319 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Adelbert Ames, African Americans, African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Alabama, Alcorn State University, Alexander H. Stephens, American Civil War, American Journal of Education, Amnesty Act, Amos T. Akerman, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andersonville, Georgia, Andrew Johnson, Arkansas, Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Liberty Place, Been in the Storm So Long, Benjamin Bristow, Benjamin Butler, Benjamin Flanders, Benjamin Franklin Perry, Bias, Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era, Black Codes (United States), Booker T. Washington, Border states (American Civil War), Bourbon Democrat, Brooks–Baxter War, Cambridge University Press, Carl Schurz, Carpetbagger, Charles A. Beard, Charles H. Pearce, Charles Sumner, Chiriquí Province, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, Citizenship of the United States, Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1875, Civil Rights Act of 1957, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Cases, Civil rights movement, Civil rights movement (1896–1954), Colfax massacre, Colfax, Louisiana, ..., Columbia Law Review, Columbia Law School, Columbia University, Compromise of 1877, Confederate States Army, Confederate States dollar, Confederate States of America, Confiscation Acts, Coushatta, Coushatta massacre, Creative Commons, Crop-lien system, D. W. Griffith, Daniel Sickles, David Hunter, David M. Key, David W. Blight, Delaware, Dewitt Clinton Senter, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Dunning School, Economic History Association, Edward Bates, Edward McPherson, Edward Ord, Edward Stanly, Edwin Stanton, Electoral Commission (United States), Electoral fraud, Elisha Baxter, Ellenton, South Carolina, Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, Emancipation Proclamation, Enforcement Acts, Eric Foner, Exodusters, Extrajudicial killing, Federal government of the United States, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifth Military District, First Military District, Five Civilized Tribes, Florida, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Forty acres and a mule, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourth Military District, Francis Preston Blair, Frederick Douglass, Free people of color, Freedman, Freedmen's Bureau, Freedmen's Bureau bills, Gang system, George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana), George Henry Williams, George Meade, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia during Reconstruction, Giles v. Harris, Gone with the Wind (film), Gone with the Wind (novel), Grandfather clause, Grant Parish, Louisiana, Habeas corpus, Haiti, Hamburg massacre, Hampton Roads, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Harvard Law School, Henry W. Grady, Henry Wirz, Hiram Rhodes Revels, Historical revisionism, History of Arkansas, History of Louisiana, History of South Carolina, History of Tennessee, History of the Southern United States, History of the United States, History of the United States Democratic Party, History of the United States Republican Party, History of Virginia, Horace Greeley, Howard K. Beale, Human capital, Illinois, Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Indian Territory, Infrastructure, Insurgency, Internal improvements, Internet Archive, Ira Berlin, Ironclad oath, James G. Blaine, James L. Alcorn, James Lawrence Orr, James M. Hinds, James M. McPherson, James Shepherd Pike, Jefferson Davis, Jim Crow laws, Joel Chandler Harris, John Archibald Campbell, John Bingham, John C. Frémont, John Eaton (general), John Hope Franklin, John McEnery, John Pope (military officer), John R. Lynch, John S. Phelps, John Schofield, John Willis Menard, JSTOR, Jury duty, Kenneth M. Stampp, Kentucky, Ku Klux Klan, Land value tax, Land-grant university, Law enforcement, Leon Litwack, Liberal Republican Party (United States), List of African-American officeholders during Reconstruction, List of highest-grossing films, Literacy, Literacy test, Long Depression, Lost Cause of the Confederacy, Louisiana, Lyman Trumbull, Lynching, Lynching in the United States, Margaret Mitchell, Martial law, Maryland, Massachusetts, Matthew Simpson, Maximilian I of Mexico, Memphis riots of 1866, Memphis, Tennessee, Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Michael Hahn, Mississippi, Mississippi Plan, Missouri, Morrison Waite, Nathan Bedford Forrest, Native Americans in the United States, Nell Irvin Painter, Neoabolitionism, New Bern, North Carolina, New Departure (United States), New Orleans massacre of 1866, New South, New York City, Nicholas Lemann, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Territory, Open Yale Courses, Organized incorporated territories of the United States, Panic of 1873, Paramilitary, Pennsylvania, Philip Sheridan, Plantations in the American South, Planters, Plessy v. Ferguson, Pocket veto, Poll taxes in the United States, Posse Comitatus Act, Project MUSE, Property tax, Radical Republican, Readjuster Party, Reconstruction Acts, Reconstruction Amendments, Reconstruction Era National Monument, Reconstruction Treaties, Red River of the South, Red River Parish, Louisiana, Red Shirts (United States), Redeemers, Republicanism in the United States, Richard Hofstadter, Richmond, Virginia, Riverboat, Robert Higgs, Robert M. T. Hunter, Rowman & Littlefield, Rufus Bullock, Rutherford B. Hayes, Salmon P. Chase, Samuel J. Tilden, Scalawag, Second Military District, Second-class citizen, Selma, Alabama, Sharecropping, Slave Power, Social Gospel, Solicitor General of the United States, South Carolina, Southern Unionist, Southern United States, Stalwarts (politics), State school, Suffrage, T. Harry Williams, Ten percent plan, Tenant farmer, Tennessee, Tenure of Office Act (1867), Texas, Thaddeus Stevens, The Birth of a Nation, The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, The Journal of African American History, The Journal of Economic History, The Leopard's Spots, Third Military District, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Dixon Jr., Three-Fifths Compromise, Transport, Tuskegee University, Ulysses S. Grant, United Daughters of the Confederacy, United States Army, United States Congress, United States Congress Joint Committee on Reconstruction, United States Department of Justice, United States House of Representatives elections, 1866, United States House of Representatives elections, 1874, United States Postmaster General, United States presidential election, 1868, United States presidential election, 1876, United States v. Cruikshank, Universal suffrage, Virginia, Voting Rights Act of 1965, W. E. B. Du Bois, Wade Hampton III, Wade–Davis Bill, Walter Lynwood Fleming, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, West Virginia in the American Civil War, White League, White supremacy, Whitelaw Reid, William Archibald Dunning, William H. Seward, William M. Tweed, William Mahone, William Pitt Kellogg, William S. McFeely, William Stewart Simkins, William Woods Holden, Williams v. Mississippi, Winfield Scott Hancock, Women's suffrage, Zachariah Chandler, 1868 Democratic National Convention. Expand index (269 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 13, 1933) was an American sailor, soldier, and politician who served with distinction as a Union Army general during the American Civil War.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the United States.
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or the AME Zion Church or AMEZ, is a historically African-American denomination based in the United States.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alcorn State University (Alcorn) is a public, historically black, comprehensive, land-grant institution located northwest of Lorman, Mississippi in rural Claiborne County.
Alexander Hamilton Stephens (born February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician who served as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Journal of Education seeks to bridge and integrate the intellectual, methodological, and substantive diversity of educational scholarship and to encourage a vigorous dialogue between educational scholars and policy makers.
The Amnesty Act of May 22, 1872 was a United States federal law which reversed most of the penalties imposed on former Confederates by the Fourteenth Amendment.
Amos Tappan Akerman (February 23, 1821 – December 21, 1880) served as United States Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant from 1870 to 1871.
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.
Andersonville is a city in Sumter County, Georgia, United States.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play, Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 a.m., in the Petersen House opposite the theater.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
The Battle of Liberty Place, or Battle of Canal Street, was an attempted insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Era Louisiana state government on September 14, 1874, in New Orleans, which was the capital of Louisiana at the time.
Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery is a 1979 book by American historian Leon Litwack, published by Knopf.
Benjamin Helm Bristow (June 20, 1832 – June 22, 1896) was the 30th U.S. Treasury Secretary, the first Solicitor General, an American lawyer, a Union military officer, Republican Party politician, reformer, and civil rights advocate.
Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was a major general of the Union Army, politician, lawyer and businessman from Massachusetts.
Benjamin Franklin Flanders (January 26, 1816 – March 13, 1896) was a teacher, politician and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Benjamin Franklin Perry (November 20, 1805December 3, 1886) was the 72nd Governor of South Carolina, appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 after the end of the American Civil War.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
This is a selected bibliography of the main scholarly books and articles of Reconstruction, the period after the American Civil War, 1863–1877 (or 1865 to 1877).
The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States in the later 19th century (1872–1904) to refer to members of the Democratic Party who were ideologically aligned with conservatism or classical liberalism, especially those who supported presidential candidates Charles O'Conor in 1872, Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1888/1892–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904.
The Brooks–Baxter War (or sometimes referred to as the Brooks–Baxter Affair) was an armed conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the United States, in 1874 between factions of the Republican Party over the disputed 1872 state gubernatorial election.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carl Christian Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.
In the history of the United States, a carpetbagger was any person from the Northern United States who came to the Southern states after the American Civil War and was perceived to be exploiting the local populace for their own purposes.
Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.
*Not to be confused with Charles H. Pierce Charles H. Pearce (1817-1887) was an African-American political and religious elder in Florida from 1865 until his death.
Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts.
Chiriquí is a province of Panama located on the western coast; it is the second most-developed province in the country, after the Panamá Province.
The Christian Methodist Episcopal (C.M.E.) Church is a historically black denomination within the broader context of Methodism.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866,, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (–337), sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957,, a federal voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Cases,,. were a group of five US Supreme Court constitutional law cases.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.
The Colfax massacre, or Colfax riot as the events are termed on the 1950 state historic marker, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, when approximately 150 black men were murdered by white Southerners.
Colfax is a town in, and the parish seat of, Grant Parish, Louisiana, United States, founded in 1869.
The Columbia Law Review is a law review edited and published by students at Columbia Law School.
Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Confederate States of America dollar was first issued just before the outbreak of the American Civil War by the newly formed Confederacy.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
The Confiscation Acts were laws passed by the United States Congress during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South.
---- The Coushatta (Koasati) are a Muskogean-speaking Native American people now living primarily in the U.S. states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.
The Coushatta Massacre (1874) was the result of an attack by the White League, a paramilitary organization composed of white Southern Democrats, on Republican officeholders and freedmen in Coushatta, the parish seat of Red River Parish, Louisiana.
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.
The crop-lien system was a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1930s.
David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques.
Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1819May 3, 1914) was an American politician, soldier, and diplomat.
David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general during the American Civil War.
David McKendree Key (January 27, 1824 – February 3, 1900) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Tennessee from 1875 to 1877 as well as the U.S. Postmaster General under President Hayes, and a United States federal judge.
David William Blight (born 1949) is a professor of American History at Yale University and Director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Dewitt Clinton Senter (March 26, 1830June 14, 1898) was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1869 to 1871.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877).
The Economic History Association (EHA) was founded in 1940 to "encourage and promote teaching, research, and publication on every phase of economic history and to help preserve and administer materials for research in economic history".
Edward Bates (September 4, 1793 – March 25, 1869) was an American lawyer and statesman.
Edward McPherson (July 31, 1830 – December 14, 1895) |url.
Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 – July 22, 1883) was an American engineer and United States Army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the American Civil War.
Edward W. Stanly (January 10, 1810 – July 12, 1872) was a North Carolina politician and orator who represented the southeastern portion of the state in the United States House of Representatives for five terms.
Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War.
The Electoral Commission was a temporary body created by Congress to resolve the disputed United States presidential election of 1876.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Elisha Baxter (September 1, 1827May 31, 1899) was the tenth Governor of the State of Arkansas.
Ellenton was a town that was on the border between Barnwell and Aiken counties, South Carolina, United States.
Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (born Cambria Station, Chester County, Pennsylvania, October 5, 1868; died December 8, 1936, Philadelphia, age 68) was an American biographer and historical writer.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
The Enforcement Acts were three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871.
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.
Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1872.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The 5th Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.
The First Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.
Forty acres and a mule refers to a promise made in the United States for agrarian reform for former enslaved black farmers by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman on January 16, 1865.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Fourth Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.
Francis Preston Blair Sr. (April 12, 1791 – October 18, 1876) was an American journalist, newspaper editor, and influential figure in national politics advising several U.S. presidents across the party lines.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color (French: gens de couleur libres, Spanish: gente libre de color) were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, usually referred to as simply the Freedmen's Bureau, was an agency of the United States Department of War to "direct such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children." The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.
The Freedmen's Bureau bills provided legislative authorization for the Freedmen's Bureau (formally known as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands), which was set up by President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 as part of the United States Army.
The gang system is a system of division of labor within slavery on a plantation.
George Foster Shepley (January 1, 1819July 20, 1878) was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
George Henry Williams (March 26, 1823April 4, 1910) was an American judge and politician.
George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
At the end of the American Civil War, the devastation and disruption in the state of Georgia were dramatic.
Giles v. Harris,, was an early 20th-century United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld a state constitution's requirements for voter registration and qualifications.
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.
Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936.
A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.
Grant Parish (Paroisse de Grant) is a parish located in the north central portion of the U.S. state of Louisiana.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Hamburg massacre (or Hamburg riot) was a key event in South Carolina during July 1876, leading up to the last election season of the Reconstruction Era.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
The Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review is a student-run law review published by Harvard Law School.
Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henry Woodfin Grady (May 24, 1850 – December 23, 1889) was a journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War.
Heinrich Hartmann Wirz, better known as Henry Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865), was a Swiss-born American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
Hiram Rhodes Revels (September 27, 1827Different sources list his birth year as either 1827 or 1822. – January 16, 1901) was a Republican U.S. Senator, minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), and a college administrator.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
The history of Arkansas began millennia ago when humans first crossed into North America.
The history of the territory that is now Louisiana began roughly 10,000 years ago.
South Carolina was one of the original thirteen states of the United States.
Tennessee is one of the 50 states of the United States.
The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound building.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
The History of Virginia begins with documentation by the first Spanish explorers to reach the area in the 1500s, when it was occupied chiefly by Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan peoples.
Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author, statesman, founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time.
Howard Kennedy Beale (April 8, 1899 – December 27, 1959) was an American historian.
Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson occurred in 1868, when the United States House of Representatives resolved to impeach President Andrew Johnson, adopting eleven articles of impeachment detailing his "high crimes and misdemeanors," in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
Internal improvements is the term used historically in the United States for public works from the end of the American Revolution through much of the 19th century, mainly for the creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and navigation improvements.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Ira Berlin (May 27, 1941 – June 5, 2018) was an American historian, professor of history at the University of Maryland, and former president of Organization of American Historians.
The Ironclad Oath was an oath promoted by Radical Republicans and opposed by President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War.
James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830January 27, 1893) was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881.
James Lusk Alcorn (November 4, 1816December 19, 1894) was a Republican governor and a U.S. senator during the Reconstruction of his adopted state of Mississippi.
James Lawrence Orr (May 12, 1822May 5, 1873) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 22nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1857 to 1859.
James M. Hinds (December 5, 1833 – October 22, 1868) represented Arkansas in the United States House of Representatives for the 2nd congressional district from June 24, 1868 until his death in office four months later.
James M. "Jim" McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University.
James Shepherd Pike (September 8, 1811 – November 29, 1882) was an American journalist and a historian of South Carolina during the Reconstruction Era.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus stories.
John Archibald Campbell (June 24, 1811 – March 12, 1889) was an American jurist.
John Armor Bingham (January 21, 1815 – March 19, 1900) was an American Republican Representative from Ohio, an assistant to Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination, and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson.
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.
For other people named John Eaton, see John Eaton (disambiguation). John Eaton, Jr. (December 5, 1829 – February 9, 1906) was a U.S. Commissioner of Education and a Union Army colonel during the American Civil War.
John Hope Franklin (January 2, 1915March 25, 2009) was an American historian of the United States and former president of Phi Beta Kappa, the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Southern Historical Association.
John McEnery (born 1 November 1943) is an English actor and writer.
John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.
John Roy Lynch (September 10, 1847 – November 2, 1939) was an African-American Republican politician, writer, attorney and military officer.
John Smith Phelps (December 22, 1814November 20, 1886) was a politician, soldier during the American Civil War, and the 23rd Governor of Missouri.
John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the American Civil War.
John Willis Menard (April 3, 1838 – October 8, 1893) was a federal government employee, poet, newspaper publisher and politician born in Illinois to parents who were Louisiana Creoles from New Orleans.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Jury duty or Jury service is service as a juror in a legal proceeding.
Kenneth Milton Stampp (12 July 191210 July 2009), Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of History Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley (1946–1983), was a celebrated historian of slavery, the American Civil War, and Reconstruction.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.
A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.
A land-grant university (also called land-grant college or land-grant institution) is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
Leon F. Litwack (born December 2, 1929) is an American historian whose scholarship focuses on slavery, the Reconstruction Era of the United States, and its aftermath into the 20th century.
The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was an American political party that was organized in May 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872.
Many scholars have identified more than 1,500 African American officeholders during the Reconstruction Era (1863–1877).
Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
A literacy test assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write.
The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.
The Lost Cause of the Confederacy, or simply the Lost Cause, is an ideological movement that describes the Confederate cause as a heroic one against great odds despite its defeat.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Lyman Trumbull (October 12, 1813 – June 25, 1896) was a United States Senator from Illinois and the co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action.
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist under the pseudonym Peggy Mitchell.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Matthew Simpson (21 June 1811 – 18 June 1884) was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1852 and based mostly in Chicago.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
The Memphis massacre of 1866 was a series of violent events that occurred from May 1 to 3, 1866 in Memphis, Tennessee.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
The Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC) was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939.
The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, or Methodist Episcopal Church South (MEC,S), was the Methodist denomination resulting from the 19th-century split over the issue of slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church (MEC).
George Michael Decker Hahn (November 24, 1830 – March 15, 1886), a native of Germany and immigrant to the United States as a child, became an attorney, politician, publisher and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi Plan of 1875 was developed by conservative white Democrats as part of the white insurgency during the Reconstruction Era in the Southern United States.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.
Nathan Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877), called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a cotton farmer, slave owner, slave trader, Confederate Army general during the American Civil War, first leader of the Ku Klux Klan, and president of the Selma, Marion, & Memphis Railroad.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nell Irvin Painter (born Nell Elizabeth Irvin; August 2, 1942) is an American historian notable for her works on southern history of the nineteenth century.
Neoabolitionist (or neo-abolitionist or new abolitionism) is a term used in historiography to characterize historians of race relations motivated by the spirit of racial equality typified by the abolitionists who fought to abolish slavery in the mid-19th century.
New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States.
The New Departure refers to the political strategy used by the Democratic Party in the United States after 1865 to distance itself from its pro-slavery and Copperhead history in an effort to broaden its political base, and focus on issues where it had more of an advantage, especially economic issues.
The New Orleans Massacre of 1866 occurred on July 30, during a violent conflict as white Democrats including police and firemen attacked Republicans, most of them African American, parading outside the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans.
New South, New South Democracy or New South Creed is a slogan in the history of the American South, after 1877.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicholas Berthelot Lemann is the Joseph Pulitzer II and Edith Pulitzer Moore Professor of Journalism and Dean Emeritus of the Faculty of Journalism at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma.
Open Yale Courses is a project of Yale University to share full video and course materials from its undergraduate courses.
Organized incorporated territories are territories of the United States that are both incorporated (part of the United States proper) and organized (having an organized government authorized by an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress, usually consisting of a territorial legislature, territorial governor, and a basic judicial system).
The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.
Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.
Planters is an American snack food company, a division of Kraft Foods, best known for its processed nuts and for the Mr. Peanut icon that symbolizes them.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver that allows a president or other official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (instead of affirmatively vetoing it).
A poll tax is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (original at) signed on June 18, 1878 by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
Project MUSE, a non-profit collaboration between libraries and publishers, is an online database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
The Readjuster Party was a political biracial coalition formed in Virginia in the late 1870s during the turbulent period following the Reconstruction era.
The Reconstruction Acts, or Military Reconstruction Acts, (March 2, 1867, 14 Stat. 428-430, c.153; March 23, 1867, 15 Stat. 2-5, c.6; July 19, 1867, 15 Stat. 14-16, c.30; and March 11, 1868, 15 Stat. 41, c.25) were four statutes passed during the Reconstruction Era by the 40th United States Congress addressing requirement for Southern States to be readmitted to the Union.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The Reconstruction Era National Monument is a United States National Monument in Beaufort County, South Carolina established by President Barack Obama in January 2017 to preserve and commemorate activities during the Reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War.
On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Red River Parish (French: Paroisse de la Rivière-Rouge) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
The Red Shirts or Redshirts of the Southern United States were white supremacist paramilitary groups that were active in the late 19th century in the last years and after the end of the Reconstruction era of the United States.
In United States history, the Redeemers were a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction Era that followed the Civil War.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 – October 24, 1970) was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways.
Robert Higgs (born 1 February 1944) is an American economic historian and economist combining material from Public Choice, the New institutional economics, and the Austrian school of economics; and describes himself as a libertarian anarchist in political and legal theory and public policy.
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (April 21, 1809 – July 18, 1887) was a Virginia lawyer, politician and plantation owner.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Rufus Brown Bullock (March 28, 1834 – April 27, 1907) was a Republican Party politician and businessman in Georgia.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States from 1877 to 1881, an American congressman, and governor of Ohio.
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808May 7, 1873) was a U.S. politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States.
Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 – August 4, 1886) was the 25th Governor of New York and the Democratic candidate for president in the disputed election of 1876.
In United States history, scalawags were white Southerners who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.
The Second Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.
A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west.
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
The Slave Power or Slaveocracy was the perceived political power in the U.S. federal government held by slave owners during the 1840s and 1850s, prior to the Civil War.
The Social Gospel was a movement in North American Protestantism which applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
The United States Solicitor General is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
In the United States, Southern Unionists were White Southerners living in the Confederate States of America, opposed to secession, and against the Civil War.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Stalwarts were a faction of the Republican Party that existed briefly in the United States during and after Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, that is, during the 1870s and 1880s.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Thomas Harry Williams (May 19, 1909 – July 6, 1979) was an American historian who taught at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge from 1941 to 1979.
The ten percent plan, formally the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, was a United States presidential proclamation issued on December 8, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln, during the American Civil War.
A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Tenure of Office Act was a United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.
The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.
The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan is a novel published in 1905.
The Journal of African American History, formerly The Journal of Negro History (1916–2001), is a quarterly academic journal covering African American life and history.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Leopard's Spots is the first novel of Thomas Dixon's Ku Klux Klan trilogy that included The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan and The Traitor.
The Third Military District of the U.S. Army was a temporary administrative unit of the U.S. War Department that existed in the American South.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr. (January 11, 1864 – April 3, 1946) was a Southern Baptist minister, playwright, lecturer, North Carolina state legislator, lawyer, author, white supremacist and Ku Klux Klan apologist.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) is an American hereditary association of Southern women established in 1894 in Nashville, Tennessee.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Joint Committee on Reconstruction, also known as the Joint Committee of Fifteen, was a joint committee of the 39th United States Congress that played a major role in Reconstruction in the wake of the American Civil War.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1866 to elect Representatives to the 40th United States Congress.
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1874 and 1875 for Representatives to the 44th Congress, occurring in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's second term with a deep economic depression underway.
The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service; Megan Brennan is the current Postmaster General.
The United States presidential election of 1868 was the 21st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1868.
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876.
United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818April 11, 1902) was a Confederate States of America military officer during the American Civil War and politician from South Carolina.
The Wade–Davis Bill of 1864 was a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.
Walter Lynwood Fleming (1874–1932) was an American historian of the South and Reconstruction.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
The U.S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia), in which it became the only state to declare its independence from the Confederacy.
The White League, also known as the White Man's League, was an American white paramilitary organization started in 1874 to kick Republicans out of office and intimidate freedmen from voting and politically organizing.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 – December 15, 1912) was an American politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War.
William Archibald Dunning (12 May 1857 – 25 August 1922) was an American historian and political scientist at Columbia University noted for his work on the Reconstruction era of the United States.
William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.
William Magear Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878)—often erroneously referred to as "William Marcy Tweed" (see below), and widely known as "Boss" Tweed—was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.
William Mahone (December 1, 1826October 8, 1895) was an American civil engineer, railroad executive, Confederate general, and politician.
William Pitt Kellogg (December 8, 1830 – August 10, 1918) was an American lawyer and Republican Party politician who served as a United States Senator from 1868 to 1872 and from 1877 to 1883 and as the Governor of Louisiana from 1873 to 1877 during the Reconstruction Era.
William Shield McFeely (born September 25, 1930) is an American historian.
William Stewart Simkins (August 25, 1842 – February 27, 1929) was a Confederate soldier and professor of law at the University of Texas at Austin.
William Woods Holden (November 24, 1818March 1, 1892) was the 38th and 40th Governor of North Carolina, who was appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 for a brief term, and then elected in 1868, serving until 1871.
Williams v. Mississippi,, is a United States Supreme Court case that reviewed provisions of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration.
Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Zachariah Chandler (December 10, 1813November 1, 1879) was an American businessman, politician, one of the founders of the Republican Party, whose radical wing he dominated as a lifelong abolitionist.
The 1868 Democratic National Convention was held at Tammany Hall in New York City between July 4, and July 9, 1868.
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