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Reduplication

Index Reduplication

Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change. [1]

193 relations: Adverb, Affix, Afrikaans, American English, American Jews, Amharic, Apophony, Arabic, Augment (linguistics), Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Babbling, Baby talk, Bantu languages, Bengali language, Burmese language, Calligraphy, Catalan language, Charles A. Ferguson, Chewa language, Chinese language, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Chukchi language, Close vowel, Comparative, Comparison (grammar), Consonant, Constituent (linguistics), Contrastive focus reduplication, Double copula, Dravidian languages, Elision, Ergative verb, Eric Djemba-Djemba, Ewe language, French language, French name, Frequentative, Gemination, Germanic languages, Gothic language, Grammatical aspect, Greek language, Grong Grong, Gujarati language, Halkomelem, Halo-halo, Hebrew language, Hindi, ..., Hip hop, Hokkien, Horpa language, Hyphen, Hypocorism, Iconicity, Ideophone, Illegal immigration, Imperative mood, Indian English, Indo-European languages, Indonesian language, Infix, Inflection, Intensifier, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iran, Irish language, Italian language, Iteration mark, Japanese language, Japanese sound symbolism, Kham language, Khmer alphabet, Khmer language, Khoekhoe language, Lakota language, Language acquisition, Latin, Lexicon, Linguistics, List of people with reduplicated names, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Lomana LuaLua, Luganda, Malay language, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Malaysia, Mandarin Chinese, Marathi language, Marshallese language, Māori language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca, Mod (video gaming), Mokilese language, Mora (linguistics), Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Mortlock Islands, Mortlockese language, Motu language, Nepali language, New York City, New York City English, New Zealand, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Old Prussian language, Onomatopoeia, Open vowel, Optimality Theory, Pama–Nyungan languages, Parramatta, Perfect (grammar), Persian language, Philippines, Phonology, Pingelapese language, Platonic idealism, Plural, Prefix, Present tense, Preterite, Productivity (linguistics), Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European root, Punjabi language, Quileute language, Rapa Iti, Rapa language, Redundancy (linguistics), Reduplication in the Russian language, Reflexive pronoun, Refugee, Rendaku, Repetition (rhetorical device), ResearchGate, Romanian language, Root (linguistics), Salishan languages, Samoan language, Sanskrit, Sanskrit compound, Semai language, Semitic languages, Shipibo language, Shiraz, Shm-reduplication, Shuswap language, Siamese twins (linguistics), Sichuanese dialects, Singulative number, Sirionó, Somali language, South Africa national football team, Southern Min, Standard Chinese, Stress (linguistics), Suffix, Swahili language, Swiss German, Syllable, Syntactic gemination, Tagalog language, Tautonym, Taxonomy (biology), Telugu language, Temiar language, Tetum language, Tillamook language, Tohono O'odham, Tone sandhi, Transliteration, Turkish language, Turramurra, Twi, Tz’utujil language, University of Graz, Verb, Vietnamese language, Vowel, Wagga Wagga, Welsh language, Wheel, Wiradjuri, Woolloomooloo, Word, Word stem, Wuvulu-Aua language, Yiddish, Zambia national football team, Zinedine Zidane. Expand index (143 more) »

Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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American Jews

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.

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Amharic

Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Apophony

In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Augment (linguistics)

In linguistics, the augment is a syllable added to the beginning of the word in certain Indo-European languages, most notably Greek, Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages such as Sanskrit, to form the past tenses.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Babbling

Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words.

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Baby talk

Baby talk is a type of speech associated with an older person speaking to a child.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Burmese language

The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.

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Calligraphy

Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Charles A. Ferguson

Charles Albert Ferguson (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University.

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Chewa language

Chewa, also known as Nyanja, is a language of the Bantu language family.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Christian Classics Ethereal Library

The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.

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Chukchi language

Chukchi is a Chukotko–Kamchatkan language spoken by the Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Comparative

In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, or degree.

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Comparison (grammar)

Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Constituent (linguistics)

In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.

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Contrastive focus reduplication

Contrastive focus reduplication, also called lexical cloning or the double construction, is a type of syntactic reduplication found in some languages.

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Double copula

The double copula, also known as the reduplicative copula, double is or Isis, is the usage of two successive copulae when only one is necessary, largely in spoken English.

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Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

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Elision

In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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Ergative verb

In linguistics, an ergative verb is a verb that can be either transitive or intransitive, and whose subject when intransitive corresponds to its direct object when transitive.

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Eric Djemba-Djemba

Eric Daniel Djemba-Djemba (born 4 May 1981) is a Cameroonian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Swiss fifth division club FC Vallorbe-Ballaigues.

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Ewe language

Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe) is a Niger–Congo language spoken in southeastern Ghana by approximately 6–7 million people as either the first or second language.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French name

This article describes the conventions for using people's names in France, including the norms of custom and practice, as well as the legal aspects.

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Frequentative

In grammar, a frequentative form (abbreviated or) of a word is one that indicates repeated action, but is not to be confused with iterative aspect.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grong Grong

Grong Grong is a small town that is located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia.

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Gujarati language

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Halkomelem

Halkomelem (Halq̓eméylem in the Upriver dialect, Hul̓q̓umín̓um̓ in the Island dialect, and hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ in the Downriver dialect) is a language of various First Nations peoples in British Columbia, ranging from southeastern Vancouver Island from the west shore of Saanich Inlet northward beyond Gabriola Island and Nanaimo to Nanoose Bay and including the Lower Mainland from the Fraser River Delta upriver to Harrison Lake and the lower boundary of the Fraser Canyon.

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Halo-halo

Haluhalo or Halo-halo ("mixed together") is a popular Filipino dessert with a mixture of shaved ice and evaporated milk to which various ingredients are added, including boiled sweet beans, coconut, sago, gulaman (agar jelly), tubers, fruits, and yam ice cream.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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Hokkien

Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.

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Horpa language

Horpa (Chinese: 道孚语 Daofu, 爾龔語 Ergong) is one of several closely related Rgyalrongic languages of China.

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Hyphen

The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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Hypocorism

A hypocorism (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition: "hypocorism". Retrieved 24 June 2008.) is a diminutive form of a name.

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Iconicity

In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between the form of a sign (linguistic or otherwise) and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness.

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Ideophone

Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound (onomatopoeia), movement, color, shape, or action.

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indian English

Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Infix

An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Intensifier

Intensifier (abbreviated) is a linguistic term (but not a proper lexical category) for a modifier that makes no contribution to the propositional meaning of a clause but serves to enhance and give additional emotional context to the word it modifies.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Iteration mark

Iteration marks are characters or punctuation marks that represent a duplicated character or word.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Japanese sound symbolism

Japanese has a large inventory of sound symbolic or mimetic words, known in linguistics as ideophones.

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Kham language

Kham, also Kham Pang (Nepali: खाम भाषा)—narrowly defined—is a complex of Sino-Tibetan Magaric languages spoken natively in the highlands of the Rolpa and Rukum districts of Rapti and the westernmost part of Baglung district in Dhawalagiri Zone and Karnali region by western clans of the Kham tribes, called collectively western Khams.

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Khmer alphabet

The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.

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Khmer language

Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.

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Khoekhoe language

The Khoekhoe language, Khoekhoegowab, also known by the ethnic term Nama and formerly as Hottentot, is the most widespread of those non-Bantu languages of southern Africa that contain "click" sounds and have therefore been loosely classified as Khoisan.

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Lakota language

Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.

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Language acquisition

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lexicon

A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of people with reduplicated names

Reduplication is a process by which the root or stem of a word, or part of it, is repeated.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lomana LuaLua

Trésor Lomana LuaLua (born 28 December 1980) is a Congolese footballer who plays as a striker.

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Luganda

Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Marathi language

Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

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Marshallese language

The Marshallese language (Marshallese: new orthography Kajin M̧ajeļ or old orthography Kajin Majōl), also known as Ebon, is a Micronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands.

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Māori language

Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.

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Mediterranean Lingua Franca

The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century.

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Mod (video gaming)

A mod (short for "modification") is an alteration that changes some aspects or one aspect of a video game, such as how it looks or behaves.

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Mokilese language

Mokilese also known as Mwoakilloan, Mwokilese, or Mwoakilese is a Micronesian language originally spoken on Mwoakilloa, Federated States of Micronesia.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mortlock Islands

The name Mortlock Islands can refer to.

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Mortlockese language

Mortlockese (Kapsen Mwoshulók), also known as Mortlock or Nomoi, is a language that belongs to the Chuukic group of Micronesian languages in the Federated States of Micronesia spoken primarily in the Mortlock Islands (Nomoi (Lower Mortlock) Islands and the Upper Mortlock Islands).

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Motu language

Motu (sometimes called Pure Motu or True Motu to distinguish it from Hiri Motu) is one of many Central Papuan Tip languages and is spoken by the Motuans, native inhabitants of Papua New Guinea.

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Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York City English

New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Ngorongoro Conservation Area

The Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.

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Old Prussian language

Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.

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Onomatopoeia

An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Optimality Theory

In linguistics, Optimality Theory (frequently abbreviated OT; the term is normally capitalized by convention) is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints.

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Pama–Nyungan languages

The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of indigenous Australian languages, containing perhaps 300 languages.

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Parramatta

Parramatta is a prominent suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River.

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Perfect (grammar)

The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pingelapese language

The Pingelapese language is a Micronesian language native to Pingelap, an atoll belonging to the state of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia.

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Platonic idealism

Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Preterite

The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.

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Productivity (linguistics)

In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Proto-Indo-European root

The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.

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Punjabi language

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Quileute language

Quileute, also known as Quillayute, was the last Chimakuan language, spoken until the end of the 20th century by Quileute and Makah elders on the western coast of the Olympic peninsula south of Cape Flattery at La Push and the lower Hoh River in Washington State, United States.

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Rapa Iti

Rapa, sometimes called Rapa Iti (Little Rapa, to distinguish it from "Rapa Nui" (Big Rapa), a name for Easter Island), is the largest and only inhabited island of the Bass Islands in French Polynesia.

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Rapa language

Rapa (or Rapan, autonym Reo Rapa or Reo Oparo) is the language of Rapa, in the Austral Islands of French Polynesia.

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Redundancy (linguistics)

In linguistics, redundancy refers to information that is expressed more than once.

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Reduplication in the Russian language

The reduplication in the Russian language serves for various kinds of the intensification of the meaning.

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Reflexive pronoun

In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Rendaku

is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.

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Repetition (rhetorical device)

Repetition is the simple repeating of a word, within a short space of words (including in a poem), with no particular placement of the words to secure emphasis.

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ResearchGate

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Salishan languages

The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).

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Samoan language

Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sanskrit compound

One notable feature of the agglutinative nominal system of Classical Sanskrit is the very common use of nominal compounds (samāsa), which may be huge (10+ or even 30+ words) and are generative.

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Semai language

Semai is a Mon–Khmer language of western Malaysia spoken by about 44,000 Semai people.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Shipibo language

Shipibo (also Shipibo-Conibo, Shipibo-Konibo) is a Panoan language spoken in Peru and Brazil by approximately 26,000 speakers.

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Shiraz

Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Shm-reduplication

Shm-reduplication is a form of reduplication in which the original word or its first syllable (the base) is repeated with the copy (the reduplicant) beginning with shm- (sometimes schm-), pronounced.

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Shuswap language

The Shuswap language (Shuswap: Secwepemctsín) is the traditional language of the Shuswap people (Shuswap: Secwépemc) of British Columbia.

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Siamese twins (linguistics)

Siamese twins (also irreversible binomials, binomials, binomial pairs, nonreversible word pairs, or freezes) in the context of the English language refer to a pair or group of words used together as an idiomatic expression or collocation, usually conjoined by the words and or or.

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Sichuanese dialects

Sichuanese (Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi.

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Singulative number

In linguistics, singulative number and collective number (abbreviated and) are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item.

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Sirionó

The Sirionó are an indigenous people of Bolivia.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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South Africa national football team

The South Africa men's national football team represents South Africa in association football and is controlled by the South African Football Association, the governing body for football in South Africa.

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Southern Min

Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swiss German

Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syntactic gemination

Syntactic gemination, or syntactic doubling, is an external sandhi phenomenon in Italian, Finnish and some Western Romance languages.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tautonym

A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example Rattus rattus.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Telugu language

Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.

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Temiar language

Temiar is a Central Aslian (Mon–Khmer) language spoken in Western Malaysia by the Temiar people.

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Tetum language

Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.

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Tillamook language

Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook people in northwestern Oregon, United States.

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Tohono O'odham

The Tohono O’odham are a Native American people of the Sonoran Desert, residing primarily in the U.S. state of Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.

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Tone sandhi

Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.

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Transliteration

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turramurra

Turramurra is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.

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Twi

Twi (pronounced, or Akan Kasa) is a dialect of the Akan language spoken in southern and central Ghana by about 6–9 million Ashanti people as a first and second language.

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Tz’utujil language

Tz'utujil is a Mayan language spoken by the Tz'utujil people in the region to the south of Lake Atitlán in Guatemala.

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University of Graz

The University of Graz (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz), located in Graz, Austria, is the largest and oldest university in Styria, as well as the second-largest and second-oldest university in Austria.

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Wagga Wagga

Wagga Wagga (informally called Wagga) is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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Wiradjuri

The Wiradjuri people) are a group of indigenous Australian Aboriginal people that were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups or clans scattered throughout central New South Wales. In the 21st century, major Wiradjuri groups live in Condobolin, Peak Hill, Narrandera and Griffith. There are significant populations at Wagga Wagga and Leeton and smaller groups at West Wyalong, Parkes, Dubbo, Forbes, Cootamundra, Cowra and Young.

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Woolloomooloo

Woolloomooloo is a harbourside, inner-city eastern suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Word

In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

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Word stem

In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.

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Wuvulu-Aua language

The Wuvulu-Aua language is spoken on Wuvulu and Aua Islands by approximately 1500 people scattered around the Manus Province of Papua New Guinea.

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Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Zambia national football team

The Zambia national football team represents Zambia in association football and is governed by the Football Association of Zambia (FAZ).

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Zinedine Zidane

Zinedine Yazid Zidane (born 23 June 1972), nicknamed "Zizou", is a French professional football coach and former player who last managed Real Madrid.

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Austronesian reduplication, Dupleme, Duplifix, Reduplicant, Reduplicate, Reduplicated, Reduplicated babbling, Reduplication hypothesis, Reduplications, Reduplicative, Triplication.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reduplication

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