402 relations: Acetylcholine, Adderall, Addiction, Adhesive, Adrenergic, Adriaen Brouwer, Aerosol, Ajmalicine, Albert Hofmann, Alcohol, Alcohol intoxication, Alcoholism, Alertness, Alkaloid, Alkyl nitrites, Allergen, Allergy, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Altered state of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, AM-2201, Amanita, Amanita muscaria, Amphetamine, Anadenanthera colubrina, Anadenanthera peregrina, Analgesic, Anandamide, Anesthesia, Angina, Animal locomotion, Anthropology, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antihistamine, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Areca catechu, Arecoline, Argyreia nervosa, Arousal, Asthma, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Awareness, Ayahuasca, Banisteriopsis caapi, Barbiturate, Bath salts (drug), ..., Beer, Benzodiazepine, Beta-Carboline, Betel, Bioavailability, Biopsychosocial model, Black tea, Blood, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Blotting paper, Borneo, Brand, British Journal of Pharmacology, Bromazepam, Bufotenin, Butane, Cactus, Caffeine, Calea ternifolia, Camellia sinensis, Cannabinoid, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Cappuccino, Carisoprodol, Catecholaminergic, Cathine, Cathinone, Central Intelligence Agency, Central nervous system, Chasing the dragon, Chemical Research in Toxicology, Chloral hydrate, Chloroethane, Chloroform, Chlorphenamine, Chocolate, Cigarette, Claviceps purpurea, Clavicipitaceae, Club drug, Coca, Coca tea, Coca-Cola, Cocaine, Cocktail, Codeine, Coffea, Coffee, Colorado River toad, Congressional Research Service, Consciousness, Controlled substance, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Cough medicine, Counterculture, Counterfeit medications, Crack cocaine, Creativity, Cytochrome, Cytochrome P450, Datura, Datura stramonium, David Nutt, Decoction, Demand reduction, Dementia, Depressant, Dextromethorphan, Diethyl ether, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine, Dipping tobacco, Dissociation (psychology), Dissociative, Diterpene, Divination, Dopamine, Dream, Drink, Drug education, Drug injection, Drug liberalization, Drug withdrawal, Echinopsis pachanoi, Echinopsis peruviana, Edgar Degas, Emotion, Empathogen–entactogen, Endogeny (biology), Endurance, Energy drink, Entheogen, Enzyme, Ephedra, Ephedrine, Ergine, Ergoline, Ergotamine, Ethane, Ethanol, Ethchlorvynol, Ethylene, Etiology, Eugeroic, Euphoria, Fentanyl, Fermentation, Food, Freon, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Gas, Gasoline, Gateway drug theory, Gin, Glutethimide, Guarana, H1 antagonist, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic fish, Harm reduction, Hashish, Healing, Heart rate, Heroin, Hindu, Histamine, Histamine H1 receptor, Hydrocodone, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydroxyzine, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, Hyoscyamus niger, Hypoventilation, Hypoxia (medical), Ibogaine, Ibotenic acid, Illegal drug trade, Inhalant, Inhalation, Insufflation (medicine), International Agency for Research on Cancer, Intravenous therapy, JWH-018, Kava, Kavalactone, Keningau, Kerosene, Ketamine, Khat, Kola nut, Lamiaceae, Laudanum, Legality of cannabis, Liquor, List of medical inhalants, List of Schedule I drugs (US), Liver, Lyndon B. Johnson, Lysergamides, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Mandragora (genus), Mandragora officinarum, Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Martini (cocktail), MDMA, Meditation, Mephedrone, Meprobamate, Mescaline, Methamphetamine, Methaqualone, Methoxetamine, Methylecgonidine, Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Methylphenidate, Mexico, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mitragyna speciosa, Mitragynine, Mitraphylline, Modafinil, Morning glory, Morphine, Motivation, Mountain Dew, Mucous membrane, Muscimol, Mutual exclusivity, Myristica fragrans, Myristicin, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nail polish, Native American Church, Nepetalactone, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, Neurotoxin, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotiana, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitrous oxide, Nonbenzodiazepine, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nutmeg, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid use disorder, Opium, Organic synthesis, Orphenadrine, Oxycodone, Paan, Pain, Papaver somniferum, Paracetamol, Pausinystalia johimbe, Pepsi, Perception, Peripheral nervous system, Peyote, Phencyclidine, Phenethylamine, Phenibut, Pollen, Poppers, Poppy tea, Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Power-up, Prescription drug, Prodrug, Productivity, Prohibition of drugs, Project MKUltra, Propane, Propellant, Propofol, Pseudoephedrine, Psilocin, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Psychoactive drug, Psychotria viridis, Purple drank, Pyrolysis, Rauvolfia serpentina, Rauwolscine, Rave, Recreational drug use, Recreational use of dextromethorphan, Rectal administration, Religious experience, Research chemical, Rite of passage, Route of administration, Rum, Salicylic acid, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, Santo Daime, Sedation, Self-medication, Serotonergic, Shamanism, Sharia, Silene undulata, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Sleep, Smokeless tobacco, Smoking, Snuff (tobacco), Snus, Soft drink, Solanaceae, Solvent, Somnolence, Stimulant, Straight edge, Subculture, Sublingual administration, Substance intoxication, Substituted amphetamine, Sugar, Sympathomimetic drug, Synapse, Syncretism, Synthetic cannabinoids, Tabernanthe iboga, Tea, Teetotalism, Temple of the True Inner Light, Teratology, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Texas, The Smokers (painting), Theanine, Theobroma cacao, Theobromine, Thought, Tissue (biology), Tobacco, Toluene, Trance, Tranquilizer, Tryptamine, Turnera diffusa, União do Vegetal, Valerian (herb), Valeriana, Vapor, Video game, Vodka, Wakefulness, War on drugs, Whipped-cream charger, Wine, World War II, Yeast, Yemen, Yerba mate, Yohimbine, Yucatán Peninsula, Zipper storage bag, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 25I-NBOMe, 2C (psychedelics), 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-Methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine, 7-Hydroxymitragynine. 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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Adrenergic means "working on adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine)".
Adriaen Brouwer (Oudenaarde, c. 1605 – Antwerp, January 1638) was a Flemish painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the first half of the 17th century.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Ajmalicine, also known as δ-yohimbine or raubasine, is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure.
Albert Hofmann (11 January 1906 – 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Alkyl nitrites are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
AM-2201 (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is a recreational designer drug that acts as a potent but nonselective full agonist for the cannabinoid receptor.
The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anadenanthera colubrina (also known as vilca, huilco, huilca, wilco, willka, curupay, curupau, cebil, or angico) is a South American tree closely related to Yopo, or Anadenanthera peregrina.
Anadenanthera peregrina, also known as yopo, jopo, cohoba, parica or calcium tree, is a perennial tree of the genus Anadenanthera native to the Caribbean and South America.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Areca catechu is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arecoline is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu).
Argyreia nervosa is a perennial climbing vine native to the Indian subcontinent and introduced to numerous areas worldwide, including Hawaii, Africa, and the Caribbean.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
Banisteriopsis caapi, also known as ayahuasca, caapi or yagé, is a South American liana of the family Malpighiaceae.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
"Bath salts" (also called "psychoactive bath salts" or "PABS") is a term used to describe a number of recreational designer drugs.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.
The betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blotting paper, sometimes called bibulous paper, is a highly absorbent type of paper or other material.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calea ternifolia (syn. Calea zacatechichi) is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae.
Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
A cappuccino (Italian plural cappuccini) is an espresso-based coffee drink that originated in Italy, and is traditionally prepared with double espresso, and steamed milk foam.
Carisoprodol, marketed under the brand name Soma among others, is a prescription drug marketed since 1959.
Catecholaminergic means "related to catecholamines".
Cathine, also known as -norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
"Chasing the dragon" is a slang phrase of Cantonese origin from Hong Kong referring to inhaling the vapor from a heated solution of morphine, heroin, oxycodone, opium, or ya ba (a pill containing caffeine and methamphetamine).
Chemical Research in Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1988 by the American Chemical Society.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants.
The Clavicipitaceae are a family of fungi within the order Hypocreales.
Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2010s.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Coca tea, also called mate de coca, is an herbal tea (infusion) made using the raw or dried leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
When used to refer to any generic alcoholic mixed drink, cocktail may mean any beverage that contains three or more ingredients if at least one of those ingredients contains alcohol.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius), also known as the Sonoran Desert toad, is found in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae.
Datura stramonium, known by the English names jimsonweed or devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family.
David John Nutt (born 16 April 1951) is a British neuropsychopharmacologist specialising in the research of drugs that affect the brain and conditions such as addiction, anxiety, and sleep.
Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the chemicals of the material, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes.
Demand reduction refers to efforts aimed at reducing the public desire for illegal and illicit drugs.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Dipping tobacco is a type of finely ground or shredded, moistened smokeless tobacco product.
In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Diterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of two terpene units, often with the molecular formula C20H32.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Drug education is the planned provision of information, resources, and skills relevant to living in a world where psychoactive substances are widely available and commonly used for a variety of both medical and non-medical purposes, some of which may lead to harms such as overdose, injury, infectious disease (such as HIV or hepatitis C), or addiction.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.
Echinopsis peruviana (syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), the Peruvian torch cactus, is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the western slope of the Andes in Peru, between about above sea level.
Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ephedra is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide (LSA) and d-lysergamide, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethchlorvynol is a GABA-ergic sedative and hypnotic/soporific medication developed by Pfizer in the 1950s.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Eugeroics (originally, "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"), also known as wakefulness-promoting agents and wakefulness-promoting drugs, are a class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.
Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).
Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced by Ciba in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia.
Guarana (from the Portuguese guaraná), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1–2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. The colour of the fruit ranges from brown to red and they contain black seeds that are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit is split open has been compared with the appearance of eyeballs, and has become the basis of an origin myth among the Sateré-Mawé people.
H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Several species of fish are claimed to produce hallucinogenic effects when consumed.
Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.
Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from cannabis.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.
Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) or AM-678 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a full agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Kavalactones are a class of lactone compounds found in the kava shrub.
Keningau (p) is the capital of the Keningau District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.
The Lamiaceae or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family.
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).
The legality of cannabis for general or recreational use varies from country to country.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Amides of lysergic acid are collectively known as lysergamides.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mandragora is a plant genus belonging to the nightshade family (Solanaceae).
Mandragora officinarum is the type species of the plant genus Mandragora.
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.
The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
Meprobamate — marketed as Miltown by Wallace Laboratories and Equanil by Wyeth, among others — is a carbamate derivative used as an anxiolytic drug.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude" in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication.
Methoxetamine, abbreviated as MXE, is a dissociative hallucinogen that has been sold as a designer drug.
Methylecgonidine (anhydromethylecgonine; anhydroecgonine methyl ester; AEME) is a chemical intermediate derived from ecgonine or cocaine.
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mimosa tenuiflora, syn.
Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia.
Mitragynine is an indole-based opioid-receptor agonist and the most abundant active alkaloid in the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom and biak-biak.
Mitraphylline, an oxindole derivative, is an active alkaloid in the leaves of the tree Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Morning glory (also written as morning-glory) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Mountain Dew (stylized as Mtn Dew) is a carbonated soft drink brand produced and owned by PepsiCo.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
In logic and probability theory, two events (or propositions) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur (be true).
Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree indigenous to the Moluccas (or the Spice Islands) of Indonesia.
Myristicin is a phenylpropene, a natural organic compound present in small amounts in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
Nepetalactone is an organic compound, first isolated from the plant catnip (Nepeta cataria), which acts as a cat attractant.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Paan (from Sanskrit parṇa meaning "leaf") is a preparation combining betel leaf with areca nut widely consumed throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia and Taiwan.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Pausinystalia johimbe, (Rubiaceae), common name Yohimbe, is a plant species native to western and central Africa (Nigeria, Cabinda, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea).
Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and sedative effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Poppers is a slang term given broadly to the chemical class called alkyl nitrites, that are inhaled for recreational drug purposes, typically for the "high" or "rush" that the drug can create.
Poppy tea is any herbal tea infusion brewed from poppy straw or seeds of several species of poppy.
Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) describe a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and other substances.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In video games, power-ups are objects that instantly benefit or add extra abilities to the game character as a game mechanic.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the liberty cap, is a psilocybin or "magic" mushroom that contains the psychoactive compounds psilocybin which the body breaks down to psilocin, and the alkaloid baeocystin.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychotria viridis is a perennial shrub of the Rubiaceae family.
Purple drank is a slang term for a concoction which includes a prescription-strength cough syrup used in a manner inconsistent with its labeling, thus making it a recreational drug.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Rauvolfia serpentina, the Indian snakeroot or devil pepper, is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae.
Rauwolscine, also known as isoyohimbine, α-yohimbine, and corynanthidine, is an alkaloid found in various species within the genera Rauwolfia and Pausinystalia (formerly known as Corynanthe).
A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Dextromethorphan, or DXM, a common active ingredient found in many over-the-counter cough suppressant cold medicines, is used as a recreational drug and entheogen for its dissociative effects.
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.
Santo Daime is a syncretic religion founded in the 1930s in the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre by Raimundo Irineu Serra, known as Mestre Irineu.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Silene undulata (iindlela zimhlophe—"white ways/paths", also known as Silene capensis, and African dream root) is a plant native to the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Smokeless tobacco is tobacco or a tobacco product that is used by means other than smoking.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves.
Snus is a moist powder tobacco product originating from a variant of dry snuff in early 18th-century Sweden.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Straight edge (sometimes abbreviated sXe or signified by XXX or X) is a subculture of hardcore punk whose adherents refrain from using alcohol, tobacco and other recreational drugs, in reaction to the excesses of punk subculture.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to.
Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
The Temple of the True Inner Light is a temple in Manhattan which believes Entheogens such as Dipropyltryptamine, Cannabis, LSD-25, Mescaline, Psilocybin and DMT to be God, and that religions such as Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, etc., originally believed that Entheogens are the true God.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Smokers is a painting by the Flemish painter Adriaen Brouwer, painted in ca. 1636, probably in Antwerp.
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small (tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of the Americas.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Turnera diffusa, known as damiana, is a shrub native to southern Texas in the United States, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean.
The Beneficent Spiritist Center União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal; or UDV) is a religious society founded on July 22, 1961 by José Gabriel da Costa, known as Mestre Gabriel.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Valeriana is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caprifoliaceae, members of which may by commonly known as valerians.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
A whipped cream charger (sometimes colloquially called a whippit, whippet, nossy, nang or charger) is a steel cylinder or cartridge filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) that is used as a whipping agent in a whipped cream dispenser.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yerba mate (from Spanish; erva-mate or; ka'a) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
A zipper storage bag, slider storage bag, or zippie is an inexpensive flexible rectangular storage bag, usually mainly transparent, made of polyethylene or similar plastic, which can be sealed and opened many times by a slider which works in a similar way to a zip fastener.
Dimethoxybromoamphetamine (DOB), also known as brolamfetamine (INN) and bromo-DMA, is a psychedelic drug and substituted amphetamine of the phenethylamine class of compounds.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) is a psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5, also shortened to "25I") is a psychedelic hallucinogen that is used in biochemistry research for mapping the brains usage of the type 2A serotonin receptor and later also has been used for recreational purpose.
2C (2C-x) is a general name for the family of psychedelic phenethylamines containing methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of a benzene ring.
2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.
2C-E is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
2C-I is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
2C-T-2 is a psychedelic and entactogenic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic of the tryptamine class.
5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT), sometimes called "Foxy", is a psychedelic tryptamine.
7-Hydroxymitragynine is a terpenoid indole alkaloid from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Kratom.
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