95 relations: Acetylcholine, Adenosine triphosphate, Affinity chromatography, Agonist, Allosteric regulation, Alpha helix, AMPA receptor, B-cell receptor, Benzodiazepine, Biochemistry, C-terminus, Cell nucleus, Chemical equilibrium, Circular dichroism, Complement receptor, Computer simulation, Covalent bond, Curare, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Cytoplasm, Detergent, Dissociation constant, DNA-binding domain, Downregulation and upregulation, Dual-polarization interferometry, Endocrinology, Endocytosis, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme-linked receptor, Everhardus Jacobus Ariëns, Fc receptor, Feedback, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, GABA receptor, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Genetic disorder, Glutamate receptor, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine receptor, Guanosine triphosphate, Hormone, Hyperthyroidism, Immune system, Inositol trisphosphate, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, ..., Insulin receptor, Intrinsic activity, Inverse agonist, Kainate receptor, Ki Database, Killer activation receptor, Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, Law of mass action, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Liquid–liquid extraction, Molecule, N-terminus, Neuropsychopharmacology, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, NMDA receptor, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, Nuclear receptor, Omeprazole, P2X purinoreceptor, Partial agonist, Pattern recognition receptor, Peptide, Pharmacology, Precocious puberty, Protein, Protein quaternary structure, Receptor antagonist, Receptor tyrosine kinase, Rimonabant, Ryanodine receptor, Schild regression, Second messenger system, Serotonin, Signal transduction, Small molecule, Stem cell marker, Strychnine, T-cell receptor, Taranabant, Toll-like receptor, Visual system, 5-HT receptor. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light.
A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
A DNA-binding domain (DBD) is an independently folded protein domain that contains at least one structural motif that recognizes double- or single-stranded DNA.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
An enzyme-linked receptor, also known as a catalytic receptor, is a transmembrane receptor, where the binding of an extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side.
Everhardus Jacobus Ariëns (29 January 1918 – 3 March 2002) was a Dutch pharmacologist and professor at the Catholic University of Nijmegen (now Radboud University Nijmegen).
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The Ki Database (or Ki DB) is a public domain database of published binding affinities (Ki) of drugs and chemical compounds for receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, ion channels, and enzymes.
Killer Activation Receptors (KARs) are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells).
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma membrane of natural killer (NK) cells and a minority of T cells.
In chemistry, the law of mass action is the proposition that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the activities or concentrations of the reactants.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.
The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein quaternary structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
Rimonabant (also known as SR141716; trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) is an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never approved in the United States.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of intracellular calcium channels in various forms of excitable animal tissue like muscles and neurons.
Schild regression analysis, named for Heinz Otto Schild, is a useful tool for studying the effects of agonists and antagonists on the cellular response caused by the receptor or on ligand-receptor binding.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Taranabant (codenamed MK-0364) is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist that was investigated as a potential treatment for obesity due to its anorectic effects.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
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