36 relations: Active redundancy, Aircraft, Avionics, Charles Perrow, Common cause and special cause (statistics), Data redundancy, Degeneracy (biology), Double switching, Dual modular redundancy, Engineering, Error detection and correction, Factor of safety, Fail-safe, Fault tolerance, Fly-by-wire, Human error, Hydraulics, I-5 Skagit River Bridge collapse, Mean time between failures, N+1 redundancy, N-version programming, National Bridge Inventory, Normal Accidents, Radiation hardening, Reliability (computer networking), Reliability engineering, Reliability theory of aging and longevity, Safety engineering, Safety-critical system, Satellite navigation, Silver Bridge, Space Shuttle, Structure, System, Thread (computing), Triple modular redundancy.
Active redundancy is a design concept that increases operational availability and that reduces operating cost by automating most critical maintenance actions.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
Charles B. Perrow (born February 9, 1925) is an emeritus professor of sociology at Yale University and visiting professor at Stanford University.
Common and special causes are the two distinct origins of variation in a process, as defined in the statistical thinking and methods of Walter A. Shewhart and W. Edwards Deming.
In computer main memory, auxiliary storage and computer buses, data redundancy is the existence of data that is additional to the actual data and permits correction of errors in stored or transmitted data.
Within biological systems, degeneracy occurs when structurally dissimilar components/modules/pathways can perform similar functions (i.e. are effectively interchangeable) under certain conditions, but perform distinct functions in other conditions.
A single-switched relay can close inadvertently in response to a single false feed current. A double-switched relay cannot close inadvertently with the application of the same current. At least two separate faults would be required to allow this relay to close inadvertently. Double switching, double cutting, or double breaking is the practice of using a multipole switch to close or open both the positive and negative sides of a DC electrical circuit, or both the hot and neutral sides of an AC circuit.
In reliability engineering, dual modular redundancy (DMR) is when components of a system are duplicated, providing redundancy in case one should fail.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Factors of safety (FoS), is also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads.
A fail-safe in engineering is a design feature or practice that in the event of a specific type of failure, inherently responds in a way that will cause no or minimal harm to other equipment, the environment or to people.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
On May 23, 2013, at approximately 7:00 pm PDT, a span of the bridge carrying Interstate 5 over the Skagit River in the U.S. state of Washington collapsed.
Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation.
N+1 redundancy is a form of resilience that ensures system availability in the event of component failure.
N-version programming (NVP), also known as multiversion programming or multiple-version dissimilar software, is a method or process in software engineering where multiple functionally equivalent programs are independently generated from the same initial specifications.
The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) is a database, compiled by the Federal Highway Administration, with information on all bridges and tunnels in the United States that have roads passing above or below.
Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies is a 1984 book by Yale sociologist Charles Perrow, which provides a detailed analysis of complex systems conducted from a social sciences perspective.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
In computer networking, a reliable protocol provides notifications to the sender as to the delivery of transmitted data, as opposed to an unreliable protocol, which does not provide assurance of the delivery of data to the intended recipient(s).
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
The reliability theory of aging is an attempt to apply the principles of reliability theory to create a mathematical model of senescence.
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety.
A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one (or more) of the following outcomes.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
The Silver Bridge was an eyebar-chain suspension bridge built in 1928 and named for the color of its aluminum paint.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
In computing, triple modular redundancy, sometimes called triple-mode redundancy, (TMR) is a fault-tolerant form of N-modular redundancy, in which three systems perform a process and that result is processed by a majority-voting system to produce a single output.