36 relations: Air separation, Atmosphere of Earth, Bell Labs, Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Continuous distillation, Crystal, Distillation, Electronics, Float-zone silicon, Fractional distillation, Gas, Germanium, Liquid, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of purification methods in chemistry, Metal, Natural resource, Natural-gas processing, Oil refinery, Ore, Petroleum, Refining (glass), Refining (metallurgy), Salt, Semiconductor, Silicon, Solid, Solution, Solvent, Sugar, Theory of forms, Vegetable oil, Wafer (electronics), William Gardner Pfann, Zone melting.
An air separation plant separates atmospheric air into its primary components, typically nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes also argon and other rare inert gases.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Continuous distillation, a form of distillation, is an ongoing separation in which a mixture is continuously (without interruption) fed into the process and separated fractions are removed continuously as output streams.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Float-zone silicon is very pure silicon obtained by vertical zone melting.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Purification in a chemical context is the physical separation of a chemical substance of interest from foreign or contaminating substances.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Refining is the removal of bubbles from the molten glass.
In metallurgy, refining consists of purifying an impure metal.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
William Gardner Pfann (commonly called Bill; October 27, 1917 – October 22, 1982) was an inventor and materials scientist with Bell Labs.
Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.