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Reciprocity (photography)

Index Reciprocity (photography)

In photography reciprocity is the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material. [1]

49 relations: Absorbance, Andromeda Galaxy, Aperture, Astrophotography, Cambridge University Press, Catenary, CRC Press, Crystal, Dark current (physics), Digital imaging, Explosion, Exponential function, Exposure (photography), Exposure value, F-number, Film grain, Film speed, Henry Roscoe (chemist), Holography, Hurter and Driffield, Hyperbolic function, Illuminance, Image sensor, Karl Schwarzschild, Laser, Latensification, Latent image, Light meter, Lux, Millisecond, Nanosecond, Opacity (optics), Particle physics, Photographer, Photographic film, Photography, Power law, Proportionality (mathematics), Robert Bunsen, Royal Photographic Society, Science, Second, Sensitometry, Shutter speed, Silver halide, Taylor & Francis, Technology, Wave–particle duality, William de Wiveleslie Abney.


In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.

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Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.

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In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.

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Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and areas of the night sky.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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In physics and geometry, a catenary is the curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Dark current (physics)

In physics and in electronic engineering, dark current is the relatively small electric current that flows through photosensitive devices such as a photomultiplier tube, photodiode, or charge-coupled device even when no photons are entering the device; it consists of the charges generated in the detector when no outside radiation is entering the detector.

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Digital imaging

Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.

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An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.

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Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

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Exposure (photography)

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.

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Exposure value

In photography, exposure value (EV) is a number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number, such that all combinations that yield the same exposure have the same EV (for any fixed scene luminance).

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The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.

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Film grain

Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons.

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Film speed

Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.

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Henry Roscoe (chemist)

Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (7 January 1833 – 18 December 1915) was a British chemist.

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Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.

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Hurter and Driffield

Ferdinand Hurter (1844–1898) and Vero Charles Driffield (1848–1915) were nineteenth-century photographic scientists who brought quantitative scientific practice to photography through the methods of sensitometry and densitometry.

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Hyperbolic function

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions.

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In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.

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Image sensor

An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.

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Karl Schwarzschild

Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist and astronomer.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Latensification is the name given to uniformly pre-exposing a photographic emulsion (film).

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Latent image

A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.

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Light meter

A light meter is a device used to measure the amount of light.

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The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area.

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A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

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A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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A photographer (the Greek φῶς (phos), meaning "light", and γραφή (graphê), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light") is a person who makes photographs.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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Power law

In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.

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Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

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Robert Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.

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Royal Photographic Society

The Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, commonly known as the Royal Photographic Society (RPS), is one of the world's oldest photographic societies.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.

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Sensitometry is the scientific study of light-sensitive materials, especially photographic film.

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Shutter speed

In photography, shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light, also when a camera's shutter is open when taking a photograph.

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Silver halide

A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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William de Wiveleslie Abney

Sir William de Wiveleslie Abney, KCB, FRS (24 July 1843 – 3 December 1920) was an English astronomer, chemist, and photographer.

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Reciprocal failure, Reciprocity failure, Schwarzschild effect, Schwarzschild law.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocity_(photography)

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