93 relations: Adiabatic process, Asia (Roman province), Bourke engine, Camshaft, Car, Carnot cycle, China, Circular motion, Compound engine, Compressed natural gas, Compression ratio, Connecting rod, Crank (mechanism), Crankshaft, Cutoff (steam engine), Cylinder (engine), Dead centre (engineering), Diesel cycle, Diesel engine, Diesel fuel, Emma Mærsk, Endoreversible thermodynamics, Engine configuration, Engine displacement, Engine power plant, Exhaust gas, Flat engine, Flywheel, Four-stroke engine, Free-piston engine, Gasoline, Han dynasty, Heat engine, High-test peroxide, Hot-bulb engine, Hydraulic motor, Ignition system, Industrial Revolution, Internal combustion engine, IRIS engine, Ismail al-Jazari, Liquefied petroleum gas, Litre, Locomotive, Mark 46 torpedo, Motor vehicle, Motorcycle, Nanotechnology, Napier Deltic, Newcomen atmospheric engine, ..., Opposed-piston engine, Oscillating cylinder steam engine, Otto cycle, Otto fuel II, Oxidizing agent, Petrol engine, Piston, Piston ring, Piston valve, Pistonless rotary engine, Pneumatic motor, Poppet valve, Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major, Pressure, Quantum heat engines and refrigerators, Quantum mechanics, Radial engine, Reciprocating motion, Roman Syria, Rotary engine, Sawmill, Ship, Six-stroke engine, Slide valve, Spark plug, Spark-ignition engine, Steam engine, Steam locomotive, Steam turbine, Stirling engine, Straight engine, Stroke (engine), Stroke ratio, Swashplate, Swing-piston engine, Thermodynamics, Timeline of heat engine technology, Torque, Two-stroke engine, V engine, Water wheel, Wärtsilä, Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
The Bourke engine was an attempt to improve the two-stroke engine by Russell Bourke in the 1920s.
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.
A compound engine is an engine that has more than one stage for recovering energy from the same working fluid, with the exhaust from the first stage passing through the second stage, and in some cases then on to another subsequent stage or even stages.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.
A connecting rod is a shaft which connects a piston to a crank or crankshaft in a reciprocating engine.
A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
In a steam engine, cutoff is the point in the piston stroke at which the inlet valve is closed.
A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels.
In a reciprocating engine, the dead centre is the position of a piston in which it is farthest from, or nearest to, the crankshaft.
The Diesel cycle is a combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Emma Mærsk is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group.
Endoreversible thermodynamics is a subset of irreversible thermodynamics aimed at making more realistic assumptions about heat transfer than are typically made in reversible thermodynamics.
Engine configuration is an engineering term for the layout of the major components of a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine.
Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC).
An engine power plant is a power station in which power comes from the combination of a reciprocating engine and an alternator.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with horizontally-opposed cylinders.
A flywheel is a mechanical device specifically designed to efficiently store rotational energy.
A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft.
A free-piston engine is a linear, 'crankless' internal combustion engine, in which the piston motion is not controlled by a crankshaft but determined by the interaction of forces from the combustion chamber gases, a rebound device (e.g., a piston in a closed cylinder) and a load device (e.g. a gas compressor or a linear alternator).
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
High-test peroxide or HTP is a high (85 to 98 percent)-concentration solution of hydrogen peroxide, with the remainder predominantly made up of water.
The hot-bulb engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which fuel ignites by coming in contact with a red-hot metal surface inside a bulb, followed by the introduction of air (oxygen) compressed into the hot-bulb chamber by the rising piston.
A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement (rotation).
An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The IRIS Engine is a design for a new type of internal combustion engine.
Badīʿ az-Zaman Abū l-ʿIzz ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206, بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
The Mark 46 torpedo is the backbone of the United States Navy's lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo inventory, and is the current NATO standard.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The Napier Deltic engine is a British opposed-piston valveless, supercharged uniflow scavenged, two-stroke Diesel engine used in marine and locomotive applications, designed and produced by D. Napier & Son.
The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine.
An opposed-piston engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head.
An oscillating cylinder steam engine (also known as a wobbler in the US) is a simple steam-engine design (proposed by William Murdoch at the end of 18-th century) that requires no valve gear.
An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.
Otto Fuel II is a monopropellant used to drive torpedoes and other weapon systems.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.
A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine.
A piston valve is a device used to control the motion of a fluid along a tube or pipe by means of the linear motion of a piston within a chamber or cylinder.
A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons.
A pneumatic motor (air motor) or compressed air engine is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air.
A poppet valve (also called mushroom valve) is a valve typically used to control the timing and quantity of gas or vapour flow into an engine.
The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major was a 28-cylinder four-row radial piston aircraft engine designed and built during World War II, and the largest-displacement aviation piston engine to be mass-produced in the United States.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A quantum heat engine is a device that generates power from the heat flow between hot and cold reservoirs.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.
Reciprocating motion, also called reciprocation, is a repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth linear motion.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine, usually designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit.
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
The term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt to improve on traditional two-stroke and four-stroke engines.
The slide valve is a rectilinear valve used to control the admission of steam into, and emission of exhaust from, the cylinder of a steam engine.
A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.
A spark-ignition engine (SI engine) is an internal combustion engine, generally a petrol engine, where the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.
The straight or inline engine is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row and having no offset.
In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings.
In a reciprocating piston engine, the stroke ratio, defined by either bore/stroke ratio or stroke/bore ratio, is a term to describe the ratio between cylinder bore diameter and piston stroke.
A swashplate (also known as slant disk), invented by Anthony George Maldon Michell in 1917, is a device used in mechanical engineering to translate the motion of a rotating shaft into reciprocating motion, or vice versa.
A swing-piston engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which the pistons move in a circular motion inside a ring-shaped "cylinder", moving closer and further from each other to provide compression and expansion.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
This Timeline of heat engine technology describes how heat engines have been known since antiquity but have been made into increasingly useful devices since the 17th century as a better understanding of the processes involved was gained.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.
A V engine, or Vee engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
Wärtsilä is a Finnish corporation which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the marine and energy markets.
The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C is a two-stroke turbocharged low-speed diesel engine designed by the Finnish manufacturer Wärtsilä.
Flywheel engine, Piston engine, Piston engines, Piston-engine, Reciprocal piston, Reciprocating Engine, Reciprocating engines, Reciprocating heat engine, Reciprocating piston, Reciprocating steam engine.