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Index Recycling

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. [1]

211 relations: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Adaptive reuse, Allen Hershkowitz, Aluminium recycling, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Annual Reviews (publisher), Artificial reef, Automotive battery, Bakelite, Ban (law), Bargaining power, Basel Convention, Bauxite, Benjamin Law (inventor), Bin bag, Biodegradable waste, Biodegradation, Biodiversity, Biopolymer, Bottom ash, Bureau of International Recycling, Capacitor, Carbon tax, Carthage, Missouri, Compost, Computer recycling, Confirmation bias, Container deposit legislation, Contamination, Corrugated fiberboard, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, Credit card, Daniel Benjamin, Depleted uranium, Depolymerization, Downcycling, E-Stewards, Economic efficiency, Economies of scale, Eddy current, Electromagnetic induction, Electronic waste, Electronics, Emergy, Energy, Energy industry, Energy Information Administration, Environment and Behavior, Environmental economics, European Environment Agency, ..., European Union, Exergy, Externality, Ferrous, Fertilizer, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Finance, Food packaging, Food waste, Frank Ackerman, Furan, Garbage truck, Gate fee, Glass recycling, Glossary of textile manufacturing, Government, Government budget, Green waste, Greenhouse gas, Greening, Haiti, Hazardous waste, High-density polyethylene, Home front during World War II, Hula hoop, Illegal dumping, Incineration, Index of recycling articles, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Intensive farming, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, International Organization for Standardization, International Resource Panel, ISO 14000, Jevons paradox, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Julian Simon, Junk man, Karl Marx, Karung guni, Khian Sea waste disposal incident, Laissez-faire, Landfill, Life-cycle assessment, List of waste management acronyms, List of waste types, Low-density polyethylene, Magnetic field, Mandatory labelling, Materials recovery facility, Mercury (element), Michael Braungart, Midwestern United States, Napa, California, National Waste & Recycling Association, Natural Resources Defense Council, Non-ferrous metal, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Nutrient cycle, Nylon, Operating cost, Optical sorting, Paper recycling, Paper Salvage 1939–50, Paperboard, Parable of the broken window, Pay as you throw, Phosphorus, Photovoltaic system, Plastic bag, Plastic bottle, Plastic recycling, Plato, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Polyethylene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Popular Science, Pre-industrial society, Printed circuit board, Procurement, Pulp (paper), Pulp mill, Purchasing power, Pyrolysis, Rag-and-bone man, Reason (magazine), Recology, Recyclebank, Recyclebot, Recycling codes, Remanufacturing, Renewable energy industry, Resin identification code, Resource consumption, Resource recovery, Resources for the Future, Retail, Reuse, Salvage for Victory, Schweppes, Scottish Government, Scrap, Service (economics), Ship breaking, Single-stream recycling, Society of the Plastics Industry, Soil erosion, Spectroscopy, State school, Steven Landsburg, Subsistence agriculture, Supply and demand, Sustainability, Sustainable design, Technical University of Denmark, Terry L. Anderson, The Armchair Economist, The Independent, Thermometer, Thermosetting polymer, Thermostat, Tin can, Tire, Titanium, Tonne, Tupperware, United Nations Environment Programme, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States Navy, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Uranium, USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program, Vinyloop, Warehouse, Waste, Waste & Resources Action Programme, Waste collector, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, Waste hierarchy, Waste Management & Research, Waste minimisation, Waste picker, Waste sorting, West Yorkshire, William McDonough, Wool, World war, World War I, World War II, Zabbaleen, 2000s commodities boom, 2012 Summer Olympics, 3D printing. Expand index (161 more) »

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.

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Adaptive reuse

Adaptive reuse refers to the process of reusing an old site or building for a purpose other than which it was built or designed for.

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Allen Hershkowitz

Allen Hershkowitz is an American environmental scientist who worked as a senior scientist at Natural Resources Defense Council from 1988 to 2014 and then at the Green Sports Alliance.

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Aluminium recycling

Aluminium recycling is the process by which scrap aluminium can be reused in products after its initial production.

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Annual Review of Environment and Resources

Annual Review of Environment and Resources is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, Inc. It covers environmental science and engineering, ecology, conservation science, water assets, energy resources, atmosphere, oceans, climate change, agriculture, livestock, natural resource management and global change.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

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Artificial reef

An artificial reef is a man-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, or improve surfing.

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Automotive battery

An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.

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Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.

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Ban (law)

A ban is a formal or informal prohibition of something.

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Bargaining power

Bargaining power is the relative ability of parties in a situation to exert influence over each other.

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Basel Convention

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs).

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Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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Benjamin Law (inventor)

Benjamin Law was born around 1773 in Gomersal, Yorkshire the son of George Law and Mary Wilby.

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Bin bag

A bin bag (British English) or garbage bag, or trash bag (American English) is a disposable bag used to contain rubbish (British English), or the North American equivalent trash or garbage.

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Biodegradable waste

Biodegradable waste includes any organic matter in waste which can be broken down into carbon dioxide, water, methane or simple organic molecules by micro-organisms and other living things using composting, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion or similar processes.

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Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Bottom ash

Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator.

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Bureau of International Recycling

The Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) is a global recycling industry association representing more than 700 companies from the private sector and 40 national trade federations from 70 different countries.

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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carbon tax

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.

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Carthage, Missouri

Carthage is a city in Jasper County, Missouri, United States.

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Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.

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Computer recycling

Computer recycling, electronic recycling or e-waste recycling is the disassembly and separation of components and raw materials of waste electronics.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Container deposit legislation

Container-deposit legislation (also known as a deposit-refund system, bottle bill, or deposit-return system) is any law that requires the collection of a monetary deposit on beverage containers (refillable or non-refillable) at the point of sale.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Corrugated fiberboard

Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.

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Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things

Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things is a 2002 non-fiction book by German chemist Michael Braungart and U.S. architect William McDonough.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Daniel Benjamin

Daniel Benjamin (born October 16, 1961) is an American diplomat and journalist, and was the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the United States Department of State from 2009 to 2012, appointed by Secretary Clinton.

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Depleted uranium

Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.

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Depolymerization (or depolymerisation) is the process of converting a polymer into a monomer or a mixture of monomers.

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Downcycling, or cascading, is the recycling of waste where the recycled material is of lower quality and functionality than the original material.

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The e-Stewards Initiative is an electronics waste recycling standard created by the Basel Action Network.

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Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

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Eddy current

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.

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Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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Electronic waste

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Emergy is the amount of energy that was consumed in direct and indirect transformations to make a product or service.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy industry

The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.

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Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

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Environment and Behavior

Environment and Behavior is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the fields of environmental psychology and environmental studies.

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Environmental economics

Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.

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European Environment Agency

The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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In thermodynamics, the exergy (in older usage, available work or availability) of a system is the maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with a heat reservoir.

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In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

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In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fibre-reinforced plastic

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.

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Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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Food packaging

Food packaging is packaging for food.

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Food waste

Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten.

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Frank Ackerman

Frank Ackerman (born 1946 in Madison, Wisconsin) is an economist known for his work in environmental economics, particularly in the areas of climate change and development.

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Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.

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Garbage truck

Garbage truck or dustcart refers to a truck specially designed to collect municipal solid waste and haul the collected waste to a solid waste treatment facility such as a landfill.

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Gate fee

A gate fee (or tipping fee) is the charge levied upon a given quantity of waste received at a waste processing facility.

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Glass recycling

Glass recycling is the processing of waste glass into usable products.

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Glossary of textile manufacturing

The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Government budget

A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.

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Green waste

Green waste also called agricultural waste is supposed to be biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Greening is the process of transforming artifacts such as a space, a lifestyle or a brand image into a more environmentally friendly version (i.e. 'greening your home' or 'greening your office').

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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Hazardous waste

Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.

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High-density polyethylene

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.

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Home front during World War II

The home front covers the activities of the civilians in a nation at war.

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Hula hoop

A hula hoop is a toy hoop that is twirled around the waist, limbs or neck.

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Illegal dumping

Illegal dumping, also called fly dumping or fly tipping, is the dumping of waste illegally instead of using an authorised method such as kerbside collection or using an authorised rubbish dump.

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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

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Index of recycling articles

This is an index of recycling topics.

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Institute for Local Self-Reliance

The Institute for Local Self-Reliance or ILSR is a nonprofit organization and advocacy group that provides technical assistance to communities about local solutions for sustainable community development in areas such as banking, broadband, energy, and waste through local purchasing.

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Intensive farming

Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.

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International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management is a peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on business logistics, supply chain management, physical distribution, and marketing channels.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Resource Panel

The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.

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ISO 14000

ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in the above.

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Jevons paradox

In economics, the Jevons paradox (sometimes Jevons effect) occurs when technological progress increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the rate of consumption of that resource rises because of increasing demand.

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Journal of Applied Social Psychology

The Journal of Applied Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal.

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Journal of Environmental Psychology

The Journal of Environmental Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier since 1980.

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Julian Simon

Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932 – February 8, 1998) was an American professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute at the time of his death, after previously serving as a longtime economics and business professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Junk man

Junk man is the (largely American) term for a person who buys, trades, or collects disparate items (scrap and usable/repairable things) considered of little or no value to their owners.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karung guni

The practice of Karung guni is common in Singapore.

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Khian Sea waste disposal incident

On August 31, 1986, the cargo ship Khian Sea, registered in Liberia, was loaded with more than 14,000 tons of ash from waste incinerators in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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Life-cycle assessment

Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.

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List of waste management acronyms

The following article contains a list of acronyms and initials used in the waste management industry.

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List of waste types

Waste comes in many different forms and may be categorized in a variety of ways.

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Low-density polyethylene

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Mandatory labelling

Mandatory labelling or labeling (see spelling differences) is the requirement of consumer products to state their ingredients or components.

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Materials recovery facility

A materials recovery facility, materials reclamation facility, materials recycling facility or Multi re-use facility (MRF, pronounced "murf") is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Michael Braungart

Michael Braungart (born 1958 in Schwäbisch Gmünd) is a German chemist who advocates that humans can make a positive instead of a negative environmental impact by redesigning industrial production and therefore that dissipation is not waste.

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Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").

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Napa, California

Napa is the largest city and the county seat of Napa County, California.

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National Waste & Recycling Association

The National Waste & Recycling Association (NWRA) is a Washington, D.C.-based trade association that represents private waste and recycling companies, as well as manufacturers and distributors of equipment that processes the material, and service providers who serve those businesses.

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Natural Resources Defense Council

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.

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Non-ferrous metal

In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Nutrient cycle

A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.

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Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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Operating cost

Operating (Operational) costs are the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or to the operation of a device, component, piece of equipment or facility.

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Optical sorting

Optical sorting (sometimes called digital sorting) is the automated process of sorting solid products using cameras and/or lasers.

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Paper recycling

There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.

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Paper Salvage 1939–50

Paper Salvage was a part of a programme launched by the British Government in 1939 at the outbreak of the Second World War to encourage the recycling of materials to aid the war effort.

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Paperboard is a thick paper-based material.

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Parable of the broken window

The parable of the broken window was introduced by French economist Frédéric Bastiat in his 1850 essay Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on ne voit pas (That Which We See and That Which We Do Not See) to illustrate why destruction, and the money spent to recover from destruction, is not actually a net benefit to society.

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Pay as you throw

Pay as you throw (PAYT) (also called trash metering, unit pricing, variable rate pricing, or user-pay) is a usage-pricing model for disposing of municipal solid waste.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Photovoltaic system

A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.

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Plastic bag

A plastic bag, polybag, or pouch is a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile.

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Plastic bottle

A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic.

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Plastic recycling

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.

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Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Pre-industrial society

Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process.

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Pulp (paper)

Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.

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Pulp mill

A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing.

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Purchasing power

Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.

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Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

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Rag-and-bone man

A rag-and-bone man (or "bag board" or totter) collects unwanted household items and sells them to merchants.

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Reason (magazine)

Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.

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Recology is an integrated resource recovery company headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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Recyclebank is a company based in New York City that aims to encourage recycling and environmentally-friendly habits.

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A recyclebot (or RecycleBot) is an open-source hardware device for converting waste plastic into filament for open-source 3D printers like the RepRap.

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Recycling codes

Recycling codes are used to identify the material from which an item is made, to facilitate easier recycling or other reprocessing.

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Remanufacturing is "the rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts".

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Renewable energy industry

The renewable-energy industry is the part of the energy industry focusing on new and appropriate renewable energy technologies.

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Resin identification code

The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated as the RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made.

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Resource consumption

Resource consumption is about the consumption of non-renewable, or less often, renewable resources.

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Resource recovery

Resource recovery is using wastes as an input material to create valuable products as new outputs.

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Resources for the Future

Resources for the Future (RFF) is an American nonprofit organization that conducts independent research into environmental, energy, and natural resource issues, primarily via economics and other social sciences.

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Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.

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Reuse is the action or practice of using something again, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfil a different function (creative reuse or repurposing).

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Salvage for Victory

The Salvage for Victory campaign was a program launched by the US Federal Government in 1942 to salvage materials for the American war effort in World War II.

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Schweppes is a Swiss beverage brand that is sold around the world.

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Scottish Government

The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.

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Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials.

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Service (economics)

In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

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Ship breaking

Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for either a source of parts, which can be sold for re-use, or for the extraction of raw materials, chiefly scrap.

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Single-stream recycling

Single-stream (also known as “fully commingled” or "single-sort") recycling refers to a system in which all paper fibers, plastics, metals, and other containers are mixed in a collection truck, instead of being sorted by the depositor into separate commodities (newspaper, paperboard, corrugated fiberboard, plastic, glass, etc.) and handled separately throughout the collection process.

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Society of the Plastics Industry

Founded in 1937, the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. was a professional society representing individuals in the plastics industry.

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Soil erosion

Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Steven Landsburg

Steven E. Landsburg (born February 24, 1954) is an American professor of economics at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York.

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Subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.

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Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sustainable design

Sustainable design (also called environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

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Technical University of Denmark

The Technical University of Denmark (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet), often simply referred to as DTU, is a university in Kongens Lyngby, just north of Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Terry L. Anderson

Terry Lee Anderson is the William A. Dunn Distinguished Senior Fellow and former Executive Director and President of the Property and Environment Research Center (PERC) as well as the John and Jean De Nault Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

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The Armchair Economist

The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life is an economics book written by Rochester professor of economics Steven Landsburg.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Thermosetting polymer

A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.

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A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

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Tin can

A tin can, tin (especially in British English, Australian English and Canadian English), steel can, steel packaging or a can, is a container for the distribution or storage of goods, composed of thin metal.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tupperware is a home products line that includes preparation, storage, and serving products for the kitchen and home.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of Massachusetts Lowell

The University of Massachusetts Lowell (also known as UMass Lowell) is a nationally ranked, public research institution located in Lowell, Massachusetts with a small satellite campus in Haverhill, Massachusetts.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program

The Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program is a project of the United States Postal Service (USPS) that was created on October 28, 2008, for consumers to recycle paper items, using recycling bins placed in the customer lobbies of post office buildings.

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Vinyloop® is a physical plastic recycling process for polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

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A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.

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Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

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Waste & Resources Action Programme

WRAP (Waste & Resources Action Programme) is a. It works with businesses, individuals and communities to achieve a circular economy through helping them reduce waste, develop sustainable products and use resources in an efficient way.

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Waste collector

A waste collector is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and remove waste (refuse) and recyclables from residential, commercial, industrial or other collection site for further processing and disposal.

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Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003.

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Waste hierarchy

Waste hierarchy is a tool used in the evaluation of processes that protect the environment alongside resource and energy consumption to most favourable to least favourable actions.

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Waste Management & Research

Waste Management and Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of waste management.

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Waste minimisation

Waste minimisation is a set of processes and practices intended to reduce the amount of waste produced.

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Waste picker

A waste picker is a person who salvages reusable or recyclable materials thrown away by others to sell or for personal consumption.

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Waste sorting

Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements.

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West Yorkshire

West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England.

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William McDonough

William Andrews McDonough is an American designer, advisor, author, and thought leader.

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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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World war

A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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The Zabbaleen (زبالين) is a word which literally means "garbage people" in Egyptian Arabic.

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2000s commodities boom

The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.

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2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.

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3D printing

3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).

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By-product synergy, Creative recycling, Criticism of recycling, Ecoplastic, Environmental impact of recycling, Environmental waste controls, Garbage recycling, Household waste and recycling centres, Metal Recycling, Post-consumer, Pre-consumer waste, Recyclability, Recyclable, Recyclable materials, Recyclable waste, Recyclables, Recyclates, Recycle, Recycle reuse repair, Recycleable waste, Recycled, Recycled materials, Recycling Criticism, Recycling criticism, Recycling industry, Recycling infrastructure, Recycling loops, Recycling of waste, Recycling technology, Source separation (recycling), The paper cycle, Urban mining, Waste Recycling, Waste recycling.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recycling

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