101 relations: A. F. P. Hulsewé, Anyang, Édouard Chavannes, Ōtsu, Bamboo and wooden slips, Ban Biao, Ban Gu, Beijing, Book collecting, Book of Documents, Book of Han, Boyi and Shuqi, Burton Watson, Chang'an, Changsha, Chariot, Chinese characters, Chinese historiography, Chinese History: A New Manual, Chinese language, Classical Chinese, Confucianism, Confucius, Doubting Antiquity School, Dunhuang manuscripts, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor Hui of Han, Emperor Shun, Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Xuan of Han, Emperor Yao, Emperor Yi of Chu, Emperor Zhao of Han, Empress Lü, Endymion Wilkinson, Gladys Yang, Gonghe Regency, Gu Jiegang, Guanzi (text), Guoyu (book), Guozijian, Han dynasty, Heavenly Questions, History of the Peloponnesian War, Huai River, Hunan, Internet Sacred Text Archive, Ishiyama-dera, Jiajing Emperor, Jing Ke, ..., Joseph Needham, Kōzan-ji, King Li of Zhou, King You of Zhou, Kongtong Mountains, Kyoto, Lament for Ying, Li Sao, Liu Zhiji, Lu (state), Maxime Kaltenmark, Ming dynasty, Nanjing, Northern and Southern dynasties, Old Testament, Oracle bone, Pitch pipe, Qianlong Emperor, Qin (state), Qin Shi Huang, Qing dynasty, Qu Yuan, Quanrong, Shang dynasty, Sima Qian, Sima Rangju, Sima Tan, Sima Zhen, Simplified Chinese characters, Song dynasty, Spring and Autumn Annals, Tang dynasty, Tōyō Bunko, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Thucydides, Tokyo, Tongzhi Emperor, Traditional Chinese characters, Twenty-Four Histories, Wanli Emperor, William H. Nienhauser, Jr., Xi'an, Xia dynasty, Xiang Yu, Yang Xianyi, Yellow Emperor, Yellow River, Zhao Tuo, Zhonghua Book Company, Zhou dynasty, Zhuolu Town. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Anthony François Paulus Hulsewé (31 January 1910 – 16 December 1993) was a Dutch Sinologist, scholar, educator, and author, best known for his studies of ancient Chinese law, particularly that of the Han dynasty (220AD206).
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.
Émmanuel-Édouard Chavannes (5 October 1865 – 29 January 1918) was a French Sinologist and expert on Chinese history and religion, and is best known for his translations of major segments of Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, the work's first ever translation into a Western language.
is the capital city of Shiga Prefecture, Japan.
Bamboo and wooden slips were the main media and writing medium for documents in China before the widespread introduction of paper during the first two centuries AD.
Ban Biao (3–54 CE), courtesy name, was a Chinese historian, and an official born in what is now Xianyang, Shaanxi during the Han Dynasty.
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Book collecting is the collecting of books, including seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining whatever books are of interest to a given collector.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
Boyi or Bo Yi and his brother Shuqi or Shu Qi were two brothers who lived in China at the time of the transition between the Shang dynasty and the Zhou dynasty.
Burton Dewitt Watson (June 13, 1925April 1, 2017) was an American scholar best known for his numerous translations of Chinese and Japanese literature into English.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chinese History: A New Manual, written by Endymion Wilkinson, is an encyclopedic guide to Sinology and Chinese history.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The Doubting Antiquity School or Yigupai (Wilkinson, Endymion (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard Univ Asia Center.. Page 345, see: Loewe, Michael and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China Cambridge University Press.. Page 72, see) refers to a group of scholars and writers who show doubts and uncertainty of antiquity in the Chinese academia starting during the New Culture Movement, (mid 1910s and 1920s).
The Dunhuang manuscripts are a cache of important religious and secular documents discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, in the early 20th century.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
Emperor Hui of Han (210 BC – 26 September 188 BC) was the second emperor of the Han Dynasty in China.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Emperor Xuan of Han (91 BC – 10 January 49 BC), born Liu Bingyi (劉病已), later renamed to Liu Xun (劉詢), was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 74 to 49 BC.
Emperor Yao (traditionally c. 2356 – 2255 BC) was a legendary Chinese ruler, according to various sources, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Yi of Chu (died 206 BC), also known as King Huai II of Chu, personal name Xiong Xin, was the ruler of the Chu state in the late Qin dynasty.
Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC – 5 June 74 BC), born Liu Fuling, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC.
Lü Zhi (241–180 BC), courtesy name Exu, commonly known as Empress Lü and Empress Dowager Lü, or formally Empress Gao of Han, was the empress consort of Emperor Gaozu, the founder and first ruler of the Han Dynasty.
Endymion Porter Wilkinson (born May 15, 1941) is an English diplomat, Sinologist, historian of China, and authority on East Asian affairs.
Gladys Yang (19 January 1919 – 18 November 1999) was a British translator of Chinese literature and the wife of another noted literary translator, Yang Xianyi.
The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BC, after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles until the ascension of his son, King Xuan of Zhou.
Gu Jiegang (8 May 189325 December 1980) was a Chinese historian best known for his seven-volume work Gushi Bian (古史辨, or Debates on Ancient History).
The Guanzi is an ancient Chinese political and philosophical text that is named for and traditionally attributed to the 7th century BCE statesman Guan Zhong, who served as Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.
The Guoyu, usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476).
The Guozijian,Yuan, 194.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Heavenly Questions or Questions to Heaven is a piece contained in the Classical Chinese poetry collection of Chu Ci, which is noted both in terms of poetry and as a source for information on the ancient culture of China, especially the area of the ancient state of Chu.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a Santa Cruz, California based website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value.
is a Shingon temple in Ōtsu in Japan's Shiga Prefecture.
The Jiajing Emperor (16September 150723January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty who ruled from 1521 to 1567.
Jing Ke (? – 227 BC) was a retainer of Crown Prince Dan of the Yan state and renowned for his failed assassination attempt of King Zheng of the Qin state, who later became Qin Shi Huang, China's first emperor (reign from 221 BC to 210 BC).
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
, officially, is a Buddhist temple of the Omuro sect of Shingon Buddhism in Umegahata Toganōchō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan.
King Li of Zhou (died in 828 BC) was the tenth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
King You of Zhou (795–771 BC) was the eleventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the last of Western Zhou Dynasty.
Kongtong Mountains is one of the sacred mountains of Taoism.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Lament for Ying (Chinese: 哀郢, pinyin: āi Yǐng) is a poem which has sometimes been attributed to Chinese poet Qu Yuan, and dated to around 278 BCE.
"Li Sao" is a Chinese poem dating from the Warring States period of ancient China.
Liu Zhiji (661–721), courtesy name Zixuan (子玄), was a Chinese historian and author of the Shitong born in present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu during the Tang Dynasty.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Max Kaltenmark (11 November 1910 – 26 June 2002) was a French sinologist, of Austrian origin.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
A pitch pipe is a small device used to provide a pitch reference for musicians without absolute pitch.
The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Quanrong or Dog Rong were an ethnic group classified by the ancient Chinese as "Qiang" active in the northwestern part of China during the Zhou dynasty (1046–221 BCE) and after.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Sima Rangju (Chinese:司馬穰苴) or Tian Rangju (Chinese: 田穰苴) (dates of birth and death unknown) was a famous Chinese military general during the Spring and Autumn period, often seen as the spiritual successor of Jiang Ziya.
Sima Tan (c. 165 BC – 110 BC) was a Chinese astrologist and historian during the Western Han Dynasty.
Sima Zhen (679–732), courtesy name Zizheng (Tzu-cheng; 子正), was a Tang dynasty Chinese historian born in what is now Jiaozuo, Henan.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The, or "Oriental Library", is Japan's largest Asian studies library and one of the world's five largest, located in Tokyo.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
The Tongzhi Emperor (27 April 185612 January 1875), born Zaichun of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the tenth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
The Wanli Emperor (4 September 1563 – 18 August 1620), personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.
William H. Nienhauser, Jr. (born 1943) is an American academic, who has been Halls-Bascom Professor of Classical Chinese Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Madison since 1995.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
Yang Xianyi (January 10, 1915 – November 23, 2009) was a Chinese literary translator, known for rendering many ancient and a few modern Chinese classics into English, including Dream of the Red Chamber.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Zhao Tuo, known in Vietnamese contexts as Triệu Đà, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general who participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam.
Zhonghua Book Company, formerly spelled Chunghwa or Chung-hua Shu-chü, and sometimes translated as Zhonghua Publishing House, is a Chinese publishing house that focuses on the humanities, and especially on classical Chinese works.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhuolu is a town and the county seat of Zhuolu County, northwestern Hebei province, Northern China.
Gan Luo, Grand Scribe's Records, Historical Anecdotes, Record of the Historian, Records of Grand Historian, Records of Great Historian, Records of the Grand Historian of China, Records of the Great Historian, Records of the Historian, Shi Ji, Shi chi, Shi ji, ShiJi, Shih Chi, Shih chi, Shih chih, Shih-Chi, Shih-chi, Shiji, Shǐ Jì, The Grand Scribe's Records, The Records of the Historian, 史記.