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Red Sea

Index Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. [1]

231 relations: Acropora, Aden, Afonso de Albuquerque, Africa, Agatharchides, Al Hudaydah, Al Lith, Al Qunfudhah, Al Wajh, Alexander the Great, Algae, Ancient Egypt, Anhydrite, Anseba River, Aqaba, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea, Aragonite, Arkiko, Asia, Assab, Augustus, Bab-el-Mandeb, Barka River, BBC Two, Benjamin Kahn, Bible, Biodiversity, Black Sea, Bleach, Blue Hole (Red Sea), Book of Exodus, Brine, Calcite, Cardinal direction, Cement, Chalcedony, China, Chlorine, Clay minerals, Climate, Clysma, Coast, Color term, Commensalism, Coral, Coral bleaching, Coral reef, Cristobalite, Crossing the Red Sea, ..., Daedalus Reef, Dahab, Darius I, Desalination, Desert, Dolomite, Dry lake, Duba, Saudi Arabia, East Asia, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Edom, Egypt, Eilat, El Gouna, El Ikhwa Islands, El Qoseir, Elphinstone Reef, Eocene, Eritrea, Esau, Europe, Favia, Feldspar, Foraminifera, Fouling, France, Freight transport, Fringing reef, Global 200, Goethite, Great Rift Valley, Greek language, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez, Gypsum, Haddas River, Hala'ib, Halite, Hans Hass, Haql, Hatshepsut, Hebrew language, Hematite, Herodotus, Hippalus, Horn of Africa, Hurghada, Ice age, Ice cap, Indian Ocean, Indo-Roman trade relations, Inlet, International Hydrographic Organization, Invertebrate, Israel, Israel Port Authority, Israelites, Jabal al-Tair Island, Jacob, Jacques Cousteau, Jean-Baptiste Lepère, Jeddah, Jizan, John Tuzo Wilson, Jordan, Jordan Maritime Authority, Kingdom of Aksum, Koine Greek, Lagoon, Land of Punt, Latin, Lava, List of deep water fish of the Red Sea, List of fishes in the Red Sea, List of sharks in the Red Sea, Magnesite, Mangrove, Mare Erythraeum, Mars, Marsa Alam, Massawa, Measurement, Mica, Middle Ages, Montmorillonite, Moulhoule, Mountain, Napoleon, New Scientist, Nile, Nuweiba, Oil refinery, Oligocene, Pelagic zone, Per mille, Perim, Periplus, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Persian Gulf, Pharaoh, Polyhalite, Porites, Port Said Port Authority, Port Sudan, Pteropoda, Pyrite, Quartz, Rabigh, Rain, Ras Muhammad National Park, Ras Siyyan, Recreational diving, Red Sea Dam, Red Sea Ports Authority, Red Sea Rift, Red Sea Riviera, Red Sea species hazardous to humans, Regime, Relative direction, Rhodochrosite, Rift, Robert Moresby, Roman Empire, Saadia Gaon, Sabkha, Safaga, Salinity, Salt marsh, Saudi Ports Authority, Scuba diving, Sea lane, Sea level, Sea Ports Corporation, Sudan, Seagrass, Seawater, Semi-arid climate, Septuagint, Shadwan Island, Sharm El Sheikh, Siderite, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Snorkeling, Soma Bay, Somali language, Somalia, Speed, Sphalerite, Spice trade, SS Thistlegorm, Storm, Suakin, Sudan, Suez, Suez Canal, Suez Canal Authority, Sulfide minerals, Sweet Water Canal, Taba, Egypt, Tertiary, Thalassotalea loyana, Thuwal, Tigrinya language, Tiran Island, Trichodesmium, Tropics, Tuff, Volcanic ash, Volcano, White Sea, Wind, World War I, World War II, Yam Suph, Yanbu, Yellow Sea, Zeolite, Zubair Group, 2010 Sharm El Sheikh shark attacks. Expand index (181 more) »

Acropora

Acropora is a genus of small polyp stony coral in the phylum Cnidaria.

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Aden

Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Afonso de Albuquerque

Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Agatharchides

Agatharchides or Agatharchus (Ἀγαθαρχίδης or Ἀγάθαρχος, Agatharchos) of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer (flourished 2nd century BC).

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Al Hudaydah

Al-Hudaydah (al-ḥudayda), also known in English as Hodeda, Hodeida, Hudaida or Hodeidah, is the fourth-largest city in Yemen and its principal port on the Red Sea.

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Al Lith

Al Lith is a city in the Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea south west of the holy city of Mecca.

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Al Qunfudhah

Al Qunfudhah, also known as Kunfuda, is a city in the Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea.

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Al Wajh

Al Wajh (الوجه), also written Al Wejh, is a coastal city in north-western Saudi Arabia, situated on the coast of the Red Sea.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Anhydrite

Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.

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Anseba River

The Anseba River is a tributary of the Barka River in Eritrea with a length of 346 kilometers.

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Aqaba

Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Aragonite

Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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Arkiko

Arkiko (حرقيقو, alternately Archigo, Arqiqo, Ercoco, Hirgigo, Hargigo or Harkiko) is a town in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Assab

Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Bab-el-Mandeb

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

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Barka River

Barka River (نهر بركة nahr Baraka) flows from the Eritrean Highlands to the plains of Sudan.

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BBC Two

BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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Benjamin Kahn

Benjamin Kahn (born 1955) is an Israeli marine biologist and environmental activist.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Bleach

Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.

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Blue Hole (Red Sea)

The Blue Hole is a diving location on the southeast Sinai, a few kilometres north of Dahab, Egypt on the coast of the Red Sea.

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Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Calcite

Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Cardinal direction

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.

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Cement

A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.

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Chalcedony

Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Clay minerals

Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Clysma

Clysma (Κλῦσμα, Κλειυσμα) was an ancient city in Egypt.

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Coast

A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

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Color term

A color term (or color name) is a word or phrase that refers to a specific color.

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Commensalism

Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.

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Coral

Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral bleaching

Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Cristobalite

The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.

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Crossing the Red Sea

The Crossing of the Red Sea (Hebrew: קריעת ים סוף Kriat Yam Suph - Crossing of the Red Sea or Sea of Reeds) is part of the biblical narrative of the Exodus, the escape of the Israelites, led by Moses, from the pursuing Egyptians in the Book of Exodus.

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Daedalus Reef

Daedalus Reef (also known as Abu Kizan) is a 400-meter-long and 100-meter-wide standalone reef in the Egyptian Red Sea situated about 90 kilometers from Marsa Alam.

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Dahab

Dahab (دهب,, "gold") is a small town on the southeast coast of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, approximately northeast of Sharm el-Sheikh.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Desalination

Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Dolomite

Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Dry lake

A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.

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Duba, Saudi Arabia

Duba (ضبا) is a small city on the northern Red Sea coast, of Saudi Arabia.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edom

Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eilat

Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.

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El Gouna

El Gouna (الجونة, "the Lagoon") is an Egyptian tourist resort, developed and owned by Samih Sawiris and Orascom Hotels and Development, dating from 1989.

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El Ikhwa Islands

El Ikhwa Islands (جزر الإخوة lit. islands of brotherhood), commonly known as Brothers Islands, are two small Red Sea islands in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt.

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El Qoseir

El QoseirAlso spelled: Kosseir, Al Qusair, El Quseir, Quseir, Qusseir, Qosseir (القصير) is a city in eastern Egypt, located on the Red Sea coast.

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Elphinstone Reef

Elphinstone Reef (also known as Sha'ab Abu Hamra) is a standalone reef in the Egyptian Red Sea situated about 30 kilometers north from the town of Marsa Alam in Egypt.

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Eocene

The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Esau

Esau (ISO 259-3 ʕeśaw; Ἡσαῦ Hēsau; Hesau, Esau; عِيسُو ‘Īsaw; meaning "hairy"Easton, M. Illustrated Bible Dictionary, (2006, p. 236 or "rough"Mandel, D. The Ultimate Who's Who in the Bible, (.), 2007, p. 175), in the Hebrew Bible, is the older son of Isaac. He is mentioned in the Book of Genesis, and by the prophets Obadiah and Malachi. The New Testament alludes to him in the Epistle to the Romans and in the Epistle to the Hebrews. According to the Hebrew Bible, Esau is the progenitor of the Edomites and the elder twin brother of Jacob, the patriarch of the Israelites.Metzger & Coogan (1993). Oxford Companion to the Bible, pp. 191–92. Esau and Jacob were the sons of Isaac and Rebekah, and the grandsons of Abraham and Sarah. Of the twins, Esau was the first to be born with Jacob following, holding his heel. Isaac was sixty years old when the boys were born. Esau, a "man of the field", became a hunter who had "rough" qualities that distinguished him from his twin brother. Among these qualities were his red hair and noticeable hairiness. Jacob was a shy or simple man, depending on the translation of the Hebrew word tam (which also means "relatively perfect man"). Throughout Genesis, Esau is frequently shown as being supplanted by his younger twin, Jacob (Israel).Attridge & Meeks. The Harper Collins Study Bible,, 2006, p. 40.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Favia

Favia is a genus of reef-building stony corals in the family Mussidae.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Foraminifera

Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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Fouling

Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Freight transport

Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.

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Fringing reef

A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.

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Global 200

The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation.

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Goethite

Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.

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Great Rift Valley

The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.

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Gulf of Aqaba

The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.

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Gulf of Suez

The Gulf of Suez (khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم,, "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula.

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Gypsum

Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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Haddas River

The Haddas River (alt. Hadas River) is a seasonal river in Eritrea.

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Hala'ib

Hala'ib (حلايب), or Halayeb, is a Red Sea port and town, located in the Hala'ib Triangle, a area disputed between Sudan and Egypt.

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Halite

Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Hans Hass

Hans Hass (23 January 1919 – 16 June 2013) was an Austrian biologist and underwater diving pioneer.

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Haql

Haql is a city in the northwest of Saudi Arabia near the head of the Gulf of Aqaba, adjacent to Aqaba across the Jordanian border.

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Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hematite

Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hippalus

Hippalus (Ancient Greek: Ἵππαλος) was a Greek navigator and merchant who probably lived in the 1st century BCE.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Hurghada

Hurghada (الغردقة) is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Ice cap

An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indo-Roman trade relations

Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Inlet

An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh.

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Port Authority

The Israel Ports Authority (רשות הספנות והנמלים) is the governmental agency which supervises and regulates the operation of Israel's seaports in Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat.

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Israelites

The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Jabal al-Tair Island

Jabal al-Tair Island (Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Tair Island, Al-Tair Island, Jazirat at-Tair; جزيرة جبل الطير Jazīrat Jabal aṭ-Ṭayr, literally, "Bird Mountain Island") is a roughly oval volcanic island northwest of the constricted Bab al-Mandab passage at the mouth of the Red Sea, about halfway between Yemen and Eritrea.

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Jacob

Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.

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Jacques Cousteau

Jacques-Yves Cousteau (11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.

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Jean-Baptiste Lepère

Jean-Baptiste Lepère (December 1, 1761 – July 16, 1844) was a French architect, father-in-law of the architect Jacques Hittorff.

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Jeddah

Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

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Jizan

Jizan (جازان), also spelled Jazan, Gizan or Gazan, is a port city and the capital of Jizan Region, which lies in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia and directly north of the border with Yemen.

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John Tuzo Wilson

John Tuzo Wilson, CC, OBE, FRS, FRSC, FRSE (October 24, 1908 – April 15, 1993) was a Canadian geophysicist and geologist who achieved worldwide acclaim for his contributions to the theory of plate tectonics.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Jordan Maritime Authority

The Jordan Maritime Authority (JMA) is a government agency with the responsibility of governing the Red Sea and domestic ports, sea roads and shipping of Jordan.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Lagoon

A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.

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Land of Punt

The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lava

Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.

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List of deep water fish of the Red Sea

No description.

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List of fishes in the Red Sea

No description.

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List of sharks in the Red Sea

There are 44 species of shark found in the Red Sea.

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Magnesite

Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).

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Mangrove

A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Mare Erythraeum

Mare Erythraeum is a very large dark dusky region of Mars that can be viewed by even a small telescope.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Marsa Alam

Marsa Alam (مرسى علم) is a town in south-eastern Egypt, located on the western shore of the Red Sea.

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Massawa

Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.

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Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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Mica

The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Montmorillonite

Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.

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Moulhoule

Moulhoule (مول هولة) is a town in the northern Obock region of Djibouti.

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Mountain

A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nuweiba

Nuweiba (also spelled: Nueiba; نويبع) is a coastal town in the eastern part of Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Oligocene

The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Pelagic zone

The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.

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Per mille

A per milleCambridge Dictionary Online.

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Perim

Perim (بريم), also called Mayyun in Arabic, is a volcanic island in the Strait of Mandeb at the south entrance into the Red Sea, off the south-west coast of Yemen and belonging to Yemen.

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Periplus

A periplus is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore.

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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Pharaoh

Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Polyhalite

Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O.

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Porites

Porites is a genus of stony coral; they are SPS (Small Polyp Stony) corals.

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Port Said Port Authority

The Port Said Port Authority (PSPA) is a government agency of Egypt, charged with the responsibility to govern, regulate and develop the port facilities in the vicinity of Port Said in the Mediterranean Sea, on the northern terminus of the Suez Canal.

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Port Sudan

Port Sudan (بور سودان) is a port city in eastern Sudan, and the capital of the state of Red Sea.

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Pteropoda

Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.

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Pyrite

The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).

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Quartz

Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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Rabigh

Rabigh (رابغ) is an ancient town on the western coast of Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea in the Makkah Region.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Ras Muhammad National Park

Ras Mohammad (راس محمد,; رأس محمد) is a national park in Egypt at the southern extreme of the Sinai Peninsula, overlooking the Gulf of Suez on the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east.

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Ras Siyyan

Ras Siyyan or Ras Siyan (رأس سيان) is a peninsula in the Obock Region of Djibouti, on the Bab-el-Mandeb strait (between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden), about 20 km southwest of Perim Island.

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Recreational diving

Recreational diving or sport diving is diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment.

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Red Sea Dam

The Red Sea dam is a speculative macro-engineering proposal put forward in 2007 by a group of scientists and engineers.

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Red Sea Ports Authority

The Red Sea Port Authority is responsible for the operation of several ports located along the coast of the Red Sea.

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Red Sea Rift

The Red Sea Rift is a spreading center between two tectonic plates, the African Plate and the Arabian Plate.

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Red Sea Riviera

The Red Sea Riviera, Egypt's eastern coastline along the Red Sea, consists of resort cities on the western shore of the Gulf of Aqaba and along the eastern coast of mainland Egypt, south of the Gulf of Suez.

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Red Sea species hazardous to humans

Although most species in the Red Sea pose no threat to humans, there are a few notable exceptions.

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Regime

In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.

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Relative direction

The most common relative directions are left, right, forward(s), backward(s), up, and down.

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Rhodochrosite

Rhodochrosite is a manganese carbonate mineral with chemical composition MnCO3.

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Rift

In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.

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Robert Moresby

Robert Moresby (15 June 1794 – 15 June 1854Some sources mention that he is thought to have died in 1863.) was a captain of the East India Company's Bombay Marine/Indian Navy who distinguished himself as a hydrographer, maritime surveyor and draughtsman.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Saadia Gaon

Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Sabkha

Sabkha (Arabic: سبخة) is a phonetic translation of the Arabic word used to describe any form of salt flat.

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Safaga

Port Safaga, also known as Safaga (سفاجا), is a town in Egypt, on the coast of the Red Sea, located south of Hurghada.

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Salinity

Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Salt marsh

A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.

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Saudi Ports Authority

Saudi Ports Authority is a government agency that supervises the ports of Saudi Arabia.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.

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Sea lane

A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sea Ports Corporation, Sudan

Sea Ports Corporation is an independent state corporation of Sudan that governs, constructs and maintains the ports, harbors and lighthouses of Sudan.

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Seagrass

Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Seawater

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Septuagint

The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Shadwan Island

Shadwan is a barren rocky island 30 miles southwest of the Egyptian city of Sharm el-Sheikh on the Sinai Peninsula and 20 miles northeast of el Gouna.

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Sharm El Sheikh

Sharm El Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.

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Siderite

Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).

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Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Snorkeling

Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins.

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Soma Bay

Soma Bay is a coastal resort on the Red Sea in Egypt, 45 km south of Hurghada International Airport.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

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Sphalerite

Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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SS Thistlegorm

The SS Thistlegorm was a British armed Merchant Navy ship built in 1940 by Joseph Thompson & Son in Sunderland, England. She was sunk on 6 October 1941 near Ras Muhammad in the Red Sea and is now a well known diving site.

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Storm

A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.

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Suakin

Suakin or Sawakin (سواكن Sawákin) is a port city in north-eastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, which has been leased to the Republic of Turkey for 99 years by bilateral agreement.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Suez

Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Suez Canal Authority

Suez Canal Authority (SCA) is a state owned authority which owns, operates and maintains the Suez Canal.

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Sulfide minerals

The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.

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Sweet Water Canal

Sweet Water Canal, also known as Fresh Water Canal and currently known as Ismaïlia Canal, is a canal which was dug by thousands of Egyptian fellahin to facilitate the construction of the Suez Canal.

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Taba, Egypt

Taba (طابا) is a small Egyptian town near the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba.

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Tertiary

Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.

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Thalassotalea loyana

Thalassotalea loyana is a bacterium from the genus of Thalassotalea.

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Thuwal

Thuwal (ثول) is a village belonging to the governorate of Jeddah in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia north of Jeddah on the coast of the Red Sea.

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Tigrinya language

Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.

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Tiran Island

Tiran (جزيرة تيران Jezîret Tīrān, Jazīrat Tīrān, and Yotvat Island (יוטבת), is an island within the maritime borders of Saudi Arabia that was administered by Egypt in the past. However, sovereignty of the two Red Sea islands, Tiran and Sanafir, was ceded officially to Saudi Arabia as part of a maritime borders agreement between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The agreement subsequently was approved by the Egyptian Parliament and finally ratified by the Egyptian President on 24 June 2017. The island is located at the entrance of the Straits of Tiran, which connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It has an area of about. It is part of the Ras Muhammad National Park. The Straits of Tiran is Israel's only access from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea, and Egypt's blockade of the Straits of Tiran on 22 May 1967 was the casus belli for Israel in the Six-Day War. Tiran Island is of strategic significance in the area, as it forms the narrowest section of the Straits of Tiran, which is an important sea passage to the major ports of Aqaba in Jordan and Eilat in Israel. Israel briefly took over Tiran Island during the Suez Crisis and again from 1967 to 1982 following the Six-Day War. The island is inhabited only by military personnel from Egypt and the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO). Chisholm Point is a cape of Tiran Island. Some sources report that many beaches on the island are mined. On 9 April 2016, the Egyptian government declared that Tiran and Sanafir Island fall within the territorial waters of Saudi Arabia, as codified in the maritime border agreement signed with the government of Saudi Arabia on the previous day. The agreement needs to be ratified by Egypt's Parliament, and has reportedly been quashed by an Egyptian judge. A court in its final ruling rejected the deal and affirmed Egyptian sovereignty over the islands in January 2017. On 14 June 2017, Egypt's House Committee on Defence and National Security unanimously approved the transfer of Tiran and Sanafir islands to Saudi Arabia and the plan was passed by the Egyptian Parliament later the same day. On Wednesday 21 June 2017, Egypt’s top court temporarily halted all court verdicts on the agreement to transfer the two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia. Finally, on Saturday 24 June 2017, President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt ratified the agreement that cedes sovereignty over the two Red Sea islands, Tiran and Sanafir, to Saudi Arabia.

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Trichodesmium

Trichodesmium, also called sea sawdust, is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria.

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Tropics

The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tuff

Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.

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Volcanic ash

Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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White Sea

The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.

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Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yam Suph

Yam Suph has traditionally been understood to refer to the saltwater inlet located between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, known in English as the Red Sea.

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Yanbu

Yanbu' al Bahr (ينبع البحر,, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia.

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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.

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Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

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Zubair Group

Zubair Group, Al Zubair Group or Zubayr Group (مجموعة جزر الزبير, or simply: جزر الزبير) is a group of 10 major volcanic islands, on top of an underlying shield volcano in the Red Sea, which reach a height of 191 m (627 ft) above sea level.

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2010 Sharm El Sheikh shark attacks

The 2010 Sharm El Sheikh shark attacks were a series of attacks by sharks on swimmers off the Red Sea resort of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

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Redirects here:

Al Baḩr al Aḩmar, Arabicus Sinus, Mar Vermelho, Red Sea Basin, Red sea, Sea of Mecca, Sinus Arabicus, The Red Sea, The red sea, ቀይሕ ባሕሪ.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Sea

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