90 relations: Acoustic space, Acoustics, Anti-reflective coating, Architectural acoustics, Beryllium, Cell (biology), Classical electromagnetism, Corner reflector, Crust (geology), Crystallite, Curved mirror, Dielectric, Diffraction, Diffuse reflection, Dipole antenna, Earth, Earthquake, Echo, Electromagnetic radiation, Energy, Espresso crema effect, Explosion, Fiber, Fresnel equations, Gamma ray, Glass, Grain boundary, Huygens–Fresnel principle, Image, Impedance matching, In-phase and quadrature components, Lambert's cosine law, Lambertian reflectance, Light, Luminance, Magnification, Maxwell's equations, Mirror, Mirror image, Natural gas, Negative refraction, Neutron, Neutron reflectometry, Noise barrier, Noise control, Nonlinear optics, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Optical aberration, Optical medium, ..., Optical power, Parabolic reflector, Petroleum, Phase (waves), Project Echo, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantum electrodynamics, Radar, Radiance, Radio, Reflectance, Reflection coefficient, Reflection seismology, Refraction, Refractive index, Retina, Richard Feynman, Ripple tank, Seismic wave, Seismology, Signal reflection, Skin effect, Snell's law, Sonar, Sound, Specular reflection, Sphere, Structure of the Earth, Sun glitter, Surface wave, Tapetum lucidum, Thin-film optics, Torus, Total internal reflection, Transparency and translucency, Very high frequency, Wavefront, Wind wave, X-ray, X-ray telescope. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic space is an acoustic environment in which sound can be heard by an observer.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
An antireflective or anti-reflection (AR) coating is a type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection.
Architectural acoustics (also known as room acoustics and building acoustics) is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a building and is a branch of acoustical engineering.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
A corner reflector is a retroreflector consisting of three mutually perpendicular, intersecting flat surfaces, which reflects waves back directly towards the source, but translated.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet is the simplest and most widely used class of antenna.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
In audio signal processing and acoustics, Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In materials science, the espresso crema effect is an analogue model for superficial material alteration.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical media.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.
In electrical engineering, a sinusoid with angle modulation can be decomposed into, or synthesized from, two amplitude-modulated sinusoids that are offset in phase by one-quarter cycle (/2 radians).
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ between the direction of the incident light and the surface normal.
Lambertian reflectance is the property that defines an ideal "matte" or diffusely reflecting surface.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
Magnification is the process of enlarging the appearance, not physical size, of something.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
A mirror image (in a plane mirror) is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Negative refraction is the name for an electromagnetic phenomenon where light rays are refracted at an interface in the reverse sense to that normally expected.
Neutron reflectometry is a neutron diffraction technique for measuring the structure of thin films, similar to the often complementary techniques of X-ray reflectivity and ellipsometry.
A noise barrier (also called a soundwall, noise wall, sound berm, sound barrier, or acoustical barrier) is an exterior structure designed to protect inhabitants of sensitive land use areas from noise pollution.
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.
An optical medium is material through which electromagnetic waves propagate.
Optical power (also referred to as dioptric power, refractive power, focusing power, or convergence power) is the degree to which a lens, mirror, or other optical system converges or diverges light.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
Project Echo was the first passive communications satellite experiment.
QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
In physics and electrical engineering the reflection coefficient is a parameter that describes how much of an electromagnetic wave is reflected by an impedance discontinuity in the transmission medium.
Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
In physics and engineering, a ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used in schools and colleges to demonstrate the basic properties of waves.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber.
Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Sun glitter is a bright, sparkling light formed when sunlight reflects from water waves.
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.
The tapetum lucidum (Latin: "bright tapestry; coverlet", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates.
Thin-film optics is the branch of optics that deals with very thin structured layers of different materials.
In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
An X-ray telescope (XRT) is a telescope that is designed to observe remote objects in the X-ray spectrum.
Abnormal reflection, Angle of Reflection, Angle of reflection, Laws of reflection, Reflected light, Reflection (optics), Reflection (physics, Reflection of Light, Reflection of electromagnetic radiation, Reflection of light, Reflection of sound, Reflective, Sound reflection.