (JIPA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that appears three times a year.
Dame Judith Olivia Dench, (born 9 December 1934) is an English actress.
Justin Portal Welby (born 6 January 1956) is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England.
Keith Malcolm Petyt (usually known as K. M. Petyt) is a sociolinguist and historian.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar phonological feature.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is a consciously acquired accent of English, intended to blend together the "standard" speech of both American English and British Received Pronunciation.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Peter John Roach (born 30 June 1943) is a British retired phonetician.
Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (born Pierre-Étienne du Ponceau, June 3, 1760 – April 1, 1844) was a French-American linguist, philosopher, and jurist.
Peter Trudgill, FBA (born 7 November 1943) is a sociolinguist, academic and author.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Most dialects of modern English have two high back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel (realized as central in many dialects) found in words like goose.
The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth (born 14 June 1950) is a Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet.
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) is a drama school in London, England that provides training for film, television and theatre.
Rupert James Hector Everett (born 29 May 1959) is an English actor and writer.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, refers roughly to the southern counties of England.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
U and non-U English usage, with "U" standing for "upper class", and "non-U" representing the aspiring middle classes, was part of the terminology of popular discourse of social dialects (sociolects) in Britain in the 1950s.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vanessa Kirby (born 18 April 1988) is an English stage, TV, and film actress.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Wilfred Pickles, OBE (13 October 1904 – 27 March 1978) was an English actor and radio presenter.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
Wirral, also known as The Wirral, is a peninsula in northwest England.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
British NRP, British Non-Regional Pronunciation, British RP, British Received Pronunciation, General British, Oxford accent, Posh accent, Public School Pronunciation, Queen's English, Queens English, Queens english, RP English, RP accent, Received English, Received Pronounciation, Received Pronounication, Received Standard, Received Standard English, Received pronounciation, Received pronunciation, Standard British English, Standard Southern British, The Queen's English, The rp.