367 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, Abd ar-Rahman III, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Abu Taur of Huesca, Adal Sultanate, Afonso I of Portugal, Afonso III of Portugal, Age of Discovery, Ahmad al-Muqtadir, Al-Andalus, Al-Walid I, Alcoy, Spain, Alentejo, Alfonso I of Asturias, Alfonso II of Asturias, Alfonso III of Asturias, Alfonso IX of León, Alfonso the Battler, Alfonso V of León, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Algarve, Alhambra Decree, Ali ibn al-Athir, Almanzor, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, Alpujarras, Americas, Anbasa ibn Suhaym al-Kalbi, Andalusia, Aquitaine, Arabs, Aragón (river), Aragon, Archbishop, Astur-Leonese dynasty, Asturias, Auto-da-fé, Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi, Aznar Galíndez I, Álava, Íñigo Arista of Pamplona, Baghdad, Banu Qasi, Barcelona, Barding, Bardulia, ..., Battle of Alarcos, Battle of Clavijo, Battle of Covadonga, Battle of Graus, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, Battle of Ourique, Battle of Roncevaux Pass, Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824), Battle of Sagrajas, Battle of Simancas, Battle of the River Garonne, Battle of Toulouse (721), Battle of Tours, Battle of Valdejunquera, Béjaïa, Berber Revolt, Berbers, Borrell II, Count of Barcelona, Bruneian Empire, Burgos, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Cambridge University Press, Camino de Santiago, Cangas de Onís, Cantabrian Mountains, Cantar de gesta, Cantigas de Santa Maria, Caravel, Carcassonne, Carlist Wars, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Castile (historical region), Castilian War, Castrojeriz, Catalan counties, Catalan language, Catalan literature, Catalonia, Catholic Monarchs, Cavalry tactics, Cádiz, Córdoba, Spain, Cerdanya, Chanson de geste, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charter, Chris Lowney, Christendom, Christopher Allmand, Chronica Prophetica, Cluny Abbey, Coimbra, Colonialism, Colonization, Composite bow, Confederation of sultanates in Lanao, Conquest of Ceuta, Conquest of Santarém, Converso, Council of Clermont, County of Barcelona, County of Coimbra, County of Pallars, County of Portugal, Crossbow, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Crusade of Barbastro, Crusades, Crypto-Judaism, Damascus, Delhi Sultanate, Denis of Portugal, Djerba, Douro, Duchy of Aquitaine, Duchy of Cantabria, Ebro, Edinburgh University Press, Egilona, El Cid, Emir, Emirate, Emirate of Córdoba, Emirate of Granada, Europe, Expulsion of the Moriscos, Extremadura, Faro, Portugal, Favila of Asturias, Ferdinand I of León, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Ferdinand III of Castile, Ferdinand IV of Castile, Fernán González of Castile, Feudalism, First Crusade, Flemish people, Foral, Francisca, Francisco Franco, Fruela I of Asturias, Fuero, Galicia (Spain), Galician-Portuguese, Gascony, Genealogy, Girona, Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, Goths, Granada, Hauberk, Hidalgo (nobility), High Middle Ages, Hisham I of Córdoba, Hispania, Historiography, House of Capet, Huesca, Husayn of Zaragoza, Iberian Peninsula, Imperator totius Hispaniae, Indulgence, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, James I of Aragon, James, son of Zebedee, Javelin, Jihad, Jizya, José Ortega y Gasset, Judaism, Just war theory, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Asturias, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Galicia, Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Viguera, Knights Templar, La Jonquera, La Rioja (Spain), Lamego, Lance, Latifundium, Latin, León, Spain, Lisbon, List of ethnic groups of Africa, List of Portuguese monarchs, Lleida, Longbow, Louis the Pious, Mail (armour), Malacca Sultanate, Manifestis Probatum, Marca Hispanica, Marinid dynasty, Marrano, Melilla, Middle Ages, Military order (monastic society), Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, Moors, Morisco, Moros y cristianos, Moura, Portugal, Mozarabs, Mudéjar, Muladi, Munuza, Muslim, Narbonne, National Catholicism, Nationalism, Navarre, Nîmes, New Christian, New Spain, New World, Norsemen, Odo the Great, Ontinyent, Order of Aviz, Order of Calatrava, Order of Christ (Portugal), Order of Montesa, Order of Santiago, Ordoño II of León, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman expedition to Aceh, Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman-Portuguese confrontations, Ottoman–Habsburg wars, Oviedo, Padrón, Pamplona, Parias, Peasant, Pelagius of Asturias, Pepin the Short, Philip IV of France, Philippines, Pope, Pope Alexander II, Pope Alexander III, Pope Celestine III, Pope Clement V, Pope Urban II, Porto, Portugal, Portuguese Cortes, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese expedition to Otranto, Portuguese Inquisition, Portuguese language, Portuguese Renaissance, Primate (bishop), Province of Ávila, Province of Girona, Province of León, Punitive expedition, Pyrenees, Ramiro I of Aragon, Ramiro I of Asturias, Ramiro II of León, Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71), Relic, Revolt of the Brotherhoods, Revolt of the Comuneros, Roderic, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga, Roncesvalles, Rosamond McKitterick, Salamanca, Saldaña, Palencia, Sancho I of Portugal, Sancho II of Castile and León, Sancho II of Pamplona, Sancho III of Pamplona, Sancho IV of Pamplona, Sancho Ramírez, Sancho VI of Navarre, Sancho VII of Navarre, Santiago de Compostela, Saracen, Second Crusade, Segovia, Septimania, Serpa, Seville, Siege of Lisbon, Siege of Narbonne (752–59), Siege of Tortosa (1148), Somport, Spanish Civil War, Spanish conquest of Oran (1509), Spanish conquest of Tripoli (1510), Spanish Empire, Spanish Inquisition, Spanish language, Spanish literature, Spanish nationalism, Spanish–Moro conflict, Spear, Strait of Gibraltar, Sulayman al-Arabi, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Sultan, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, Sword, Taifa, Taifa of Lérida, Taifa of Toledo, Taifa of Valencia, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Tarragona, Teruel, The Song of Roland, Theobald I of Navarre, Tlemcen, Toledo, Spain, Tomar, Tortosa, Toulouse, Treason, Treaty of Corbeil (1258), Treaty of Granada (1491), Treaty of Zamora, Tripoli, Tudela, Navarre, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Umayyad invasion of Gaul, Urgell, Valencia, Valencian Community, Vali (governor), Vic, Vikings, Villena, Visigothic Kingdom, Vizier, Wilfred the Hairy, William of Gellone, Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Zaida of Seville, Zamora, Spain, Zaragoza. Expand index (317 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo (983 – 3 March 1009), born and died in Córdoba, was the son of Almanzor who became chief minister of Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba.
Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732; عبد الرحمن الغافقي), also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame, and Abd el-Rahman, unsuccessfully led the Andalusian Muslims into battle against the forces of Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours on October 10, 732 AD.
Abu Tawr was wali of Washka.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Afonso IOr also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence.
Afonso III (rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês), King of Portugal (5 May 121016 February 1279) was the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Muqtadir (or just Moctadir; أبو جعفر أحمد "المقتدر بالله" بن سليمان, Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Muqtadir bi-Llah ibn Sulayman) was a member of the Banu Hud family who ruled the Islamic taifa of Zaragoza, in what is now Spain, from 1049 to 1082.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
Alcoy or Alcoi is an industrial and university city, region and municipality located in the province of Alicante, Spain.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
Alfonso I of Asturias, called the Catholic (el Católico), (c. 693 – 757) was the third King of Asturias, reigning from 739 to his death in 757.
Alfonso II of Asturias (842), nicknamed the Chaste (el Casto), was the king of Asturias during two different periods: first in the year 783 and later from 791 until his death in 842.
Alfonso III (20 December 910), called the Great (el Magno), was the king of León, Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death.
Alfonso IX (15 August 117123 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death.
Alfonso I (1073/10747 September 1134), called the Battler or the Warrior (el Batallador), was the king of Aragon and Pamplona from 1104 until his death in 1134.
Alfonso V (9947 August 1028), called the Noble, was King of León from 999 to 1028.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani, better known as Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Arabic: علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري) (1233–1160) was an Arab or Kurdish historian and biographer who wrote in Arabic and was from the Ibn Athir family.
Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad bin ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir, al-Ḥājib al-Manṣūr (أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور) (c. 938 – August 8, 1002), better known as Almanzor, was for 24 years (978–1002) the de facto ruler of Muslim Iberia (al-Andalus) under the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba (Khilāfat Qurṭuba).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalusia, Spain, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
ʿAnbasa ibn Suḥaym al-Kalbi was the Muslim wali (governor) of al-Andalus, from 721 to 726.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aragón (Río Aragón; Aragon Ibaia) is a river in northern Spain, one of the left-hand tributaries of the river Ebro.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Asturian or Astur-Leonese dynasty (dinastía asturiana or astur-leonesa), known in Arabic as the Beni Alfons or Banu Alfonso ("sons of Alfonso"), was the ruling family of Asturias, Galicia and León from about 740 until 1037.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
An auto-da-fé or auto-de-fé (from Portuguese auto da fé, meaning "act of faith") was the ritual of public penance of condemned heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition, Portuguese Inquisition or the Mexican Inquisition had decided their punishment, followed by the execution by the civil authorities of the sentences imposed.
Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi (fl. AD 716) was the 5th Umayyad Governor of Al-Andalus who succeeded his cousin Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa.
Aznar Galíndez I (also Asnar) (died 839) was a Basque Count of Aragon and Conflent from 809 and Cerdanya and Urgell from 820.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Íñigo Arista (Eneko, ونّقه, Wannaqo, c. 790 – 851 or 852) was a Basque leader, considered the first King of Pamplona.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi (بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Hispano-Roman Muwallad dynasty that ruled the upper Ebro valley in the 9th century, before being displaced in the first quarter of the 10th century.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barding (also spelled bard or barb) is body armour for war horses, especially as used by European knights.
According to some sources, Bardulia is the ancient name of the territories that composed the primitive Castile in the north of what later became the province of Burgos.
Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a battle between the Almohads led by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur and King Alfonso VIII of Castile.
The Battle of Clavijo is a mythical battle.
The Battle of Covadonga was the first victory by Christian military forces in Iberia since the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711–718.
The Battle of Graus was a battle of the Reconquista, traditionally said to have taken place on 8 May 1063.
The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab (معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.
The Battle of Ourique (25 July 1139: St. James Day) saw the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques (of the House of Burgundy) defeat the Almoravid led by Ali ibn Yusuf.
The Battle of Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) in 778 saw a large force of Basques ambush a part of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux Pass, a high mountain pass in the Pyrenees on the present border between France and Spain, after his invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Battle of Roncevaux Pass was a battle in which a combined Basque-Qasawi Muslim army defeated a Carolingian military expedition in 824.
The Battle of Sagrajas (23 October 1086), also called Zalaca or Zallaqa (translit), was a battle between the Almoravid army led by the Almoravid king Yusuf ibn Tashfin and an army led by the Castilian King Alfonso VI.
The Battle of Simancas (also called Alhandega or al-Khandaq) was a military battle that started on July 19, 939, in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the king of León Ramiro II and Cordovan caliph Abd al-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas.
The Battle of the River Garonne, also known as the Battle of Bordeaux,Matthew Bennett The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient & Medieval Warfare 1579581161 1998 p319 "In 732 a large army (70,000-80,000) led by Abd ar-Rahman defeated the Aquitainians under Duke Eudo at the Battle of Bordeaux" was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Aquitanian forces led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine.
The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of an Aquitanian Christian army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad Muslim army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
The Battle of Valdejunquera took place in a valley called Iuncaria (val de Junquera) on 26 July 920 between the Islamic emirate of Córdoba and the Christian armies of the kingdoms of León and Navarre.
Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Borrell II (died 993) was Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 945 and Count of Urgell from 948.
The Bruneian Empire or Empire of Brunei, also known as Sultanate of Brunei or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo island in Southeast Asia.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
Cangas de Onís (Asturian: Cangues d'Onís) is a municipality in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of Asturias in the northwest of Spain.
The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
A cantar de gesta is the Spanish equivalent of the Old French medieval chanson de geste or "songs of heroic deeds".
The Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Canticles of Holy Mary"),, are 420 poems with musical notation, written in the medieval Galician-Portuguese language during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile ''El Sabio'' (1221–1284) and often attributed to him.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
The Spanish Expedition to Borneo, also known locally as the Castilian War (Malay: Perang Kastila; Jawi: ڤراڠ كستيلا; Spanish: Expedición española a Borneo; Filipino: Digmaang Kastila), was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.
Castrojeriz or Castrogeriz is a locality and municipality located in the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castilla y León (Spain), the comarca of Odra-Pisuerga, the judicial district of Burgos, head of the town council of the same name and former head of the Castrojeriz judicial district.
The Catalan counties (Els Comtats Catalans) were the administrative divisions of the eastern Carolingian Marca Hispanica and southernmost part of the March of Gothia created after its Frankish conquest.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalan literature is the name conventionally used to refer to literature written in the Catalan language.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
For much of history, humans have used some form of cavalry for war and, as a result, cavalry tactics have evolved over time.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya (Latin: Ceretani or Ceritania, Cerdagne, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain.
The chanson de geste, Old French for "song of heroic deeds" (from gesta: Latin: "deeds, actions accomplished"), is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
Chris Lowney (born 1958) is a writer, public speaker, and leadership consultant.
Christendom has several meanings.
Christopher Thomas Allmand (born 1936) is an English medieval historian, with a special focus on the Late Middle Ages in England and France, and the Hundred Years' War.
The Chronica Prophetica ("Prophetic Chronicle") is an anonymous medieval Latin chronicle written by a Christian in April 883 at or near the court of Alfonso III of Asturias in Oviedo.
Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520.
The conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.
The Conquest of Santarém took place on 15 March 1147, when the troops of the Kingdom of Portugal under the leadership of Afonso I of Portugal captured the Almoravid city of Santarém.
A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II and held from 18 to 28 November 1095 at Clermont, Auvergne, at the time part of the Duchy of Aquitaine.
The County of Barcelona (Comitatus Barcinonensis) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty.
The County of Coimbra (Condado de Coimbra) was a political entity consisting of the lands of Coimbra, Viseu, Lamego and Santa Maria da Feira, in modern Portugal.
The County of Pallars or Pallás (Comtat de Pallars,; Comitatus Pallariensis) was a de facto independent petty state, nominally within the Carolingian Empire and then West Francia during the ninth and tenth centuries, perhaps one of the Catalan counties, originally part of the Marca Hispanica in the ninth century.
The County of Portugal (Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal. It is the first state within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed, there the first Portuguese nation state and a predecessor to modern Portugal. The county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and later the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of a rebellion against the king of Galicia. A larger entity under the same name was then reestablished by the king of León in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century when its count elevated it into an independent Kingdom of Portugal.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
The Crusade of Barbastro (also known as the Siege of Barbastro or War of Barbastro) was an international expedition, sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Barbastro, then part of the Hudid Emirate of Lārida.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews" (origin from Greek kryptos – κρυπτός, 'hidden').
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Cantabria (Cantabrian: Ducáu de Cantabria) was a march created by the Visigoths in northern Spain to watch their border with the Cantabrians and Basques.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Egilona (or Egilo) was a Visigothic noblewoman and the last known queen of the Visigoths.
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.
The Emirate of Córdoba (إمارة قرطبة, Imārat Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula ruled by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Expulsion of the Moriscos (Expulsión de los moriscos, Expulsió dels moriscos) was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Faro is a municipality and bishopric, the southernmost city and seat of the district of the same name, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
Fafila, Favila, or Favilac (died 739) was the second King of Asturias from 737 until his death.
Ferdinand I (c. 1015 – 24 December 1065), called the Great (el Magno), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando III), 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231.
Ferdinand IV of Castile (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called the Summoned (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death.
Fernán González (died 970) was the first autonomous count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Burgos, who had been named count of Arlanza and the Duero around the year 900, and by tradition a descendant of semi-legendary judge Nuño Rasura.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Foral of Castro Verde - Portugal The word foral (plural: forais) is a noun derived from the Portuguese word foro, ultimately from Latin forum, equivalent to Spanish fuero, Galician foro, Catalan fur and Basque foru.
The francisca (or francesca) is a throwing axe used as a weapon during the Early Middle Ages by the Franks, among whom it was a characteristic national weapon at the time of the Merovingians from about 500 to 750 and is known to have been used during the reign of Charlemagne (768–814).
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Fruela I (or Froila I), (c. 722 – 14 January 768) called the Cruel, was the King of Asturias from 757 until his death, when he was assassinated.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
A hauberk is a shirt of mail.
An hidalgo or a fidalgo is a member of the Spanish or Portuguese nobility; the feminine forms of the terms are hidalga, in Spanish, and fidalga, in Portuguese and Galician.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Hisham I or Hisham Al-Reda (هشام بن عبد الرحمن الداخل) was the second Umayyad Emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796 in al-Andalus.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Huesca (Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon.
Husayn of Zaragoza (in the Arabic sources Al Hossain ibn Yahia al Ansari ibn Saad al Obadi), Wali (governor) of Zaragoza, which is now the Spanish province of Aragón, from 774 to 781.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning "Emperor of all Spain".
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence (from *dulgeō, "persist") is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins." It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death (as opposed to the eternal punishment merited by mortal sin), in the state or process of purification called Purgatory.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
James I the Conqueror (Jaume el Conqueridor, Chaime lo Conqueridor, Jacme lo Conquistaire, Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276.
James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew:, Yaʿqob; Greek: Ἰάκωβος; ⲓⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.
A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Viguera (Basque: Viguerako Erresuma) was a small, short-lived kingdom centered on the town of Viguera from 970 to 1005.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
La Jonquera is a municipality in the comarca of l'Alt Empordà, in Catalonia, Spain.
La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.
Lamego (Lamecum) is a city and municipality in the Viseu District, in the Norte Region of the Douro in northern Portugal.
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
The monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.
Lleida (Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain.
A longbow is a type of bow that is tall – roughly equal to the height of the user – allowing the archer a fairly long draw, at least to the jaw.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Manifestis Probatum was a papal bull dated May 23, 1179, in which Pope Alexander III officially recognised Afonso Henriques as the first King of Portugal.
The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
The Military Order of Saint James of the Sword (Ordem Militar de Sant'Iago da Espada) is a Portuguese order of chivalry.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Moros y Cristianos or Moros i Cristians literally in English Moors and Christians, is a set of festival activities which are celebrated in many towns and cities of Spain, mainly in the southern Valencian Community.
Moura is a city and a municipality in the District of Beja in Portugal.
The Mozarabs (mozárabes; moçárabes; mossàrabs; مستعرب trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus.
Mudéjar (Mudèjar, مدجن trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated") is also the name given to Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not initially forcibly converted to Christianity.
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
Uthman ibn Naissa, better known as Munuza, was a Berber governor depicted in different contradictory chronicles during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
National Catholicism (Spanish: Nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the political system with which dictator Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1936 and 1975.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
New Christian (cristiano nuevo; cristão-novo; cristià nou) was a law-effective and social category developed from the 15th century onwards, and used in what is today Spain and Portugal as well as their New World colonies, to refer to Sephardi Jews and Muslims ("Moors") who had converted to the Catholic Church, often by force or coercion.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
Odo the Great (also called Eudes or Eudo) (died 735), was the Duke of Aquitaine by 700.
Ontinyent is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain.
The Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Militar de Avis), previously to 1910 Royal Military Order of Aviz (Ordem Real Militar de Avis), previously to 1789 Knights (of the Order) of Saint Benedict of Aviz (Ordem de São Bento de Aviz) or Friars of Santa Maria of Évora, is a Portuguese order of chivalry, founded in Portugal in 1146.
The Order of Calatrava (Orden de Calatrava Ordem de Calatrava) was the first military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive papal approval.
The Military Order of Christ (Ordem Militar de Cristo), previously the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo), was the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church.
The Order of Montesa (Ordre de Montesa, Aragonese and Orden de Montesa) is a Christian military order, territorially limited to the old Crown of Aragon.
The Order of Santiago (Orde de Santiago, Orden de Santiago), also known as "The Order of St.
Ordoño II (c. 873 – June 924, León) was a king of Galicia from 910, and king of Galicia and León from 914 until his death.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman expedition to Aceh started from around 1565 when the Ottoman Empire endeavoured to support the Aceh Sultanate in its fight against the Portuguese Empire in Malacca.
The Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean (Hint seferleri or Hint Deniz seferleri, "Indian Ocean campaigns") were a series of Ottoman amphibious operations in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century.
The Ottoman–Portuguese or Turco-Portuguese confrontations refers to a series of different military encounters between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire, or between other European powers and the Ottoman Empire in which relevant Portuguese military forces participated.
The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.
Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
Padrón is a concello (Galician for municipality) in the Province of A Coruña, in Galicia (Spain) within the comarca of O Sar.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
In medieval Spain, parias (from medieval Latin pariāre, "to make equal ", i.e. pay) were a form of tribute paid by the taifas of al-Andalus to the Christian kingdoms of the north.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Pelagius (c. 685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Alexander II (1010/1015 – 21 April 1073), born Anselm of Baggio (Anselmo da Baggio), was Pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073.
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese expedition to Otranto in 1481, which the Portuguese call the Turkish Crusade (Cruzada Turca), arrived too late to participate in any fighting.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
Ávila is a province of central-western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Girona (Gerona) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Ramiro I (bef. 10078 May 1063) was the first King of Aragon from 1035 until his death.
Ramiro I (c. 790 – 1 February 850) was King of Asturias from 842 until his death.
Ramiro II (c. 900 – 1 January 951), son of Ordoño II, was a King of León from 931 until his death.
The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
The Revolt of the Brotherhoods (Revolta de les Germanies, Rebelión de las Germanías) was a revolt by artisan guilds (Germanies) against the government of King Charles V in the Kingdom of Valencia, part of the Crown of Aragon.
The Revolt of the Comuneros (Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga (Archidioecesis Bracarensis) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Portugal.
Roncesvalles (Orreaga, Ronzesbals, Roncevaux) is a small village and municipality in Navarre, northern Spain.
Rosamond Deborah McKitterick, (born 31 May 1949) is a British medieval historian, whose work focuses on the Frankish kingdoms in the 8th and 9th centuries, using palaeographical and manuscript studies to illuminate aspects of the political, cultural, intellectual, religious and social history of the early Middle Ages.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
Saldaña is the principal town of the fertile Palencia plains in Spain, and may be the town of "Eldana" mentioned by the historian Ptolemy as being conquered by the Roman Empire.
Sancho I, nicknamed "the Populator" ("o Povoador"), King of Portugal (Coimbra, 11 November 115426 March 1211) was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fifth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy.
Sancho II (1036/1038 – 7 October 1072), called the Strong (el Fuerte), was King of Castile (1065–72), Galicia (1071–72) and León (1072).
Sancho Garcés II (Basque: Antso II.a Gartzez, c. 938 – dead 994), also known as Sancho II.
Sancho Garcés III (994 – 18 October 1035), also known as Sancho the Great (Sancho el Mayor, Antso Gartzez Nagusia), was the King of Pamplona from 1004 until his death in 1035.
Sancho Garcés IV (Antso IV.a Gartzez; 1039 – 4 June 1076), nicknamed Sancho of Peñalén (Antso Peñalengoa, Sancho el de Peñalén) was King of Pamplona from 1054 until his death.
Sancho Ramírez (1042 – 4 June, 1094) was King of Aragon from 1063 until 1094 and King of Pamplona from 1076 under the name of Sancho V (Antso V.a Ramirez).
Sancho Garcés VI (Antso VI.a; 21 April 1132 - 27 June 1194), called the Wise (Jakituna, el Sabio) was King of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194.
Sancho VII (Antso VII.a; 1157 - 7 April 1234) called the Strong (Azkarra, el Fuerte) was King of Navarre from 1194 until his death in 1234.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Serpa is a city and a Concelho (municipality) in the central Portuguese region Alentejo.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords.
The Siege of Narbonne took place between 752 and 759 led by Pepin the Short against the Umayyad stronghold defended by an Andalusian garrison and its Gothic and Gallo-Roman inhabitants.
The Siege of Tortosa (1 July – 30 December 1148) was a military action of the Second Crusade (1147–49) in Spain.
Somport or Col du Somport, known also as the Aspe Pass or Canfranc Pass, (el. 1632 m.) is a mountain pass in the central Pyrenees on the border of France and Spain.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The conquest of Oran by the Hispanic Monarchy took place on May 1509, when an army led by Pedro Navarro on behalf of the Cardinal Cisneros seized the north-African city, which was controlled by the moors of Tlemcen.
The Conquest of Tripoli was a maritime campaign led by Pedro Navarro.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish literature generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain.
Spanish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the Spaniards are a nation, and promotes the cultural unity of the Spanish.
The Spanish–Moro Conflict (Filipino: Sagupaang Espanyol-Moro) was a series of wars lasting over several centuries from the beginning of Spanish colonization of the Philippines, to the Spanish–American War when Spain finally began to subjugate Moroland after centuries of failing to do so.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Sulayman ibn Yaqzan al-Kalbi (al-A'rabi meaning the Bedouin) was Wali (governor) of Barcelona and Girona in the year 777.
Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (سليمان بن عبد الملك) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Maguindanao (Maguindanaoan: Kasultanan sa Magindanaw; Jawi: كسولتانن ماڬوايندنااو; Filipino: Kasultanan ng Maguindanao; Malay: Kesultanan Maguindanaw; سلطنة ماجوينداناو) was a Sultanate state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines, especially in modern-day Maguindanao province and Davao City.
The Sultanate of Sulu (Tausūg: Kasultanan sin Sūg, Jawi: کسلطانن سولو دار الإسلام, Kesultanan Sulu, سلطنة سولك) was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo (present-day the certain parts of Sabah and North Kalimantan).
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
The Taifa of Lérida was a factional kingdom ''(ṭāʾifa)'' in Muslim Iberia between 1039/1046 and 1102/1110.
The taifa of Toledo was a Berber Muslim taifa located in what is now central Spain.
The Taifa of Valencia was a medieval Moorish taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally conquered by the Aragon.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
Teruel is a city in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, and is also the capital of Teruel Province.
The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.
Theobald I (Thibaut, Teobaldo; 30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), also called the Troubadour and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Tomar, also known in English as Thomar, is a city and a municipality in Santarém District in Portugal.
Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on 11 May 1258, in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes, in the region of Île-de-France) between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon.
The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily.
The Treaty of Zamora (5 October 1143) recognized Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tudela is a municipality in Spain, the second largest city of the autonomous community of Navarre and twice a former Latin bishopric.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
The Umayyad invasion of Gaul followed the Umayyad conquest of Hispania spearheaded by the Muslim commander Tariq ibn Ziyad in 711.
Modern-day Urgell, also known as Baix Urgell ("baix" meaning lower), is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, forming only a borderland portion of the region historically known as Urgell, one of the Catalan counties.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
Vic is the capital of the comarca of Osona, in the Barcelona Province, Catalonia, Spain.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Villena is a city in Spain, in the Valencian Community.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy (in Catalan: Guifré el Pilós), was Count of Urgell (from 870), Cerdanya (from 870), Barcelona (from 878), Girona (from 878, as Wilfred II), Besalú (from 878) and Ausona (from 886).
William of Gellone (755 – 28 May 812 or 814 AD), sometimes called William of Orange, was the second Duke of Toulouse from 790 until 811.
Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri (يوسف بن عبد الرحمن الفهري) was an Umayyad governor of Narbonne in Septimania and governor of al-Andalus from 747 to 756, ruling independently following the collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate in 750.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf (full name: Yûsuf bnu Tâšfîn Nâçereddîn bnu Tâlâkâkîn aç-Çanhâjî, يوسف بن تاشفين ناصر الدين بن تالاكاكين الصنهاجي; reigned c. 1061 – 1106) was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire.
Zaida of Seville, ca.
Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
Christian Reconquest, Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula, Christian reconquest of Spain, Iberian Reconquista, La Reconquista, Military orders of the Reconquista, Reconquest of spain, Reconquesta, Recoquista, Spanish Catholic Reconquista, Spanish Reconquista.