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Reconstruction era

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The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877. [1]

319 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Adelbert Ames, African Americans, African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Alabama, Alcorn State University, Alexander H. Stephens, American Civil War, American Journal of Education, Amnesty Act, Amos T. Akerman, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andersonville, Georgia, Andrew Johnson, Arkansas, Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Liberty Place, Been in the Storm So Long, Benjamin Bristow, Benjamin Butler, Benjamin Flanders, Benjamin Franklin Perry, Bias, Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era, Black Codes (United States), Booker T. Washington, Border states (American Civil War), Bourbon Democrat, Brooks–Baxter War, Cambridge University Press, Carl Schurz, Carpetbagger, Charles A. Beard, Charles H. Pearce, Charles Sumner, Chiriquí Province, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, Citizenship of the United States, Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1875, Civil Rights Act of 1957, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Cases, Civil rights movement, Civil rights movement (1896–1954), Colfax massacre, Colfax, Louisiana, ..., Columbia Law Review, Columbia Law School, Columbia University, Compromise of 1877, Confederate States Army, Confederate States dollar, Confederate States of America, Confiscation Acts, Coushatta, Coushatta massacre, Creative Commons, Crop-lien system, D. W. Griffith, Daniel Sickles, David Hunter, David M. Key, David W. Blight, Delaware, Dewitt Clinton Senter, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Dunning School, Economic History Association, Edward Bates, Edward McPherson, Edward Ord, Edward Stanly, Edwin Stanton, Electoral Commission (United States), Electoral fraud, Elisha Baxter, Ellenton, South Carolina, Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, Emancipation Proclamation, Enforcement Acts, Eric Foner, Exodusters, Extrajudicial killing, Federal government of the United States, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifth Military District, First Military District, Five Civilized Tribes, Florida, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Forty acres and a mule, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourth Military District, Francis Preston Blair, Frederick Douglass, Free people of color, Freedman, Freedmen's Bureau, Freedmen's Bureau bills, Gang system, George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana), George Henry Williams, George Meade, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia during Reconstruction, Giles v. 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Harry Williams, Ten percent plan, Tenant farmer, Tennessee, Tenure of Office Act (1867), Texas, Thaddeus Stevens, The Birth of a Nation, The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, The Journal of African American History, The Journal of Economic History, The Leopard's Spots, Third Military District, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Dixon Jr., Three-Fifths Compromise, Transport, Tuskegee University, Ulysses S. Grant, United Daughters of the Confederacy, United States Army, United States Congress, United States Congress Joint Committee on Reconstruction, United States Department of Justice, United States House of Representatives elections, 1866, United States House of Representatives elections, 1874, United States Postmaster General, United States presidential election, 1868, United States presidential election, 1876, United States v. Cruikshank, Universal suffrage, Virginia, Voting Rights Act of 1965, W. E. B. Du Bois, Wade Hampton III, Wade–Davis Bill, Walter Lynwood Fleming, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, West Virginia in the American Civil War, White League, White supremacy, Whitelaw Reid, William Archibald Dunning, William H. Seward, William M. Tweed, William Mahone, William Pitt Kellogg, William S. McFeely, William Stewart Simkins, William Woods Holden, Williams v. Mississippi, Winfield Scott Hancock, Women's suffrage, Zachariah Chandler, 1868 Democratic National Convention. Expand index (269 more) »

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

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Adelbert Ames

Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 13, 1933) was an American sailor, soldier, and politician who served with distinction as a Union Army general during the American Civil War.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African Methodist Episcopal Church

The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the United States.

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African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or the AME Zion Church or AMEZ, is a historically African-American denomination based in the United States.

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Alabama

Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Alcorn State University

Alcorn State University (Alcorn) is a public, historically black, comprehensive, land-grant institution located northwest of Lorman, Mississippi in rural Claiborne County.

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Alexander H. Stephens

Alexander Hamilton Stephens (born February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician who served as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Journal of Education

The American Journal of Education seeks to bridge and integrate the intellectual, methodological, and substantive diversity of educational scholarship and to encourage a vigorous dialogue between educational scholars and policy makers.

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Amnesty Act

The Amnesty Act of May 22, 1872 was a United States federal law which reversed most of the penalties imposed on former Confederates by the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Amos T. Akerman

Amos Tappan Akerman (February 23, 1821 – December 21, 1880) served as United States Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant from 1870 to 1871.

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Andersonville National Historic Site

The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.

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Andersonville, Georgia

Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, Georgia, United States.

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Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.

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Arkansas

Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play, Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 a.m., in the Petersen House opposite the theater.

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Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.

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Battle of Liberty Place

The Battle of Liberty Place, or Battle of Canal Street, was an attempted insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Era Louisiana state government on September 14, 1874, in New Orleans, which was the capital of Louisiana at the time.

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Been in the Storm So Long

Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery is a 1979 book by American historian Leon Litwack, published by Knopf.

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Benjamin Bristow

Benjamin Helm Bristow (June 20, 1832 – June 22, 1896) was the 30th U.S. Treasury Secretary, the first Solicitor General, an American lawyer, a Union military officer, Republican Party politician, reformer, and civil rights advocate.

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Benjamin Butler

Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was a major general of the Union Army, politician, lawyer and businessman from Massachusetts.

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Benjamin Flanders

Benjamin Franklin Flanders (January 26, 1816 – March 13, 1896) was a teacher, politician and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Benjamin Franklin Perry

Benjamin Franklin Perry (November 20, 1805December 3, 1886) was the 72nd Governor of South Carolina, appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 after the end of the American Civil War.

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Bias

Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

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Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era

This is a selected bibliography of the main scholarly books and articles of Reconstruction, the period after the American Civil War, 1863–1877 (or 1865 to 1877).

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Black Codes (United States)

The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.

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Booker T. Washington

Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.

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Border states (American Civil War)

In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.

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Bourbon Democrat

Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States in the later 19th century (1872–1904) to refer to members of the Democratic Party who were ideologically aligned with conservatism or classical liberalism, especially those who supported presidential candidates Charles O'Conor in 1872, Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1888/1892–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904.

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Brooks–Baxter War

The Brooks–Baxter War (or sometimes referred to as the Brooks–Baxter Affair) was an armed conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the United States, in 1874 between factions of the Republican Party over the disputed 1872 state gubernatorial election.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Schurz

Carl Christian Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.

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Carpetbagger

In the history of the United States, a carpetbagger was any person from the Northern United States who came to the Southern states after the American Civil War and was perceived to be exploiting the local populace for their own purposes.

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Charles A. Beard

Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.

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Charles H. Pearce

*Not to be confused with Charles H. Pierce Charles H. Pearce (1817-1887) was an African-American political and religious elder in Florida from 1865 until his death.

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Charles Sumner

Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts.

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Chiriquí Province

Chiriquí is a province of Panama located on the western coast; it is the second most-developed province in the country, after the Panamá Province.

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Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

The Christian Methodist Episcopal (C.M.E.) Church is a historically black denomination within the broader context of Methodism.

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Citizenship of the United States

Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866,, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law.

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Civil Rights Act of 1875

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (–337), sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service.

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Civil Rights Act of 1957

The Civil Rights Act of 1957,, a federal voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Civil Rights Cases

The Civil Rights Cases,,. were a group of five US Supreme Court constitutional law cases.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Civil rights movement (1896–1954)

The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.

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Colfax massacre

The Colfax massacre, or Colfax riot as the events are termed on the 1950 state historic marker, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, when approximately 150 black men were murdered by white Southerners.

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Colfax, Louisiana

Colfax is a town in, and the parish seat of, Grant Parish, Louisiana, United States, founded in 1869.

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Columbia Law Review

The Columbia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at Columbia Law School.

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Columbia Law School

Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Compromise of 1877

The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.

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Confederate States Army

The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).

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Confederate States dollar

The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued just before the outbreak of the American Civil War by the newly formed Confederacy.

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Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.

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Confiscation Acts

The Confiscation Acts were laws passed by the United States Congress during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South.

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Coushatta

---- The Coushatta (Koasati) are a Muskogean-speaking Native American people now living primarily in the U.S. states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

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Coushatta massacre

The Coushatta Massacre (1874) was the result of an attack by the White League, a paramilitary organization composed of white Southern Democrats, on Republican officeholders and freedmen in Coushatta, the parish seat of Red River Parish, Louisiana.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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Crop-lien system

The crop-lien system was a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1930s.

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D. W. Griffith

David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques.

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Daniel Sickles

Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1819May 3, 1914) was an American politician, soldier, and diplomat.

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David Hunter

David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general during the American Civil War.

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David M. Key

David McKendree Key (January 27, 1824 – February 3, 1900) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Tennessee from 1875 to 1877 as well as the U.S. Postmaster General under President Hayes, and a United States federal judge.

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David W. Blight

David William Blight (born 1949) is a professor of American History at Yale University and Director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition.

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Delaware

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.

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Dewitt Clinton Senter

Dewitt Clinton Senter (March 26, 1830June 14, 1898) was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1869 to 1871.

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Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era

Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.

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Dunning School

The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877).

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Economic History Association

The Economic History Association (EHA) was founded in 1940 to "encourage and promote teaching, research, and publication on every phase of economic history and to help preserve and administer materials for research in economic history".

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Edward Bates

Edward Bates (September 4, 1793 – March 25, 1869) was an American lawyer and statesman.

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Edward McPherson

Edward McPherson (July 31, 1830 – December 14, 1895) |url.

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Edward Ord

Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 – July 22, 1883) was an American engineer and United States Army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the American Civil War.

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Edward Stanly

Edward W. Stanly (January 10, 1810 – July 12, 1872) was a North Carolina politician and orator who represented the southeastern portion of the state in the United States House of Representatives for five terms.

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Edwin Stanton

Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War.

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Electoral Commission (United States)

The Electoral Commission was a temporary body created by Congress to resolve the disputed United States presidential election of 1876.

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Electoral fraud

Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

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Elisha Baxter

Elisha Baxter (September 1, 1827May 31, 1899) was the tenth Governor of the State of Arkansas.

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Ellenton, South Carolina

Ellenton was a town that was on the border between Barnwell and Aiken counties, South Carolina, United States.

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Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer

Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (born Cambria Station, Chester County, Pennsylvania, October 5, 1868; died December 8, 1936, Philadelphia, age 68) was an American biographer and historical writer.

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Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.

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Enforcement Acts

The Enforcement Acts were three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871.

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Eric Foner

Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.

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Exodusters

Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1872.

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Extrajudicial killing

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".

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Fifth Military District

The 5th Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.

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First Military District

The First Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.

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Five Civilized Tribes

The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.

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Florida

Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Fort Smith, Arkansas

Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.

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Forty acres and a mule

Forty acres and a mule refers to a promise made in the United States for agrarian reform for former enslaved black farmers by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman on January 16, 1865.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Fourth Military District

The Fourth Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.

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Francis Preston Blair

Francis Preston Blair Sr. (April 12, 1791 – October 18, 1876) was an American journalist, newspaper editor, and influential figure in national politics advising several U.S. presidents across the party lines.

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Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.

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Free people of color

In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.

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Freedman

A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.

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Freedmen's Bureau

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, usually referred to as simply the Freedmen's Bureau, was an agency of the United States Department of War to "direct such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children." The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.

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Freedmen's Bureau bills

The Freedmen's Bureau bills provided legislative authorization for the Freedmen's Bureau (formally known as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands), which was set up by President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 as part of the United States Army.

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Gang system

The gang system is a system of division of labor within slavery on a plantation.

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George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana)

George Foster Shepley (January 1, 1819July 20, 1878) was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

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George Henry Williams

George Henry Williams (March 26, 1823April 4, 1910) was an American judge and politician.

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George Meade

George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Georgia during Reconstruction

At the end of the American Civil War, the devastation and disruption in the state of Georgia were dramatic.

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Giles v. Harris

Giles v. Harris,, was an early 20th-century United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a state constitution's requirements for voter registration and qualifications.

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Gone with the Wind (film)

Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.

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Gone with the Wind (novel)

Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936.

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Grandfather clause

A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.

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Grant Parish, Louisiana

Grant Parish (Paroisse de Grant) is a parish located in the north central portion of the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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Habeas corpus

Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

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Haiti

Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Hamburg massacre

The Hamburg massacre (or Hamburg riot) was a key event in South Carolina during July 1876, leading up to the last election season of the Reconstruction Era.

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Hampton Roads

Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.

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Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review

The Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review is a student-run law review published by Harvard Law School.

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Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Henry W. Grady

Henry Woodfin Grady (May 24, 1850 – December 23, 1889) was a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War.

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Henry Wirz

Heinrich Hartmann Wirz, better known as Henry Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865), was a Swiss-born American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.

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Hiram Rhodes Revels

Hiram Rhodes Revels (September 27, 1827Different sources list his birth year as either 1827 or 1822. – January 16, 1901) was a Republican U.S. Senator, minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), and a college administrator.

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Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.

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History of Arkansas

The history of Arkansas began millennia ago when humans first crossed into North America.

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History of Louisiana

The history of the territory that is now Louisiana began roughly 10,000 years ago.

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History of South Carolina

South Carolina was one of the original thirteen states of the United States.

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History of Tennessee

Tennessee is one of the 50 states of the United States.

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History of the Southern United States

The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound building.

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History of the United States

The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.

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History of the United States Democratic Party

The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.

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History of the United States Republican Party

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.

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History of Virginia

The History of Virginia begins with documentation by the first Spanish explorers to reach the area in the 1500s, when it was occupied chiefly by Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan peoples.

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Horace Greeley

Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author, statesman, founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time.

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Howard K. Beale

Howard Kennedy Beale (April 8, 1899 – December 27, 1959) was an American historian.

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Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

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Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson occurred in 1868, when the United States House of Representatives resolved to impeach President Andrew Johnson, adopting eleven articles of impeachment detailing his "high crimes and misdemeanors," in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution.

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Indian Territory

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.

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Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Insurgency

An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).

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Internal improvements

Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States for public works from the end of the American Revolution through much of the 19th century, mainly for the creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and navigation improvements.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Ira Berlin

Ira Berlin (May 27, 1941 – June 5, 2018) was an American historian, professor of history at the University of Maryland, and former president of Organization of American Historians.

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Ironclad oath

The Ironclad Oath was an oath promoted by Radical Republicans and opposed by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War.

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James G. Blaine

James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830January 27, 1893) was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881.

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James L. Alcorn

James Lusk Alcorn (November 4, 1816December 19, 1894) was a Republican governor and a U.S. senator during the Reconstruction of his adopted state of Mississippi.

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James Lawrence Orr

James Lawrence Orr (May 12, 1822May 5, 1873) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 22nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1857 to 1859.

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James M. Hinds

James M. Hinds (December 5, 1833 – October 22, 1868) represented Arkansas in the United States House of Representatives for the 2nd congressional district from June 24, 1868 until his death in office four months later.

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James M. McPherson

James M. "Jim" McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University.

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James Shepherd Pike

James Shepherd Pike (September 8, 1811 – November 29, 1882) was an American journalist and a historian of South Carolina during the Reconstruction Era.

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Jefferson Davis

Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.

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Jim Crow laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.

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Joel Chandler Harris

Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus stories.

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John Archibald Campbell

John Archibald Campbell (June 24, 1811 – March 12, 1889) was an American jurist.

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John Bingham

John Armor Bingham (January 21, 1815 – March 19, 1900) was an American Republican Representative from Ohio, an assistant to Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination, and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson.

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John C. Frémont

John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.

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John Eaton (general)

For other people named John Eaton, see John Eaton (disambiguation). John Eaton, Jr. (December 5, 1829 – February 9, 1906) was a U.S. Commissioner of Education and a Union Army colonel during the American Civil War.

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John Hope Franklin

John Hope Franklin (January 2, 1915March 25, 2009) was an American historian of the United States and former president of Phi Beta Kappa, the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Southern Historical Association.

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John McEnery

John McEnery (born 1 November 1943) is an English actor and writer.

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John Pope (military officer)

John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.

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John R. Lynch

John Roy Lynch (September 10, 1847 – November 2, 1939) was an African-American Republican politician, writer, attorney and military officer.

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John S. Phelps

John Smith Phelps (December 22, 1814November 20, 1886) was a politician, soldier during the American Civil War, and the 23rd Governor of Missouri.

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John Schofield

John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the American Civil War.

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John Willis Menard

John Willis Menard (April 3, 1838 – October 8, 1893) was a federal government employee, poet, newspaper publisher and politician born in Illinois to parents who were Louisiana Creoles from New Orleans.

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JSTOR

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Jury duty

Jury duty or Jury service is service as a juror in a legal proceeding.

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Kenneth M. Stampp

Kenneth Milton Stampp (12 July 191210 July 2009), Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of History Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley (1946–1983), was a celebrated historian of slavery, the American Civil War, and Reconstruction.

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Kentucky

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Ku Klux Klan

The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.

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Land value tax

A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.

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Land-grant university

A land-grant university (also called land-grant college or land-grant institution) is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.

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Law enforcement

Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.

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Leon Litwack

Leon F. Litwack (born December 2, 1929) is an American historian whose scholarship focuses on slavery, the Reconstruction Era of the United States, and its aftermath into the 20th century.

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Liberal Republican Party (United States)

The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was an American political party that was organized in May 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872.

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List of African-American officeholders during Reconstruction

Many scholars have identified more than 1,500 African American officeholders during the Reconstruction Era (1863–1877).

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List of highest-grossing films

Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Literacy test

A literacy test assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write.

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Long Depression

The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.

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Lost Cause of the Confederacy

The Lost Cause of the Confederacy, or simply the Lost Cause, is an ideological movement that describes the Confederate cause as a heroic one against great odds despite its defeat.

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Louisiana

Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Lyman Trumbull

Lyman Trumbull (October 12, 1813 – June 25, 1896) was a United States Senator from Illinois and the co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Lynching

Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.

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Lynching in the United States

Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action.

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Margaret Mitchell

Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist under the pseudonym Peggy Mitchell.

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Martial law

Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Matthew Simpson

Matthew Simpson (21 June 1811 – 18 June 1884) was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1852 and based mostly in Chicago.

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Maximilian I of Mexico

Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.

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Memphis riots of 1866

The Memphis massacre of 1866 was a series of violent events that occurred from May 1 to 3, 1866 in Memphis, Tennessee.

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Memphis, Tennessee

Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.

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Methodist Episcopal Church

The Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC) was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939.

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Methodist Episcopal Church, South

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or Methodist Episcopal Church South (MEC,S), was the Methodist denomination resulting from the 19th-century split over the issue of slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC).

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Michael Hahn

George Michael Decker Hahn (November 24, 1830 – March 15, 1886), a native of Germany and immigrant to the United States as a child, became an attorney, politician, publisher and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Mississippi

Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.

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Mississippi Plan

The Mississippi Plan of 1875 was developed by conservative white Democrats as part of the white insurgency during the Reconstruction Era in the Southern United States.

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Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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Morrison Waite

Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.

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Nathan Bedford Forrest

Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a cotton farmer, slave owner, slave trader, Confederate Army general during the American Civil War, first leader of the Ku Klux Klan, and president of the Selma, Marion, & Memphis Railroad.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Nell Irvin Painter

Nell Irvin Painter (born Nell Elizabeth Irvin; August 2, 1942) is an American historian notable for her works on southern history of the nineteenth century.

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Neoabolitionism

Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used in historiography to characterize historians of race relations motivated by the spirit of racial equality typified by the abolitionists who fought to abolish slavery in the mid-19th century.

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New Bern, North Carolina

New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States.

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New Departure (United States)

The New Departure refers to the political strategy used by the Democratic Party in the United States after 1865 to distance itself from its pro-slavery and Copperhead history in an effort to broaden its political base, and focus on issues where it had more of an advantage, especially economic issues.

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New Orleans massacre of 1866

The New Orleans Massacre of 1866 occurred on July 30, during a violent conflict as white Democrats including police and firemen attacked Republicans, most of them African American, parading outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans.

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New South

New South, New South Democracy or New South Creed is a slogan in the history of the American South, after 1877.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicholas Lemann

Nicholas Berthelot Lemann is the Joseph Pulitzer II and Edith Pulitzer Moore Professor of Journalism and Dean Emeritus of the Faculty of Journalism at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.

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North Carolina

North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Ohio

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Oklahoma

Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Oklahoma Territory

The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma.

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Open Yale Courses

Open Yale Courses is a project of Yale University to share full video and course materials from its undergraduate courses.

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Organized incorporated territories of the United States

Organized incorporated territories are territories of the United States that are both incorporated (part of the United States proper) and organized (having an organized government authorized by an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress, usually consisting of a territorial legislature, territorial governor, and a basic judicial system).

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Panic of 1873

The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).

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Paramilitary

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Philip Sheridan

Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

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Plantations in the American South

Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.

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Planters

Planters is an American snack food company, a division of Kraft Foods, best known for its processed nuts and for the Mr. Peanut icon that symbolizes them.

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Plessy v. Ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.

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Pocket veto

A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver that allows a president or other official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (instead of affirmatively vetoing it).

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Poll taxes in the United States

A poll tax is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.

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Posse Comitatus Act

The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (original at) signed on June 18, 1878 by President Rutherford B. Hayes.

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Project MUSE

Project MUSE, a non-profit collaboration between libraries and publishers, is an online database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books.

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Property tax

A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.

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Radical Republican

The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

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Readjuster Party

The Readjuster Party was a political biracial coalition formed in Virginia in the late 1870s during the turbulent period following the Reconstruction era.

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Reconstruction Acts

The Reconstruction Acts, or Military Reconstruction Acts, (March 2, 1867, 14 Stat. 428-430, c.153; March 23, 1867, 15 Stat. 2-5, c.6; July 19, 1867, 15 Stat. 14-16, c.30; and March 11, 1868, 15 Stat. 41, c.25) were four statutes passed during the Reconstruction Era by the 40th United States Congress addressing requirement for Southern States to be readmitted to the Union.

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Reconstruction Amendments

The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.

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Reconstruction Era National Monument

The Reconstruction Era National Monument is a United States National Monument in Beaufort County, South Carolina established by President Barack Obama in January 2017 to preserve and commemorate activities during the Reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War.

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Reconstruction Treaties

On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi.

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Red River of the South

The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.

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Red River Parish, Louisiana

Red River Parish (French: Paroisse de la Rivière-Rouge) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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Red Shirts (United States)

The Red Shirts or Redshirts of the Southern United States were white supremacist paramilitary groups that were active in the late 19th century in the last years and after the end of the Reconstruction era of the United States.

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Redeemers

In United States history, the Redeemers were a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction Era that followed the Civil War.

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Republicanism in the United States

Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.

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Richard Hofstadter

Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.

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Richmond, Virginia

Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

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Riverboat

A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways.

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Robert Higgs

Robert Higgs (born 1 February 1944) is an American economic historian and economist combining material from Public Choice, the New institutional economics, and the Austrian school of economics; and describes himself as a libertarian anarchist in political and legal theory and public policy.

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Robert M. T. Hunter

Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809 – July 18, 1887) was a Virginia lawyer, politician and plantation owner.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Rufus Bullock

Rufus Brown Bullock (March 28, 1834 – April 27, 1907) was a Republican Party politician and businessman in Georgia.

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Rutherford B. Hayes

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States from 1877 to 1881, an American congressman, and governor of Ohio.

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Salmon P. Chase

Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808May 7, 1873) was a U.S. politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States.

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Samuel J. Tilden

Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 – August 4, 1886) was the 25th Governor of New York and the Democratic candidate for president in the disputed election of 1876.

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Scalawag

In United States history, scalawags were white Southerners who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.

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Second Military District

The Second Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.

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Second-class citizen

A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.

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Selma, Alabama

Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west.

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Sharecropping

Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.

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Slave Power

The Slave Power or Slaveocracy was the perceived political power in the U.S. federal government held by slave owners during the 1840s and 1850s, prior to the Civil War.

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Social Gospel

The Social Gospel was a movement in North American Protestantism which applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.

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Solicitor General of the United States

The United States Solicitor General is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice.

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Southern Unionist

In the United States, Southern Unionists were White Southerners living in the Confederate States of America, opposed to secession, and against the Civil War.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Stalwarts (politics)

The Stalwarts were a faction of the Republican Party that existed briefly in the United States during and after Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, that is, during the 1870s and 1880s.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Suffrage

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).

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T. Harry Williams

Thomas Harry Williams (May 19, 1909 – July 6, 1979) was an American historian who taught at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge from 1941 to 1979.

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Ten percent plan

The ten percent plan, formally the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, was a United States presidential proclamation issued on December 8, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln, during the American Civil War.

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Tenant farmer

A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.

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Tennessee

Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Tenure of Office Act (1867)

The Tenure of Office Act was a United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Thaddeus Stevens

Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.

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The Birth of a Nation

The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.

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The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan

The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan is a novel published in 1905.

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The Journal of African American History

The Journal of African American History, formerly The Journal of Negro History (1916–2001), is a quarterly academic journal covering African American life and history.

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The Journal of Economic History

The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.

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The Leopard's Spots

The Leopard's Spots is the first novel of Thomas Dixon's Ku Klux Klan trilogy that included The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan and The Traitor.

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Third Military District

The Third Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.

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Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.

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Thomas Dixon Jr.

Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr. (January 11, 1864 – April 3, 1946) was a Southern Baptist minister, playwright, lecturer, North Carolina state legislator, lawyer, author, white supremacist and Ku Klux Klan apologist.

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Three-Fifths Compromise

The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.

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Transport

Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States.

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Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.

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United Daughters of the Confederacy

The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) is an American hereditary association of Southern women established in 1894 in Nashville, Tennessee.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Congress Joint Committee on Reconstruction

The Joint Committee on Reconstruction, also known as the Joint Committee of Fifteen, was a joint committee of the 39th United States Congress that played a major role in Reconstruction in the wake of the American Civil War.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1866

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1866 to elect Representatives to the 40th United States Congress.

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1874

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1874 and 1875 for Representatives to the 44th Congress, occurring in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's second term with a deep economic depression underway.

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United States Postmaster General

The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service; Megan Brennan is the current Postmaster General.

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United States presidential election, 1868

The United States presidential election of 1868 was the 21st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1868.

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United States presidential election, 1876

The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876.

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United States v. Cruikshank

United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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Virginia

Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

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W. E. B. Du Bois

William Edward Burghardt "W.

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Wade Hampton III

Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818April 11, 1902) was a Confederate States of America military officer during the American Civil War and politician from South Carolina.

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Wade–Davis Bill

The Wade–Davis Bill of 1864 was a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.

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Walter Lynwood Fleming

Walter Lynwood Fleming (1874–1932) was an American historian of the South and Reconstruction.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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West Virginia

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.

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West Virginia in the American Civil War

The U.S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia), in which it became the only state to declare its independence from the Confederacy.

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White League

The White League, also known as the White Man's League, was an American white paramilitary organization started in 1874 to kick Republicans out of office and intimidate freedmen from voting and politically organizing.

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White supremacy

White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.

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Whitelaw Reid

Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 – December 15, 1912) was an American politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War.

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William Archibald Dunning

William Archibald Dunning (12 May 1857 – 25 August 1922) was an American historian and political scientist at Columbia University noted for his work on the Reconstruction era of the United States.

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William H. Seward

William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.

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William M. Tweed

William Magear Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878)—often erroneously referred to as "William Marcy Tweed" (see below), and widely known as "Boss" Tweed—was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.

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William Mahone

William Mahone (December 1, 1826October 8, 1895) was an American civil engineer, railroad executive, Confederate general, and politician.

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William Pitt Kellogg

William Pitt Kellogg (December 8, 1830 – August 10, 1918) was an American lawyer and Republican Party politician who served as a United States Senator from 1868 to 1872 and from 1877 to 1883 and as the Governor of Louisiana from 1873 to 1877 during the Reconstruction Era.

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William S. McFeely

William Shield McFeely (born September 25, 1930) is an American historian.

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William Stewart Simkins

William Stewart Simkins (August 25, 1842 – February 27, 1929) was a Confederate soldier and professor of law at the University of Texas at Austin.

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William Woods Holden

William Woods Holden (November 24, 1818March 1, 1892) was the 38th and 40th Governor of North Carolina, who was appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 for a brief term, and then elected in 1868, serving until 1871.

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Williams v. Mississippi

Williams v. Mississippi,, is a United States Supreme Court case that reviewed provisions of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration.

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Winfield Scott Hancock

Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880.

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Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.

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Zachariah Chandler

Zachariah Chandler (December 10, 1813November 1, 1879) was an American businessman, politician, one of the founders of the Republican Party, whose radical wing he dominated as a lifelong abolitionist.

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1868 Democratic National Convention

The 1868 Democratic National Convention was held at Tammany Hall in New York City between July 4, and July 9, 1868.

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Redirects here:

American Reconstruction, American reconstruction, Congressional Reconstruction, Congressional Reconstrution, Era of Reconstruction, Formal End to Reconstruction, Military Reconstruction, Post-Civil War Reconstruction, Presidential Reconstruction, Radical Reconstruction, Reconstrucion, Reconstruction (United States), Reconstruction Era, Reconstruction Era (United States), Reconstruction Era in the United States, Reconstruction Era of the United States, Reconstruction Period, Reconstruction Plan, Reconstruction and The Changing South, Reconstruction during the american civil war, Reconstruction era (United States), Reconstruction era in the United States, Reconstruction era of the USA, Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction of the United States, Reconstruction time period of the United States, Reconstruction-era, Reeconstruction, The Reconstruction, The Reconstruction Era and Aftermath of the American Civil War, The reconstruction.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_era

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