633 relations: Abarth, Adaptation (eye), Additive color, Adultery, Agar plate, Akhenaten, Alfa Romeo, Alizarin, Alkali, Allura Red AC, Almadén, Alpha (ethology), Alum, Amber (color), American Civil War, Amsterdam, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Annunciation, Antares, Anthocyanin, Anthony van Dyck, Apple, Armenian cochineal, Arsenic, Association football, Astana Cemetery, Autumn in New England, Autumn leaf color, Azo dye, Aztec Empire, Aztecs, Bangkok, Bangladesh, Barack Obama, Basilica of St Denis, Bastille, Battle of Balaclava, Beijing, Belgium national football team, Benin, Betelgeuse, Biancaea sappan, Bible, Blood, Blood of Christ, Blue, Blueberry, Blushing, Bolsheviks, ..., Book of Exodus, Book of Isaiah, Book of Revelation, Bordeaux wine, Boris Kustodiev, Boston Red Sox, Bouches-du-Rhône, Boxing, Brazilian Marine Corps, Brazilin, British Army, British Museum, Bronze Age, Bud, Buddhism, Burgundy (color), Byzantine Empire, Cactus, Cadmium pigments, Calamus rotang, Calcium, Cambodia, Canterbury Rugby Football Union, Cao Xueqin, Capsicum, Cardinal (bird), Cardinal (Catholic Church), Carl Gräbe, Carmine, Carminic acid, Carotenoid, Catholic Church, Cave of Altamira, Cennino Cennini, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Central America, Chalk, Chariot racing, Charlemagne, Cherry, Chestnut, China, Chinese New Year, Christian, Christian-Social People's Party (Liechtenstein), Christmas, Chromosome 16, Cincinnati Reds, Cinnabar, Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, Cleopatra, Cleveland Indians, CMYK color model, Coal tar, Coat of arms of Poland, Coat of arms of the Czech Republic, Cochineal, Codex Manesse, Colombia, Color vision, Color wheel, Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia), Commonwealth, Communism, Communist party, Communist Party of China, Communist Party USA, Compact disc, Complementary colors, Conquistador, Continental Congress, Copper (color), Cornus, Cosmetics, Costa Rica, Cotton candy, Courage, Courtly love, Cranberry, Crescent, Crete, Crimean War, Crimson, Crosses in heraldry, Croton (plant), Crusaders (rugby union), Cuba, Cultural Revolution, Cyan, Daemonorops, Dakar, Danny Lopez (boxer), Darkroom, Denis, Dichromacy, Diego Velázquez, Diocletian, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, Dominance (ethology), Dominance (genetics), Dominant wavelength, Dracaena (plant), Dragon's blood, Drug, Drum, DVD, Dye, East India Company, Ecuador, Edmund Leighton, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth Taylor, Emperor Gaozong of Song, Equator, Ernie Lopez, Estonia, Ethiopia, Etruscan civilization, European robin, European Union, Ferrari, Fiji, Fire (classical element), First Crusade, Flag of Australia, Flag of China, Flag of England, Flag of Ethiopia, Flag of Fiji, Flag of France, Flag of Georgia (country), Flag of Nepal, Flag of New Zealand, Flag of Poland, Flag of Portugal, Flag of Rwanda, Flag of the Czech Republic, Flag of the Soviet Union, Flag of the United States, Flag of Turkey, Flanders, Floral emblem, Food and Drug Administration, Forbidden City, Formula One, Franco-Prussian War, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Second Republic, Galleon, Gautama Buddha, Genoa, George Foreman, Georges Seurat, Georgia (country), German Empire, Ghana, Ghazi (warrior), God, Gold (color), Good Friday, Grand Canyon, Grand Union Flag, Gravettian, Great Red Spot, Guillotine, Guinea, Hammer and sickle, Han dynasty, Harvard University, Helium–neon laser, Hematite, Hemoglobin, Henna, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Matisse, Hernán Cortés, Hieronymus Bosch, Hindu, Hinduism, Holography, Holy Week, Homeland Security Advisory System, House of the Vettii, Hydrogen, Ilya Repin, Incense, Indian Army, Indian National Science Academy, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigo, Industrial Revolution, Intelligence quotient, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iran, Irish Setter, Iron oxide, Irving Berlin, Isis, Italian unification, Itsukushima, J. M. W. Turner, Jacobin, Jamaica, Japanese Red Army, Jesus, Johannes Vermeer, Jupiter, Karl Marx, Kelvin, Kenya, Kermes (dye), Kermes (insect), Kermes vermilio, Knossos, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, La Marseillaise, Lac, Lacquerware, Lake pigment, Lakshmi, Lancia, Language of flowers, Laos, Laser, Laser diode, Laser pointer, LaserDisc, Later Stone Age, Lead(II,IV) oxide, Leaf, Liebermann, Liechtenstein, Life Guards (United Kingdom), Lipstick, Liquidambar, List of French monarchs, List of largest stars, List of war deities, Lists of colors, Little Red Riding Hood, Liturgical colours, Lobster, Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, Louis Philippe I, Louis XIV of France, Madrid, Magdalena Frackowiak, Major League Baseball, Malaysia, Mali, Manchu people, Mandrill, Manmohan Singh, Mao Zedong, Maple, Marilyn Monroe, Mark Rothko, Maroon, Mars, Mars (mythology), Marseille, Martyr, Marxism, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary, Queen of Scots, Maserati, Medicine, Mein Kampf, Melanin, Melanocortin 1 receptor, Mercury (element), Mexico, Michael Moorer, Milan, Ming dynasty, Minium (pigment), Minoan civilization, Mira, Mohenjo-daro, Monreale, Morning Sun (film), Moses, Mount Vesuvius, Muhammad Ali, Muharram, Multiplayer video game, Munster Rugby, Myoglobin, Myra, Nanometre, Nathaniel Hawthorne, National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Guard (France), National Guards Unit of Bulgaria, National Hockey League, National Museum of China, NATO Joint Military Symbology, Nazi Party, Nefertiti, Nemanja Vidić, Neolithic, Nepal, New Delhi, New England, New Model Army, New Spain, New Testament, New World, Nirvana, Non-commissioned officer, North-West Mounted Police, Oak, Obituary, Ochre, Officer (armed forces), Old Testament, Opuntia, Orange (colour), Osman I, Ottoman Empire, Oxydendrum, Palenque, Paleoanthropology, Palm Sunday, Paludamentum, Pan-African colours, Pan-Africanism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Slavic colors, Panama, Paracas culture, Parental investment, Paris Commune, Particle image velocimetry, Particulates, Paubrasilia, Pech Merle, Penalty card, Pentecost, Persimmon, Peru, Peter Paul Rubens, Philippines, Phosphate, Photosynthesis, Phrygian cap, Pierre Jean Robiquet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pink, Pinnacle Point, Pixel, Plant stem, Plum, Polish cochineal, Polychrome, Pomegranate, Pompeii, Pope, Pope Innocent III, Pope Innocent IV, Pope John Paul II, Poppy, Popular culture, Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico), Pottery, Prehistoric art, Primary color, Primate, Prostitution, Pterocarpus, Puerto Rico, Puritans, Qing dynasty, Quercus coccifera, Quilt, Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, Raise the Red Lantern, Rajput, Rajput Regiment, Raman spectroscopy, Raspberry, Rayleigh scattering, Red (2002 film), Red (2008 film), Red (2010 film), Red 2 (film), Red Army Faction, Red belt (martial arts), Red Burman, Red carpet, Red Cell, Red coat (military uniform), Red Dawn, Red deer, Red Delicious, Red Dog (film), Red dwarf, Red envelope, Red flag (idiom), Red fox, Red giant, Red grouse, Red Guards, Red hair, Red Hat Society, Red herring, Red knot, Red letter day, Red Serge, Red squirrel, Red State (2011 film), Red states and blue states, Red supergiant star, Red tape, Red team, Red-light district, Reds (film), Redshift, Redshirts (Italy), Redstart, Redwing, Reign of Terror, Religious habit, Rembrandt, Remembrance Day, Renaissance, Reproductive success, Resin, RGB color model, Rhododendron, Richard II of England, Robert Gibb, Rod cell, Roger II of Sicily, Roman de la Rose, Roman Empire, Roman mythology, Roman triumph, Roman villa, Romance (love), Rose, Rose madder, Rosso corsa, Roussillon, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Royal Danish Army, Royal Gibraltar Regiment, Royal Military College of Canada, Rubia, Rubia tinctorum, Ruby, Ruby (color), Ruby laser, Rugby union, Russian Revolution, Rwandan genocide, Safelight, Saint George, Saint George's Cross, Saint Nicholas, Saint Patrick's Saltire, Saint Valentine, Saltire, Santa Claus, Sap, Satan, Saudi Arabia, Scale insect, Scarlet (color), Senegal, Serbs, Seven deadly sins, Seville, Shades of pink, Shades of red, Shanghai, Shining Path, Shinto, Sicily, Sindoor, Singapore, Slovaks, Slovenes, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democrats, USA, Socialism, Socialist mode of production, Socialist Party (France), Socialist Party of America, Soft drink, Song dynasty, Sorghum, Soviet Union, SPQR, Spring and Autumn period, SRGB, Sri Lanka, Stained glass, Star, Stephen Crane, Strawberry, Sufism, Sugar, Suger, Sun, Sunrise, Sunset, Swiss Guards, Taekwondo, Tang dynasty, Temperature, Testosterone, Théodore-Adrien Sarr, The Communist Manifesto, The East Is Red (song), The Red Badge of Courage, The Scarlet Letter, The Thin Red Line (Battle of Balaclava), The Thin Red Line (painting), The Woman in Red (1935 film), The Woman in Red (1984 film), Thermonuclear fusion, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Gainsborough, Three Colours: Red, Tibet, Time (magazine), Tintoretto, Titian, Toga, Togo, Tomato, Tomb of the Red Queen, Tomb of the Triclinium, Torii, Tupelo, Turkey, Turkey red, Tutankhamun, Tyrian purple, Union Jack, United States Marine Band, United States Marine Corps, United States presidential election, 2000, Universe, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Oxford, Upper Paleolithic, UY Scuti, Valentine's Day, Varnish, Venetian red, Venezuela, Venice, Vermilion, Vexilloid, Victorian era, Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, Vietnam, Vincent van Gogh, Violet (color), Violin, Visible spectrum, Vulgate, Web colors, Wedding dress, White House, Whore of Babylon, Wiley-Blackwell, X11 color names, Xuande Emperor, Yangshao culture, Yin and yang, Zhang Yimou, Zhoukoudian, Zimbabwe, 1905 Russian Revolution. 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Abarth & C. S.p.A. is an Italian racing car and road car maker founded by Italo-Austrian Carlo Abarth in 1949.
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.
Additive color is a method to create color by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.
Alizarin or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (also known as Mordant Red 11 and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names.
Almadén is a town and municipality in the Spanish province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.
In studies of social animals, the highest ranking individual is sometimes designated as the alpha.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
The color amber is a pure chroma color, located on the color wheel midway between the colors of gold and orange.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Antares, also designated Alpha Scorpii (α Scorpii, abbreviated Alpha Sco, α Sco), is on average the fifteenth-brightest star in the night sky, and the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpius.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
The Armenian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii (Brandt)), also known as the Ararat cochineal or Ararat scale, is a scale insect indigenous to the Ararat plain and Aras (Araks) River valley in the Armenian Highlands.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Astana Cemetery is an ancient cemetery southeast of Turpan, in Xinjiang, China, from the ancient city of Gaochang.
The autumn in New England marks the transition from summer to winter in New England, United States.
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown.
Azo dyes are organic compounds bearing the functional group R−N.
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.
The Battle of Balaclava, fought on 25 October 1854 during the Crimean War, was part of Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) to capture the port and fortress of Sevastopol, Russia's principal naval base on the Black Sea.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Belgian national football team has officially represented Belgium in association football since their maiden match in 1904.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
Biancaea sappan is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae, that is native to tropical Asia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ primarily on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the sacramental blood present in the Eucharist or Lord's Supper, which is considered by Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran Christians to be the same blood of Christ shed on the Cross.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
Blushing is the reddening of a person's face due to psychological reasons.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of southwest France, centred on the city of Bordeaux on the Garonne River, to the north of the city the Dordogne River joins the Garonne forming the broad estuary called the Gironde and covering the whole area of the Gironde department,with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France.
Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев; – 28 May 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Bouches-du-Rhône (Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Brazilian Marine Corps (CFN; Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais, literally "corps of naval riflemen") is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy.
Brazilin is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazilwood family (Caesalpinia sp), and is also known as Natural Red 24.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burgundy is a dark red or a dark red tending towards brown.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Cadmium pigments are a class of pigments that have cadmium as one of the chemical components.
Calamus rotang, known as rotang, is a plant species native to India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar (Burma).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Canterbury Rugby Football Union (also referred to as "Canterbury" or "CRFU") is the governing body for rugby union in a portion of the Canterbury Region of New Zealand.
Cáo Xuěqín; (1715 or 17241763 or 1764)Briggs, Asa (ed.) (1989) The Longman Encyclopedia, Longman, was a Chinese writer during the Qing dynasty.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Carl Gräbe (24 February 1841 – 19 January 1927) was a German industrial and academic chemist from Frankfurt am Main who held professorships in his field at Leipzig, Königsberg, and Geneva.
Carmine, also called cochineal, cochineal extract, crimson lake or carmine lake, natural red 4, C.I. 75470, or E120, is a pigment of a bright-red color obtained from the aluminium salt of carminic acid; it is also a general term for a particularly deep-red color.
Carminic acid (C22H20O13) is a red glucosidal hydroxyanthrapurin that occurs naturally in some scale insects, such as the cochineal, Armenian cochineal, and Polish cochineal.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cave of Altamira (Cueva de Altamira) located near the historic town Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, is renowned for its numerous parietal cave paintings featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands, created during the Upper Paleolithic.
Cennino d'Andrea Cennini (c. 1360 – before 1427) was an Italian painter influenced by Giotto.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit watchdog and consumer advocacy group that advocates for safer and healthier foods.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Christian-Social People's Party (Christlich-Soziale Volkspartei), often shortened to People's Party (Volkspartei, VP), was a social liberal political party in Liechtenstein.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, sometimes spelled de l'Isle or de Lile (10 May 1760 – 26 June 1836), was a French army officer of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
The Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio.
The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
The coat of arms of Poland is a white, crowned eagle with a golden beak and talons, on a red background.
The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation.
The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.
The Codex Manesse, Manesse Codex, or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift is a Liederhandschrift (book of songs/poetry), the single most comprehensive source of Middle High German Minnesang poetry, written and illustrated between c. 1304 when the main part was completed, and c. 1340 with the addenda.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A color wheel or colour circle is an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors etc.
The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (abbreviated CPVPV; هيئة الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر), also informally referred to as Hai’a, is the Saudi Arabian government agency employing “religious police” or Mutaween (مطوعين), to enforce Sharia Law within that Islamic nation.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
Copper is a reddish brown color that resembles the metal copper.
Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species of woody plants in the family Cornaceae, commonly known as dogwoods, which can generally be distinguished by their blossoms, berries, and distinctive bark.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cotton candy (also known as fairy floss in Australia and candy floss in South Africa, the UK, New Zealand and Ireland) is a form of spun sugar.
Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple.
The cross is a basic design of two intersecting lines (X) used from pre-historic times.
Croton is an extensive flowering plant genus in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders and officially the BNZ Crusaders due to sponsorship by the Bank of New Zealand) are a New Zealand professional rugby union team based in Christchurch, who compete in the Super Rugby competition.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Cyan is a greenish-blue color.
Daemonorops is a genus of rattan palms in the family Arecaceae found primarily in the tropics and subtropics of southeastern Asia with a few species extending into southern China and the Himalayas.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
Danny Lopez (born July 6, 1952) is an American former boxer.
A darkroom is a workshop used by photographers working with photographic film to make prints and carry out other associated tasks.
Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint.
Dichromacy (di meaning "two" and chroma meaning "color") is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
In color science, the dominant wavelength (and the corresponding complementary wavelength) are ways of characterizing any light mixture in terms of the monochromatic spectral light that evokes an identical (and the corresponding opposite) perception of hue.
Dracaena (derived from the romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαινα – drakaina, "female dragon") is a genus of about 120 species of trees and succulent shrubs.
Dragon's blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of a number of distinct plant genera: Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, Calamus rotang and Pterocarpus.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Edmund Blair Leighton (21 September 1852 – 1 September 1922) was an English painter of historical genre scenes, specializing in Regency and medieval subjects.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-born American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian.
Emperor Gaozong of Song (12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187), personal name Zhao Gou, courtesy name Deji, was the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Ernie "Indian Red" Lopez (September 24, 1945 – October 3, 2009), was an American professional boxer.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The European robin (Erithacus rubecula), known simply as the robin or robin redbreast in the British Isles, is a small insectivorous passerine bird, specifically a chat, that was formerly classified as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae) but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Ferrari N.V. is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The flag of Australia is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist quarter.
The flag of China, also known as the Five-star Red Flag, is a red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars.
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
The national flag of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ሰንደቅ ዓላማ, ye-Ityoppya Sendeq Alama) was adopted on 31 October 1996.
The national flag of Fiji was adopted on 10 October 1970.
The flag of France (Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red.
The flag of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს სახელმწიფო დროშა; sakartvelos sakhelmtsʼipo drosha), also known as the Five Cross Flag (Georgian: ხუთჯვრიანი დროშა; khutjvriani drosha), is one of the national symbols of Georgia.
The national flag of Nepal (नेपालको झण्डा) is the world's only non-quadrilateral national flag.
The flag of New Zealand, also known as the New Zealand Ensign, is a defaced Blue Ensign: a blue field with the Union Jack in the canton, and four red stars with white borders to the right.
The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red.
The Flag of Portugal (Bandeira de Portugal) is a rectangular bicolour with a field unevenly divided into green on the hoist, and red on the fly.
The flag of Rwanda was adopted on October 25, 2001.
The national flag of the Czech Republic (státní vlajka České republiky) is the same as the flag of former Czechoslovakia.
The State Flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; commonly known as the Soviet flag was the official national flag of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1991.
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
The flag of Turkey (Türk bayrağı) is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used by the Spanish as armed cargo carriers and later adopted by European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal fleet units drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1969 to 1977, and from 1987 to 1997.
Georges-Pierre Seurat (2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist painter and draftsman.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gold, also called golden, is a color.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
The "Grand Union Flag" (also known as the "Continental Colors", the "Congress Flag", the "Cambridge Flag", and the "First Navy Ensign") is considered to be the first national flag of the United States of America.
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP..
The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon inside of a small electrical discharge.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Henna (حِنَّاء) is a dye prepared from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, and the Egyptian privet, the sole species of the genus Lawsonia.
Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901), also known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist, and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing, elegant, and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent, affairs of those times.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hieronymus Bosch (born Jheronimus van Aken; 1450 – 9 August 1516) was a Dutch/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter from Brabant.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
In the United States, the Homeland Security Advisory System was a color-coded terrorism threat advisory scale.
The House of the Vettii is a domus located in the Roman town, Pompeii, which was preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian National Science Academy (INSA) in New Delhi is the apex body of Indian scientists representing all branches of science and technology.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irish Setter (sotar rua, literally "red setter") is a setter, a breed of gundog, and family dog.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Irving Berlin (born Israel Beilin (Израиль Моисеевич Бейлин) Ministry of Culture, Russian Federation – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
is an island in the western part of the Inland Sea of Japan, located in the northwest of Hiroshima Bay.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The was a communist armed group founded by Fusako Shigenobu early in 1971 in Lebanon.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johannes Vermeer (October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kermes is a red dye derived from the dried bodies of the females of a scale insect in the genus Kermes, primarily Kermes vermilio.
Kermes is a genus of scale insects in the order Hemiptera.
Kermes vermilio is one of the species of Kermes used to make the crimson dye also called kermes.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (November 5, 1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.
Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.
A lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, or "mordant", usually a metallic salt.
Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C..
The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, is a means of cryptological communication through the use or arrangement of flowers.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
LaserDisc (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978.
The Later Stone Age (or LSA) is a period in African prehistory that follows the Middle Stone Age.
Lead(II,IV) oxide, also called minium, red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lieberman, Liebermann, or Liberman are names deriving from Lieb, a German and Jewish (Ashkenazic) nickname for a person from the German lieb or Yiddish lib, meaning 'dear, beloved'.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
The Life Guards (LG) is the senior regiment of the British Army and part of the Household Cavalry, along with the Blues and Royals.
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply color, texture, and protection to the lips.
Liquidambar, commonly called sweetgum (sweet gum in the UK), gum, redgum, satin-walnut, or American storax, is the only genus in the flowering plant family Altingiaceae and has 15 species.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Below is an ordered list of the largest stars currently known by radius.
A war deity is a god or goddess in mythology associated with war, combat, or bloodshed.
These are lists of colors.
"Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf.
Liturgical colours are those specific colours used for vestments and hangings within the context of Christian liturgy.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
The Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 removed the strict rules and UK speed limits that were included in the earlier Locomotive Acts which had greatly restricted the adoption of motorised vehicles in the United Kingdom.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Magdalena Frąckowiak (born October 8, 1984), is a Polish model and jewelry designer who began appearing on international runways in 2006.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer.
Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, Markuss Rotkovičs; September 25, 1903 – February 25, 1970), was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent.
Maroon is a dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), melanin-activating peptide receptor, or melanotropin receptor, is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Lee Moorer (born November 12, 1967) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1988 to 2008.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Minium, also known as red lead, is a bright orange red pigment that was widely used in the Middle Ages for the decoration of manuscripts and for painting.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Mira, alternatively designated Omicron Ceti (ο Ceti, abbreviated Omicron Cet, ο Cet) is a red giant star estimated to be 200–400 light years from the Sun in the constellation of Cetus.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Monreale (Sicilian: Murriali) is a town and comune in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy.
Morning Sun is a 2003 documentary film by Carma Hinton about the Cultural Revolution in China.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally or over the internet.
Munster Rugby (Rugbaí Mumhan) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
Myra (Μύρα, Mýra) was an ancient Greek town in Lycia where the small town of Kale (Demre) is today, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nathaniel Hawthorne (né Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.
The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria (Национална гвардейска част на България) is a unique Bulgarian military formation of regimental size, directly subordinated to the Minister of Defence.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Museum of China flanks the eastern side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.
NATO Joint Military Symbology is the NATO standard for military map marking symbols.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh.
Nemanja Vidić (Немања Видић,; born 21 October 1981) is a Serbian retired professional footballer.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An obituary (obit for short) is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life and information about the upcoming funeral.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Sourwood or sorrel tree, Oxydendrum arboreum, is the sole species in the genus Oxydendrum, in the family Ericaceae.
Palenque (Yucatec Maya: Bàakʼ /ɓàːkʼ/), also anciently known as Lakamha (literally: "Big Water"), was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century.
Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops.
The term Pan-African colours are either of two different sets of three colours: red, gold (not yellow, despite its appearance), and green (inspired by the flag of Ethiopia), and red, black, and green.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
The Pan-Slavic colors — red, blue and white — were defined by the Prague Slavic Congress, 1848, based on the flag of Russia, which was introduced in the late 17th century.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Paracas culture was an Andean society existing between approximately 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and that made significant contributions in the textile arts.
Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method of flow visualization used in education and research.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Paubrasilia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Pech Merle is a cave which opens onto a hillside at Cabrerets in the Lot département of the Occitania region in France, about 35 minutes by road east of Cahors.
Penalty cards are used in many sports as a means of warning, reprimanding or penalising a player, coach or team official.
The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.
The persimmon (sometimes spelled persimon) is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
The Phrygian cap or liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with several peoples in Eastern Europe and Anatolia, including Phrygia, Dacia, and the Balkans.
Pierre Jean Robiquet (13 January 1780 – 29 April 1840) was a French chemist.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.
Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
Pinnacle Point a small promontory immediately south of Mossel Bay, a town on the southern coast of South Africa.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica), also known as Polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as "Saint John's blood".
Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
The Popular Democratic Party (Partido Popular Democrático, PPD) is a political party that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Pterocarpus is a pantropical genus of trees in the family Fabaceae.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak tree in the ''Quercus'' section ''Cerris''.
A quilt is a multi-layered textile, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding, and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting, the process of sewing the three layers together.
Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung is a book of statements from speeches and writings by Mao Zedong (formerly romanized as Mao Tse-tung), the former Chairman of the Communist Party of China, published from 1964 to about 1976 and widely distributed during the Cultural Revolution.
Raise the Red Lantern is a 1991 film directed by Zhang Yimou and starring Gong Li.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
The Rajput Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Red is a 2002 Tamil language action film directed by Singampuli and produced by S S Chakravarthy.
Red is a 2008 American thriller film based on a novel by Jack Ketchum and directed by Trygve Allister Diesen and Lucky McKee.
Red is a 2010 American action comedy film inspired by the limited comic-book series of the same name created by Warren Ellis and Cully Hamner and published by the DC Comics imprint Homage.
Red 2 is 2013 American action comedy film and sequel to the 2010 film Red.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
A Red Belt is one of several colored belts used in some martial arts where each practitioner's level is marked by the color of the belt, these are most commonly those of Kodokan style Judo origin.
For the judge who shares the same birth-name, see Clarence H. Burns. James Clarence 'Red' Burman (born James Clarence Burman March 18, 1915 – January 25, 1996) was an American boxer in the Light Heavyweight and Heavyweight divisions.
A red carpet is traditionally used to mark the route taken by heads of state on ceremonial and formal occasions, and has in recent decades been extended to use by VIPs and celebrities at formal events.
Red Teams or Red Cells are United States government terms for the National Security Co-ordination Team (NSCT).
Redcoat is a historical item of military clothing used widely, though not exclusively worn, by most regiments of the British Army from the 17th to the 20th centuries.
Red Dawn is a 1984 American war film directed by John Milius, filmed in Metrocolor and Panavision, and co-written by Milius and Kevin Reynolds.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
The Red Delicious is a clone of apple cultigen, now comprising more than 50 cultivars, recognized in Madison County, Iowa, in 1880.
Red Dog is a 2011 Australian comedy-drama family film written by Daniel Taplitz, directed by Kriv Stenders and produced by Nelson Woss and Julie Ryan.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
In Chinese and other East Asian and Southeast Asian societies, a red envelope, red packet, lì xì (Vietnamese), lai see (Cantonese), âng-pau (Hokkien) or hóngbāo (Mandarin) is a monetary gift which is given during holidays or special occasions such as weddings, graduation or the birth of a baby.
The term red flag could mean either a literal flag used for signaling or, as a metaphor, a sign of some particular problem requiring attention.
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
The red grouse, Lagopus lagopus scotica, is a medium-sized bird of the grouse family which is found in heather moorland in Great Britain and Ireland.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.
The Red Hat Society (RHS) is an international social organization that was founded in 1998 in the United States for women age 50 and beyond, but now open to women of all ages.
A red herring is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important issue.
The red knot (Calidris canutus) (just knot in English-speaking Europe) is a medium-sized shorebird which breeds in tundra and the Arctic Cordillera in the far north of Canada, Europe, and Russia.
A red letter day (sometimes hyphenated as red-letter day or called scarlet day in academia) is any day of special significance or opportunity.
The Red Serge refers to the jacket of the dress uniform of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia.
Red State is a 2011 American independent action horror film written and directed by Kevin Smith and starring John Goodman, Melissa Leo and Michael Parks.
Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates.
Red supergiants are stars with a supergiant luminosity class (Yerkes class I) of spectral type K or M. They are the largest stars in the universe in terms of volume, although they are not the most massive or luminous.
Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.
A red team or the red team is an independent group that challenges an organization to improve its effectiveness by assuming an adversarial role or point of view.
A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, and adult theaters are found.
Reds is a 1981 American epic drama film co-written, produced, and directed by Warren Beatty.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
Redshirts or Red coats is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his expedition of the Thousand to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his.
Redstarts are a group of small Old World birds.
The redwing (Turdus iliacus) is a bird in the thrush family, Turdidae, native to Europe and Asia, slightly smaller than the related song thrush.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
Remembrance Day (sometimes known informally as Poppy Day) is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth of Nations member states since the end of the First World War to remember the members of their armed forces who have died in the line of duty.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reproductive success is defined as the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they too can pass on those genes.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Robert Gibb RSA (28 October 1845 – 11 February 1932) was a Scottish painter who was Keeper of the National Gallery of Scotland from 1895 to 1907 and was Painter and Limner to the King from 1908 until his death.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
Rose madder is the commercial name sometimes used to designate a red paint made from the pigment madder lake, a traditional lake pigment extracted from the common madder plant Rubia tinctorum.
Rosso corsa is the red international motor racing colour of cars entered by teams from Italy.
Roussillon (or;; Rosselló, Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees).
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.
The Royal Danish Army (Hæren) is the land-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard.
The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Royal Military College of Canada (Collège militaire royal du Canada), commonly abbreviated as RMCC or RMC, is the military college of the Canadian Armed Forces, and is a degree-granting university training military officers.
Rubia is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family.
Rubia tinctorum, the common madder or dyer's madder, is a herbaceous perennial plant species belonging to the bedstraw and coffee family Rubiaceae.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Ruby is a color that is a representation of the color of the cut and polished ruby gemstone and is a shade of red or pink.
A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
A safelight is a light source suitable for use in a photographic darkroom.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint Patrick's Saltire or Saint Patrick's Cross is a red saltire (X-shaped cross) on a white field, used to represent the island of Ireland or Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.
Saint Valentine (San Valentino, Valentinus), officially Saint Valentine of Rome, was a widely recognized 3rd-century Roman saint commemorated on February 14 and since the High Middle Ages is associated with a tradition of courtly love.
A saltire, also called Saint Andrew's Cross, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
Scarlet is a brilliant red color with a tinge of orange. In the spectrum of visible light, and on the traditional color wheel, it is one-quarter of the way between red and orange, slightly less orange than vermilion. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, scarlet and other bright shades of red are the colors most associated with courage, force, passion, heat, and joy.Eva Heller (2009), Psychologie de la couleur; effets et symboliques, pp. 42-49 In the Roman Catholic Church, scarlet is the color worn by a cardinal, and is associated with the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs, and with sacrifice. Scarlet is also often associated with immorality and sin, particularly prostitution or adultery, largely because of a passage referring to "The Great Harlot", "dressed in purple and scarlet", in the Bible (Revelation 17:1–6).
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, is a grouping and classification of vices within Christian teachings.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
This article is about notable tints and shades of the color pink.
Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sindoor or Sindooram is a traditional vermilion red or orange-red colored cosmetic powder from Indian Subcontinent, usually worn by married women along the part of their hair.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA) is an American association of social democrats founded in 1972.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 – June 5, 1900) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Suger (Sugerius; 1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, statesman, and historian.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.
Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.
Swiss Guards (Gardes Suisses; Schweizergarde) are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century.
Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Théodore-Adrien Sarr (born 28 November 1936 Benoist, Joseph-Roger de, Histoire de l'Eglise catholique au Sénégal du milieu du XVe siècle à l'aube du troisième millénaire", KARTHALA Editions (2008), p 511-16, (Retrieved: 16 July 2012)) is a Senegalese cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
"The East Is Red" is a song that was the de facto national anthem of the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s.
The Red Badge of Courage is a war novel by American author Stephen Crane (1871–1900).
The Scarlet Letter: A Romance, an 1850 novel, is a work of historical fiction written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Thin Red Line was a military action by the British Sutherland Highlanders 93rd (Highland) Regiment at the Battle of Balaklava on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War.
The Thin Red Line is an 1881 oil-on-canvas painting by Robert Gibb depicting the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War.
The Woman in Red is a 1935 American film directed by Robert Florey and starring Barbara Stanwyck and Gene Raymond.
The Woman in Red is a 1984 American romantic comedy film directed by and starring Gene Wilder.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
Three Colours: Red (Trois couleurs: Rouge, Trzy kolory.) is a 1994 romantic mystery film co-written, produced and directed by Polish filmmaker Krzysztof Kieślowski.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The Tomb of the Red Queen is a burial chamber containing the remains of an unknown noblewoman located inside Temple XIII in the ruins of the ancient Maya city of Palenque, now the Palenque National Park, in the Chiapas state in southern Mexico.
The Tomb of the Triclinium (Tomba del Triclinio) or the Funereal Bed (del Letto Funebre) is an Etruscan tomb in the Necropolis of Monterozzi near Tarquinia, Italy.
A is a traditional Japanese gate most commonly found at the entrance of or within a Shinto shrine, where it symbolically marks the transition from the mundane to sacred.
Tupelo, genus Nyssa, is a small genus of deciduous trees with alternate, simple leaves.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkey red is a color that was widely used to dye cotton in the 18th and 19th century.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The United States Marine Band is the premier band of the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
UY Scuti is a red supergiant and pulsating variable star in the constellation Scutum.
Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14.
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
Venetian red is a light and warm (somewhat unsaturated) pigment that is a darker shade of scarlet, derived from nearly pure ferric oxide (Fe2O3) of the hematite type.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar and the name of the resulting color.
"Vexilloid" is a loose term used to describe flag-like (vexillary) objects used by countries, organisations or individuals as a form of representation other than flags.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The Convention on Road Signs and Signals, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, is a multilateral treaty designed to increase road safety and aid international road traffic by standardising the signing system for road traffic (road signs, traffic lights and road markings) in use internationally.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors.
A wedding dress or wedding gown is the clothing worn by a bride during a wedding ceremony.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The Whore of Babylon or Babylon the Great is a mythological female figure and also place of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
In computing, on the X Window System, X11 color names are represented in a simple text file, which maps certain strings to RGB color values.
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Zhang Yimou (born 2 April 1950) is a Chinese film director, producer, writer and actor, and former cinematographer.
Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system in suburban Fangshan District, Beijing.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
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