231 relations: Acropora, Aden, Afonso de Albuquerque, Africa, Agatharchides, Al Hudaydah, Al Lith, Al Qunfudhah, Al Wajh, Alexander the Great, Algae, Ancient Egypt, Anhydrite, Anseba River, Aqaba, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea, Aragonite, Arkiko, Asia, Assab, Augustus, Bab-el-Mandeb, Barka River, BBC Two, Benjamin Kahn, Bible, Biodiversity, Black Sea, Bleach, Blue Hole (Red Sea), Book of Exodus, Brine, Calcite, Cardinal direction, Cement, Chalcedony, China, Chlorine, Clay minerals, Climate, Clysma, Coast, Color term, Commensalism, Coral, Coral bleaching, Coral reef, Cristobalite, Crossing the Red Sea, ..., Daedalus Reef, Dahab, Darius I, Desalination, Desert, Dolomite, Dry lake, Duba, Saudi Arabia, East Asia, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Edom, Egypt, Eilat, El Gouna, El Ikhwa Islands, El Qoseir, Elphinstone Reef, Eocene, Eritrea, Esau, Europe, Favia, Feldspar, Foraminifera, Fouling, France, Freight transport, Fringing reef, Global 200, Goethite, Great Rift Valley, Greek language, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez, Gypsum, Haddas River, Hala'ib, Halite, Hans Hass, Haql, Hatshepsut, Hebrew language, Hematite, Herodotus, Hippalus, Horn of Africa, Hurghada, Ice age, Ice cap, Indian Ocean, Indo-Roman trade relations, Inlet, International Hydrographic Organization, Invertebrate, Israel, Israel Port Authority, Israelites, Jabal al-Tair Island, Jacob, Jacques Cousteau, Jean-Baptiste Lepère, Jeddah, Jizan, John Tuzo Wilson, Jordan, Jordan Maritime Authority, Kingdom of Aksum, Koine Greek, Lagoon, Land of Punt, Latin, Lava, List of deep water fish of the Red Sea, List of fishes in the Red Sea, List of sharks in the Red Sea, Magnesite, Mangrove, Mare Erythraeum, Mars, Marsa Alam, Massawa, Measurement, Mica, Middle Ages, Montmorillonite, Moulhoule, Mountain, Napoleon, New Scientist, Nile, Nuweiba, Oil refinery, Oligocene, Pelagic zone, Per mille, Perim, Periplus, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Persian Gulf, Pharaoh, Polyhalite, Porites, Port Said Port Authority, Port Sudan, Pteropoda, Pyrite, Quartz, Rabigh, Rain, Ras Muhammad National Park, Ras Siyyan, Recreational diving, Red Sea Dam, Red Sea Ports Authority, Red Sea Rift, Red Sea Riviera, Red Sea species hazardous to humans, Regime, Relative direction, Rhodochrosite, Rift, Robert Moresby, Roman Empire, Saadia Gaon, Sabkha, Safaga, Salinity, Salt marsh, Saudi Ports Authority, Scuba diving, Sea lane, Sea level, Sea Ports Corporation, Sudan, Seagrass, Seawater, Semi-arid climate, Septuagint, Shadwan Island, Sharm El Sheikh, Siderite, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Snorkeling, Soma Bay, Somali language, Somalia, Speed, Sphalerite, Spice trade, SS Thistlegorm, Storm, Suakin, Sudan, Suez, Suez Canal, Suez Canal Authority, Sulfide minerals, Sweet Water Canal, Taba, Egypt, Tertiary, Thalassotalea loyana, Thuwal, Tigrinya language, Tiran Island, Trichodesmium, Tropics, Tuff, Volcanic ash, Volcano, White Sea, Wind, World War I, World War II, Yam Suph, Yanbu, Yellow Sea, Zeolite, Zubair Group, 2010 Sharm El Sheikh shark attacks. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
Acropora is a genus of small polyp stony coral in the phylum Cnidaria.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agatharchides or Agatharchus (Ἀγαθαρχίδης or Ἀγάθαρχος, Agatharchos) of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer (flourished 2nd century BC).
Al-Hudaydah (al-ḥudayda), also known in English as Hodeda, Hodeida, Hudaida or Hodeidah, is the fourth-largest city in Yemen and its principal port on the Red Sea.
Al Lith is a city in the Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea south west of the holy city of Mecca.
Al Qunfudhah, also known as Kunfuda, is a city in the Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea.
Al Wajh (الوجه), also written Al Wejh, is a coastal city in north-western Saudi Arabia, situated on the coast of the Red Sea.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
The Anseba River is a tributary of the Barka River in Eritrea with a length of 346 kilometers.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Arkiko (حرقيقو, alternately Archigo, Arqiqo, Ercoco, Hirgigo, Hargigo or Harkiko) is a town in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Barka River (نهر بركة nahr Baraka) flows from the Eritrean Highlands to the plains of Sudan.
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
Benjamin Kahn (born 1955) is an Israeli marine biologist and environmental activist.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
The Blue Hole is a diving location on the southeast Sinai, a few kilometres north of Dahab, Egypt on the coast of the Red Sea.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Clysma (Κλῦσμα, Κλειυσμα) was an ancient city in Egypt.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
A color term (or color name) is a word or phrase that refers to a specific color.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
The Crossing of the Red Sea (Hebrew: קריעת ים סוף Kriat Yam Suph - Crossing of the Red Sea or Sea of Reeds) is part of the biblical narrative of the Exodus, the escape of the Israelites, led by Moses, from the pursuing Egyptians in the Book of Exodus.
Daedalus Reef (also known as Abu Kizan) is a 400-meter-long and 100-meter-wide standalone reef in the Egyptian Red Sea situated about 90 kilometers from Marsa Alam.
Dahab (دهب,, "gold") is a small town on the southeast coast of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, approximately northeast of Sharm el-Sheikh.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
Duba (ضبا) is a small city on the northern Red Sea coast, of Saudi Arabia.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
El Gouna (الجونة, "the Lagoon") is an Egyptian tourist resort, developed and owned by Samih Sawiris and Orascom Hotels and Development, dating from 1989.
El Ikhwa Islands (جزر الإخوة lit. islands of brotherhood), commonly known as Brothers Islands, are two small Red Sea islands in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt.
El QoseirAlso spelled: Kosseir, Al Qusair, El Quseir, Quseir, Qusseir, Qosseir (القصير) is a city in eastern Egypt, located on the Red Sea coast.
Elphinstone Reef (also known as Sha'ab Abu Hamra) is a standalone reef in the Egyptian Red Sea situated about 30 kilometers north from the town of Marsa Alam in Egypt.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Esau (ISO 259-3 ʕeśaw; Ἡσαῦ Hēsau; Hesau, Esau; عِيسُو ‘Īsaw; meaning "hairy"Easton, M. Illustrated Bible Dictionary, (2006, p. 236 or "rough"Mandel, D. The Ultimate Who's Who in the Bible, (.), 2007, p. 175), in the Hebrew Bible, is the older son of Isaac. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis, and by the prophets Obadiah and Malachi. The New Testament alludes to him in the Epistle to the Romans and in the Epistle to the Hebrews. According to the Hebrew Bible, Esau is the progenitor of the Edomites and the elder twin brother of Jacob, the patriarch of the Israelites.Metzger & Coogan (1993). Oxford Companion to the Bible, pp. 191–92. Esau and Jacob were the sons of Isaac and Rebekah, and the grandsons of Abraham and Sarah. Of the twins, Esau was the first to be born with Jacob following, holding his heel. Isaac was sixty years old when the boys were born. Esau, a "man of the field", became a hunter who had "rough" qualities that distinguished him from his twin brother. Among these qualities were his red hair and noticeable hairiness. Jacob was a shy or simple man, depending on the translation of the Hebrew word tam (which also means "relatively perfect man"). Throughout Genesis, Esau is frequently shown as being supplanted by his younger twin, Jacob (Israel).Attridge & Meeks. The Harper Collins Study Bible,, 2006, p. 40.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Favia is a genus of reef-building stony corals in the family Mussidae.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.
A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.
The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.
The Gulf of Suez (khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم,, "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
The Haddas River (alt. Hadas River) is a seasonal river in Eritrea.
Hala'ib (حلايب), or Halayeb, is a Red Sea port and town, located in the Hala'ib Triangle, a area disputed between Sudan and Egypt.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hans Hass (23 January 1919 – 16 June 2013) was an Austrian biologist and underwater diving pioneer.
Haql is a city in the northwest of Saudi Arabia near the head of the Gulf of Aqaba, adjacent to Aqaba across the Jordanian border.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hippalus (Ancient Greek: Ἵππαλος) was a Greek navigator and merchant who probably lived in the 1st century BCE.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hurghada (الغردقة) is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.
An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Ports Authority (רשות הספנות והנמלים) is the governmental agency which supervises and regulates the operation of Israel's seaports in Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jabal al-Tair Island (Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Tair Island, Al-Tair Island, Jazirat at-Tair; جزيرة جبل الطير Jazīrat Jabal aṭ-Ṭayr, literally, "Bird Mountain Island") is a roughly oval volcanic island northwest of the constricted Bab al-Mandab passage at the mouth of the Red Sea, about halfway between Yemen and Eritrea.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau (11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
Jean-Baptiste Lepère (December 1, 1761 – July 16, 1844) was a French architect, father-in-law of the architect Jacques Hittorff.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
Jizan (جازان), also spelled Jazan, Gizan or Gazan, is a port city and the capital of Jizan Region, which lies in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen.
John Tuzo Wilson, CC, OBE, FRS, FRSC, FRSE (October 24, 1908 – April 15, 1993) was a Canadian geophysicist and geologist who achieved worldwide acclaim for his contributions to the theory of plate tectonics.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan Maritime Authority (JMA) is a government agency with the responsibility of governing the Red Sea and domestic ports, sea roads and shipping of Jordan.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
There are 44 species of shark found in the Red Sea.
Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Mare Erythraeum is a very large dark dusky region of Mars that can be viewed by even a small telescope.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Marsa Alam (مرسى علم) is a town in south-eastern Egypt, located on the western shore of the Red Sea.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.
Moulhoule (مول هولة) is a town in the northern Obock region of Djibouti.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nuweiba (also spelled: Nueiba; نويبع) is a coastal town in the eastern part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
A per milleCambridge Dictionary Online.
Perim (بريم), also called Mayyun in Arabic, is a volcanic island in the Strait of Mandeb at the south entrance into the Red Sea, off the south-west coast of Yemen and belonging to Yemen.
A periplus is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O.
Porites is a genus of stony coral; they are SPS (Small Polyp Stony) corals.
The Port Said Port Authority (PSPA) is a government agency of Egypt, charged with the responsibility to govern, regulate and develop the port facilities in the vicinity of Port Said in the Mediterranean Sea, on the northern terminus of the Suez Canal.
Port Sudan (بور سودان) is a port city in eastern Sudan, and the capital of the state of Red Sea.
Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Rabigh (رابغ) is an ancient town on the western coast of Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea in the Makkah Region.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Ras Mohammad (راس محمد,; رأس محمد) is a national park in Egypt at the southern extreme of the Sinai Peninsula, overlooking the Gulf of Suez on the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east.
Ras Siyyan or Ras Siyan (رأس سيان) is a peninsula in the Obock Region of Djibouti, on the Bab-el-Mandeb strait (between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden), about 20 km southwest of Perim Island.
Recreational diving or sport diving is diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment.
The Red Sea dam is a speculative macro-engineering proposal put forward in 2007 by a group of scientists and engineers.
The Red Sea Port Authority is responsible for the operation of several ports located along the coast of the Red Sea.
The Red Sea Rift is a spreading center between two tectonic plates, the African Plate and the Arabian Plate.
The Red Sea Riviera, Egypt's eastern coastline along the Red Sea, consists of resort cities on the western shore of the Gulf of Aqaba and along the eastern coast of mainland Egypt, south of the Gulf of Suez.
Although most species in the Red Sea pose no threat to humans, there are a few notable exceptions.
In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.
Rhodochrosite is a manganese carbonate mineral with chemical composition MnCO3.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
Robert Moresby (15 June 1794 – 15 June 1854Some sources mention that he is thought to have died in 1863.) was a captain of the East India Company's Bombay Marine/Indian Navy who distinguished himself as a hydrographer, maritime surveyor and draughtsman.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sabkha (Arabic: سبخة) is a phonetic translation of the Arabic word used to describe any form of salt flat.
Port Safaga, also known as Safaga (سفاجا), is a town in Egypt, on the coast of the Red Sea, located south of Hurghada.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Saudi Ports Authority is a government agency that supervises the ports of Saudi Arabia.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Sea Ports Corporation is an independent state corporation of Sudan that governs, constructs and maintains the ports, harbors and lighthouses of Sudan.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shadwan is a barren rocky island 30 miles southwest of the Egyptian city of Sharm el-Sheikh on the Sinai Peninsula and 20 miles northeast of el Gouna.
Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins.
Soma Bay is a coastal resort on the Red Sea in Egypt, 45 km south of Hurghada International Airport.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
The SS Thistlegorm was a British armed Merchant Navy ship built in 1940 by Joseph Thompson & Son in Sunderland, England. She was sunk on 6 October 1941 near Ras Muhammad in the Red Sea and is now a well known diving site.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
Suakin or Sawakin (سواكن Sawákin) is a port city in north-eastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, which has been leased to the Republic of Turkey for 99 years by bilateral agreement.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Suez Canal Authority (SCA) is a state owned authority which owns, operates and maintains the Suez Canal.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sweet Water Canal, also known as Fresh Water Canal and currently known as Ismaïlia Canal, is a canal which was dug by thousands of Egyptian fellahin to facilitate the construction of the Suez Canal.
Taba (طابا) is a small Egyptian town near the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
Thalassotalea loyana is a bacterium from the genus of Thalassotalea.
Thuwal (ثول) is a village belonging to the governorate of Jeddah in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia north of Jeddah on the coast of the Red Sea.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
Tiran (جزيرة تيران Jezîret Tīrān, Jazīrat Tīrān, and Yotvat Island (יוטבת), is an island within the maritime borders of Saudi Arabia that was administered by Egypt in the past. However, sovereignty of the two Red Sea islands, Tiran and Sanafir, was ceded officially to Saudi Arabia as part of a maritime borders agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The agreement subsequently was approved by the Egyptian Parliament and finally ratified by the Egyptian President on 24 June 2017. The island is located at the entrance of the Straits of Tiran, which connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It has an area of about. It is part of the Ras Muhammad National Park. The Straits of Tiran is Israel's only access from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea, and Egypt's blockade of the Straits of Tiran on 22 May 1967 was the casus belli for Israel in the Six-Day War. Tiran Island is of strategic significance in the area, as it forms the narrowest section of the Straits of Tiran, which is an important sea passage to the major ports of Aqaba in Jordan and Eilat in Israel. Israel briefly took over Tiran Island during the Suez Crisis and again from 1967 to 1982 following the Six-Day War. The island is inhabited only by military personnel from Egypt and the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO). Chisholm Point is a cape of Tiran Island. Some sources report that many beaches on the island are mined. On 9 April 2016, the Egyptian government declared that Tiran and Sanafir Island fall within the territorial waters of Saudi Arabia, as codified in the maritime border agreement signed with the government of Saudi Arabia on the previous day. The agreement needs to be ratified by Egypt's Parliament, and has reportedly been quashed by an Egyptian judge. A court in its final ruling rejected the deal and affirmed Egyptian sovereignty over the islands in January 2017. On 14 June 2017, Egypt's House Committee on Defence and National Security unanimously approved the transfer of Tiran and Sanafir islands to Saudi Arabia and the plan was passed by the Egyptian Parliament later the same day. On Wednesday 21 June 2017, Egypt’s top court temporarily halted all court verdicts on the agreement to transfer the two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia. Finally, on Saturday 24 June 2017, President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt ratified the agreement that cedes sovereignty over the two Red Sea islands, Tiran and Sanafir, to Saudi Arabia.
Trichodesmium, also called sea sawdust, is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yam Suph has traditionally been understood to refer to the saltwater inlet located between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, known in English as the Red Sea.
Yanbu' al Bahr (ينبع البحر,, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia.
The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zubair Group, Al Zubair Group or Zubayr Group (مجموعة جزر الزبير, or simply: جزر الزبير) is a group of 10 major volcanic islands, on top of an underlying shield volcano in the Red Sea, which reach a height of 191 m (627 ft) above sea level.
The 2010 Sharm El Sheikh shark attacks were a series of attacks by sharks on swimmers off the Red Sea resort of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.