264 relations: Aaron Bernstein, Aaron Chorin, Abraham Geiger, Acculturation, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Ahad Ha'am, Albany, New York, Alexander Kohut, Alexander M. Schindler, American Civil Liberties Union, American Jewish Committee, Amoraim, Amsterdam, Arad, Romania, Ashkenazi Jews, Augsburg, Australia, Auto-Emancipation, Av HaRachamim, Aviad Hacohen, Azriel Hildesheimer, Baltic states, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Belarus, Birmingham Temple, Bohemia, Braunschweig, Brit milah, Brodsky Synagogue Odessa, Bundism, Burnt offering (Judaism), Cantor in Reform Judaism, Central Conference of American Rabbis, Charleston, South Carolina, Chernihiv, Christian mission, Chuppah, Cincinnati, Circumcision, Civil rights movement, Claude Montefiore, Cleveland, Cold War, Columbus, Ohio, Commonwealth of Independent States, Confirmation, Congregação Israelita Paulista, Congregation Beth Adam, Conservative Judaism, Cultural Judaism, ..., Dana Evan Kaplan, David Einhorn (rabbi), David Ellenson, David Friedländer, David Woolf Marks, Deism, Democratic Party (United States), Denise Eger, Dina d'malkhuta dina, Early Modern Spanish, East Coast of the United States, Ethical movement, Eugene Borowitz, Existentialism, Felix Adler (professor), First Things, Frankfurt, Franz Rosenzweig, Gates of Prayer, Gathering of Israel, General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, German Confederation, German Empire, German idealism, Get (divorce document), Grand Sanhedrin, Great Assembly, Great Depression, Great Synagogue, Warsaw, Gustav Gottheil, Gustavus Poznanski, Halakha, Halizah, Hamburg Temple, Hamburg Temple disputes, Har Sinai Congregation, Haskalah, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Heinemann Vogelstein, Historical criticism, Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Humanistic Judaism, Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Indiana University Press, Interfaith marriage in Judaism, Isaac Bernays, Isaac Harby, Isaac Leeser, Isaac Mayer Wise, Isaac Noah Mannheimer, Israel, Israel Abrahams, Israel Jacobson, Israel Movement for Reform and Progressive Judaism, Israel Religious Action Center, Israelite Central Consistory of France, Jack Wertheimer, Jakob Josef Petuchowski, Jerusalem, Jewish Buddhist, Jewish emancipation, Jewish ethics, Jewish existentialism, Jewish Ideas Daily, Jewish Publication Society, Jewish religious movements, Jewish secularism, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Jewish views on marriage, Jews as the chosen people, Joan Friedman, Jonathan Romain, Jonathan Sarna, Judaism, Judaism as a Civilization, Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim, Kantianism, Karaite Judaism, Kashrut, Kaufmann Kohler, Kingdom of Westphalia, Kippah, Kohen, Kol Nidre, Kulturkampf, Labor Zionism, Lashon Hakodesh, Lazarus Bendavid, Leberecht Uhlich, Leipzig, Leo Baeck, LGBT, Liberal Jewish Movement of France, Liberal Judaism (United Kingdom), Lily Montagu, Ludwig Philippson, Martin Buber, Matrilineality in Judaism, Maurice Eisendrath, Max Dienemann, Melbourne, Messiah in Judaism, Messianic Judaism, Michael Sachs, Midrash halakha, Midwestern United States, Mikveh, Minhag, Minsk, Mishkan T'filah, Mishnah, Moravia, Mordecai Kaplan, Moshe Schick, Moshe Zemer, Movement for Reform Judaism, Multiculturalism, Napoleon, Nazi Germany, Nederlands Verbond voor Progressief Jodendom, Netherlands, North America, Oath More Judaico, Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism, Personal god, Pesach Sheni, Pew Research Center, Pharisees, Philadelphia, Pilpul, Pittsburgh Platform, Prague, Rabbi, Reconstructionist Judaism, Reform Judaism (magazine), Regina Jonas, Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism, Religious humanism, Religious liberalism, Resurrection of the dead, Revelation, Richard Jacobs (rabbi), Ritual washing in Judaism, Russia, Sabato Morais, Sadducees, Sally Priesand, Salomon Formstecher, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Samuel Adler (rabbi), Samuel Hirsch, Samuel Holdheim, Samuel S. Cohon, Sanhedrin, São Paulo, Secular humanism, Seesen, Sephardi Jews, Shavuot, Sherwin Wine, Shofar blowing, Solomon Freehof, Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport, Solomon Steinheim, Southern United States, Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Stacy Offner, Stadttempel, Steven M. Cohen, Syncretism, Tallit, Talmud, Tannaim, Tefillin, The Forward, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Theism, Third Temple, Tikkun olam, Tisha B'Av, Torah, Torah im Derech Eretz, Transgender, Triennial cycle, Tumah and taharah, Ukraine, Union for Reform Judaism, Union Libérale Israélite de France, Union of Progressive Jews in Germany, Union Prayer Book, Unitarianism, United Kingdom, United Synagogue, University of Nebraska Press, Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, Vienna, Vormärz, Walter Jacob, West London Synagogue, Wiesbaden, Wissenschaft des Judentums, World to come, World Union for Progressive Judaism, World War II, Wrocław, Yeshiva, Yiddish, Yom tov sheni shel galuyot, Zecharias Frankel, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (214 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron David Bernstein (6 April 1812, Danzig12 February 1884, Berlin) was a German Jewish author, reformer and scientist.
Aaron Chorin (אהרן חארין; August 3, 1766August 24, 1844) was a Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of early religious reform.
Abraham Geiger (24 May 181023 October 1874) was a German rabbi and scholar, considered the founding father of Reform Judaism.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (18 August 1856 – 2 January 1927), primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name, Ahad Ha'am (אחד העם, lit. one of the people, Genesis 26:10), was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alexander (Chanoch Yehuda) Kohut (April 22, 1842 – May 25, 1894) was a rabbi and orientalist.
Alexander Moshe Schindler (October 4, 1925–November 15, 2000) was a rabbi and the leading figure of American Jewry and Reform Judaism during the 1970s and 1980s.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Arad (Arad; Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the region of Crișana, and having recently extended on the left bank of the Mureș river, in Banat region of western Romania.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The book "Auto-Emancipation" by Pinsker, 1882 Auto-Emancipation (Selbstemanzipation) is an early Zionist pamphlet written in German by Russian-Polish Jewish doctor and activist Leo Pinsker in 1882.
Av Harachamim or Abh Haraḥamim ("Father mercy" or "Merciful Father") is a Jewish memorial prayer which was written in the late eleventh or early twelfth century, after the destruction of the Ashkenazi communities around the Rhine River by Christian crusaders during the First Crusade.
Aviad Hacohen (1962 -) is an Israeli attorney and professor of law.
Azriel Hildesheimer (also Esriel and Israel, עזריאל הילדעסהיימער; 11 May 1820 – 12 July 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Birmingham Temple was the first Humanistic Jewish congregation.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
The brit milah (בְּרִית מִילָה,; Ashkenazi pronunciation:, "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish pronunciation: bris) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life.
The Brodsky Synagogue in Odessa was built by the Jews from Brody in 1863 in Odessa, Ukraine.
Bundism was a secular Jewish socialist movement, whose organizational manifestation was the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Litah, Poyln un Rusland), founded in the Russian Empire in 1897.
A burnt offering in Judaism (קָרְבַּן עוֹלָה, korban olah), is a form of sacrifice first described in the Hebrew Bible.
The cantor (חַזָּן hazzan) in the Reform movement is a clergy member who fills a diverse role within the Jewish community.
The Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), founded in 1889 by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, is the principal organization of Reform rabbis in the United States and Canada.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
A chuppah (חוּפָּה, pl. חוּפּוֹת, chuppot, literally, "canopy" or "covering"), also huppah, chipe, chupah, or chuppa, is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore (1858–1938) was son of Nathaniel Montefiore, and the great-nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.
The Congregação Israelita Paulista (São Paulo Israelite Congregation) in São Paulo, is the largest synagogue in Latin America, serving more than 1500 people.
Congregation Beth Adam is a Jewish congregation located in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Cultural Judaism encourages individual thought and understanding in Judaism.
Dana Evan Kaplan (born October 29, 1960) is a Reform rabbi known for his writings on Reform Judaism and American Judaism.
David Einhorn (November 10, 1809November 2, 1879) was a German rabbi and leader of Reform Judaism in the United States.
David Ellenson is an American rabbi and academic who is known as a leader of the Reform movement in Judaism.
David Friedländer (sometimes spelled Friedlander; 16 December 1750, Königsberg – 25 December 1834, Berlin) was a German Jewish banker, writer and communal leader.
Reverend David Woolf Marks (22 November 1811 – 3 May 1909) was a Hebrew scholar and minister.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Denise Leese (Davida) Eger (born March 14, 1960) is an American Reform rabbi.
Dina d'malkhuta dina (alternative spelling: dina de-malkhuta dina) (דִּינָא דְּמַלְכוּתָא דִּינָא, "the law of the land is the law"), is a rabbinic dictum based on the halakhic rule that the law of the country is binding, and, in certain cases, is to be preferred to Jewish law.
Early Modern Spanish (also called classical Spanish or Golden Age Spanish, especially in literary contexts) is the variant of Spanish used between the end of the fifteenth century and the end of the seventeenth century, marked by a series of phonological and grammatical changes that transformed Old Spanish into Modern Spanish.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).
Eugene B. Borowitz (February 20, 1924 – January 22, 2016) was an American leader and philosopher in Reform Judaism, known largely for his work on Jewish theology and Jewish ethics.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Felix Adler (August 13, 1851 – April 24, 1933) was a German American professor of political and social ethics, rationalist, influential lecturer on euthanasia, religious leader and social reformer who founded the Ethical Culture movement.
First Things is an ecumenical, conservative and, in some views, neoconservative religious journal aimed at "advanc a religiously informed public philosophy for the ordering of society".
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Rosenzweig (December 25, 1886 – December 10, 1929) was a German Jewish theologian, philosopher, and translator.
Gates of Prayer, the New Union Prayer Book (GOP) is a Reform Jewish siddur that was announced in October 1975 as a replacement for the 80-year-old Union Prayer Book (UPB), incorporating more Hebrew content and was updated to be more accessible to modern worshipers.
The Gathering of Israel (קיבוץ גלויות, Kibbutz Galuyot (Biblical: Qibbuṣ Galuyoth), lit. Ingathering of the Exiles, also known as Ingathering of the Jewish diaspora) is the biblical promise of given by Moses to the people of Israel prior to their entrance into the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael).
The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches (GAUFCC or colloquially British Unitarians) is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christians and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
A get or gett (גט, plural gittin גיטין) is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce.
The Grand Sanhedrin was a Jewish high court convened in Europe by Napoleon I to give legal sanction to the principles expressed by the Assembly of Notables in answer to the twelve questions submitted to it by the government.
According to Jewish tradition the Great Assembly (כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה) or Anshei Knesset HaGedolah (אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה, "The Men of the Great Assembly"), also known as the Great Synagogue, or Synod, was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets since the early Second Temple period to the early Hellenistic period.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Synagogue of Warsaw (Wielka Synagoga w Warszawie) was one of the grandest buildings constructed in Poland in the 19th century and at the time of its opening was the largest synagogue in the world.
Gustav Gottheil (May 28, 1827, Pinne/Pniewy, Grand Duchy of Posen, Prussia – April 15, 1903, New York City) was a Prussian born American rabbi.
Gustavus Poznanski (1804-1879) was cantor and religious leader in Congregation Beth Elohim, Charleston, a pioneer of Reform Judaism in the Antebellum South.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Halizah (or Chalitzah; חליצה) is, under the Biblical system of levirate marriage known as Yibbum, the process by which a childless widow and a brother of her deceased husband may avoid the duty to marry.
The Hamburg Temple (Israelitischer Tempel) was first permanent Reform synagogue and the first ever to have a Reform prayer rite.
The Hamburg Temple disputes (Hamburger Tempelstreite) were the two controversies which erupted around the Israelite Temple in Hamburg, the first permanent Reform synagogue, which elicited fierce protests from Orthodox rabbis.
Har Sinai Congregation is a Reform Jewish synagogue located in Owings Mills, Maryland.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC, HUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is a Jewish seminary with several locations in the United States and one location in Jerusalem.
Heinemann Vogelstein (February 13, 1841 - August 4, 1911) was a German rabbi and leader of Reform Judaism in Germany.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, or Higher Institute for Jewish Studies, was a rabbinical seminary, established in Berlin in 1872 and closed down by the Nazi government of Germany in 1942.
Humanistic Judaism (Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Interfaith marriage in Judaism (also called mixed marriage or intermarriage) was historically looked upon with very strong disfavour by Jewish leaders, and it remains a controversial issue among them today.
Isaac Bernays Isaac Bernays (29 September 1792, Weisenau – 1 May 1849, Hamburg) was chief rabbi in Hamburg.
Isaac Harby (1788-1828) was an early 19th-century teacher, playwright, literary critic, journalist and newspaper editor and advocate of reforms in Judaism in Charleston, South Carolina.
Isaac Leeser (December 12, 1806 – February 1, 1868) was an American, Ashkenazi Jewish religious leader, teacher, scholar and publisher.
Isaac Mayer Wise (29 March 1819, Steingrub (now Lomnička), Moravia, Austrian Empire – 26 March 1900, Cincinnati), was an American Reform rabbi, editor, and author.
Isaac Noah Mannheimer (October 17, 1793, Copenhagen – March 17, 1865, Vienna) was a Jewish preacher.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Abrahams, MA (honoris causa) (b. London, November 26, 1858; d. Cambridge, October 6, 1925) was one of the most distinguished Jewish scholars of his generation.
Israel Jacobson (17 October 1768, Halberstadt – 14 September 1828, Berlin) was a German-Jewish philanthropist and communal organiser.
The Israel Movement for Reform and Progressive Judaism (or the IMPJ, התנועה הרפורמית - יהדות מתקדמת בישראל.) is the organizational branch of Progressive Judaism in Israel, and a member organization of the World Union for Progressive Judaism.
The Israel Religious Action Center (Hebrew: המרכז לפלורליזם יהודי) also known as IRAC, was established in 1987 as the public and legal advocacy arm of the Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism.
The Israelite Central Consistory of France (Consistoire central israélite de France) is an institution set up by Napoleon I by the Imperial Decree of 17 March 1808 to administer Jewish worship and congregations in France.
Jack Wertheimer is a Professor of American Jewish History at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, the flagship yeshiva of Conservative Judaism.
Jakob Josef Petuchowski (1925 – 1991) was an American research professor of Jewish Theology and Liturgy and professor of Judeo-Christian Studies at the Jewish Institute of Religion at Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
A Jubu (also Jewish Buddhist, Jewbu, Jew-Bu, Jewboo, Buju, etc.) is a person, very often American, with a Jewish background, who practices forms of Buddhist-linked meditation and spirituality.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish religion and peoples.
Jewish existentialism is a category of work by Jewish authors dealing with existentialist themes and concepts (e.g. debate about the existence of God and the meaning of human existence), and intended to answer theological questions that are important in Judaism.
The Jewish Ideas Daily was a website which reported on news, culture and political issues relating to Judaism and Israel.
The Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jewish secularism comprises the non-religious Jewish people and the body of work produced by them.
The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a religious education organization located in New York, New York.
In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.
Joan Friedman became the first woman to serve as a rabbi in Canada in 1980, when she was appointed as an Assistant Rabbi at Holy Blossom Temple in Toronto.
Jonathan Anidjar Romain MBE (born Hampstead, London, England, 24 August 1954) is a writer and broadcaster and minister of Maidenhead Synagogue in Berkshire, England.
Jonathan D. Sarna (born 10 January 1955) is the Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Professor of American Jewish History in the department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts and director of its Hornstein Jewish Professional Leadership Program.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life is a 1934 work on Judaism and American Jewish life by Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism.
Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim (קהל קדוש בית אלוהים, also known as K. K. Beth Elohim, or more simply Congregation Beth Elohim), founded in 1749, is one of the oldest Jewish congregations in the United States.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kaufmann Kohler (May 10, 1843 – January 28, 1926) was a German-born U.S. reform rabbi and theologian.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a kingdom in Germany, with a population of 2.6 million, that existed from 1807 to 1813.
A kippah (also spelled as kippa, kipah; כִּיפָּה, plural: kippot; קאפל koppel or יאַרמולקע) or) is a brimless cap, usually made of cloth, worn by Jews to fulfill the customary requirement held by Orthodox halachic authorities that the head be covered.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
Kol Nidre (also known as Kol Nidrey or Kol Nidrei) (Aramaic: כָּל נִדְרֵי) is an Aramaic declaration recited in the synagogue before the beginning of the evening service on every Yom Kippur.
Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") is a German term referring to power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת סוֹצְיָאלִיסְטִית, translit. tziyonut sotzyalistit) is the left-wing of the Zionist movement.
Lashon Hakodesh (לָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ; lit. "the tongue holiness" or "the Holy Tongue"), also spelled L'shon Hakodesh or Leshon Hakodesh (לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ), is a Jewish term and appellation attributed to the Hebrew language, or sometimes to a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, in which its religious texts and prayers were written, and served, during the Medieval Hebrew era, for religious purposes, liturgy and Halakha – in contrary to the secular tongue, which served for the routine daily needs, such as the Yiddish language.
Lazarus Bendavid (18 October 1762 in Berlin – 28 March 1832 in Berlin) was a Jewish German mathematician and philosopher known for his exposition of Kantian philosophy.
Leberecht Uhlich (1799–1872) was a German clergyman and one of the founders of the German Free Congregations.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leo Baeck (23 May 1873 – 2 November 1956) was a 20th-century German rabbi, scholar and theologian.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
The Liberal Jewish Movement of France or MJLF is a Jewish liberal cultural and religious association affiliated with the World Union for Progressive Judaism.
Liberal Judaism (until 2002: Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues) is one of the two WUPJ-affiliated denominations in the United Kingdom.
Ludwig Philippson (28 December 1811, at Dessau – 29 December 1889, at Bonn) was a German rabbi and author, the son of Moses Philippson, a printer, writer, teacher, translator, publisher and a member of Haskala, an intellectual movement dedicated to the overcoming the ignorance and religious formalism of Jews.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Matrilineality in Judaism or matrilineal descent in Judaism is the tracing of Jewish descent through the maternal line.
Maurice Nathan Eisendrath (July 10, 1902 – November 11, 1973) was a leader of American Reform Judaism, the head of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations from 1943 until his death, an author, and an activist, particularly active in the U.S. Anti-war Movement of the 1960s.
Max Dienemann (September 27, 1875 - April 10, 1939) was a German rabbi, publicist and philologist.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Messianic Judaism is a modern syncretic religious movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the belief that Jesus is the Messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition, its current form emerging in the 1960s and 1970s.
Michael Sachs (3 September 1808 – 31 January 1864) was a German rabbi from Groß-Glogau, Silesia.
Midrash halakha (הֲלָכָה) was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Minhag (מנהג "custom", pl. מנהגים, minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Mishkan T'filah—A Reform Siddur is a prayer book prepared for Reform Jewish congregations around the world by the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR).
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881 – November 8, 1983), was a rabbi, essayist and Jewish educator and the co-founder of Reconstructionist Judaism along with his son-in-law Ira Eisenstein.
Moshe Schick (1 March 1807 – 25 January 1879;, alternatively spelled as Shick, Shik, Shieck) was a prominent Hungarian Orthodox rabbi.
Moshe Zemer (Born Melvin Ray Zager) (January 1, 1932-November 3, 2011) was a Reform Rabbi in Israel between 1963-2011.
Reform Judaism (formally, The Movement for Reform Judaism and, until 2005, known as Reform Synagogues of Great Britain) is one of the two World Union for Progressive Judaism-affiliated denominations in Britain.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nederlands Verbond voor Progressief Jodendom (Dutch Union for Progressive Judaism; until 2006: Verbond voor Liberaal-Religieuze Joden in Nederland, Union for Liberal-Religious Jews in the Netherlands) is the umbrella organisation for Progressive Jews in the Netherlands, and is affiliated to the World Union for Progressive Judaism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Oath More Judaico or Jewish Oath was a special form of oath, rooted in antisemitsm and accompanied by certain ceremonies and often intentionally humiliating, painful or dangerous, that Jews were required to take in European courts of law until the 20th century.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".
Pesach Sheni (Hebrew: פסח שני, trans. Second Passover) occurs every year on 14 Iyar.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Hebrew term pilpul (פלפול, from "pepper," loosely meaning "sharp analysis") refers to a method of studying the Talmud through intense textual analysis in attempts to either explain conceptual differences between various halakhic rulings or to reconcile any apparent contradictions presented from various readings of different texts.
The Pittsburgh Platform is a pivotal 1885 document in the history of the American Reform Movement in Judaism that called for Jews to adopt a modern approach to the practice of their faith.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism was the official magazine of the Union for Reform Judaism.
Regina Jonas (3 August 1902 – 12 October/12 December 1944) was a Berlin-born rabbi.
The Religious Action Center (RAC) is the political and legislative outreach arm of Reform Judaism in the United States.
Religious humanism is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with congregational but non-theistic rituals and community activity which center on human needs, interests, and abilities.
Religious liberalism is a conception of religion (or of a particular religion) which emphasizes personal and group liberty and rationality.
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν, anastasis nekron; literally: "standing up again of the dead"; is a term frequently used in the New Testament and in the writings and doctrine and theology in other religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life). In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to (1) the Christ, rising from the dead; (2) the rising from the dead of all men, at the end of this present age and (3) the resurrection of certain ones in history, who were restored to life. Predominantly in Christian eschatology, the term is used to support the belief that the dead will be brought back to life in connection with end times. Various other forms of this concept can also be found in other eschatologies, namely: Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views, this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life, Death, and the Realm of the Divine; e.g.: Christopaganism. See Christianity and Neopaganism.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Richard "Rick" (Reuben Jacob) Jacobs is a Reform rabbi and the president of the Union for Reform Judaism (URJ), the congregational arm of the Reform movement in North America which represents an estimated 1.5 million Reform Jews in nearly 900 synagogues across the United States and Canada.
In Judaism, ritual washing, or ablution, takes two main forms.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sabato Morais (שבתאי מוראיס; April 13, 1823 – November 11, 1897) was an Italian-American rabbi, leader of Mikveh Israel Synagogue, pioneer of Italian Jewish Studies in America, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Sally Jane Priesand (born June 27, 1946) is America's first female rabbi ordained by a rabbinical seminary, and the second formally ordained female rabbi in Jewish history, after Regina Jonas.
Salomon Formstecher, in English also Solomon, (1808 - 1889) was a German rabbi and student of Jewish theology.
Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.
Samuel Adler (December 3, 1809 in Worms, Germany – June 9, 1891 in New York City) was a leading German-American Reform rabbi, Talmudist, and author.
Samuel Hirsch, (June 8, 1815 – May 14, 1889) was a major Reform religious philosopher and rabbi.
Samuel Holdheim (1806 – 22 August 1860) was a German rabbi and author, and one of the more extreme leaders of the early Reform Movement in Judaism.
Samuel Solomon Cohon (22 March 1888 – 22 August 1959) was a rabbi and Chair of Theology at Hebrew Union College, a prominent leader of American Reform Judaism in the mid-20th Century.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Seesen is a town and municipality in the district of Goslar, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.
Sherwin Theodore Wine (January 25, 1928 – July 21, 2007) was a rabbi and a founding figure in Humanistic Judaism.
The blowing of the shofar (תקיעת שופר), or ram's horn, on Rosh Hashanah – although not exclusively limited to a ram's horn, as almost any natural bovid horn serves the purpose, excepting a cow's horn, is an injunction that is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Leviticus 23:24) in undefined terms, without divulging how this was to be done: Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns, a holy convocation.
Solomon Bennett Freehof (August 8, 1892 – 1990) was a prominent Reform rabbi, posek, and scholar.
Solomon Judah Löb HaKohen Rapoport (June 1, 1786 – October 15, 1867) (Hebrew: שלמה יהודה כהן רפאפורט), was a Galician rabbi and Jewish scholar.
Solomon Ludwig (Levy) Steinheim (pseudonym: Abadjah Ben Amos; 1789–1866) was a German physician, poet, and philosopher.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.
Stacy Offner is an openly lesbian American rabbi.
The Stadttempel (City Prayer House), also called the Seitenstettengasse Temple, is the main synagogue of Vienna, Austria.
Steven M. Cohen (born April 3, 1950) is an American sociologist whose work focuses on the American Jewish Community.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
The Forward (Forverts), formerly known as The Jewish Daily Forward, is an American magazine published monthly in New York City for a Jewish-American audience.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe is a two-volume, English-language reference work on the history and culture of Eastern Europe Jewry in this region, prepared by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and published by Yale University Press in 2008.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
If built, the Third Temple (בית המקדש השלישי, Beit haMikdash haShlishi, literally: The House, the Holy, the Third) would be the third Jewish temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's Temple and the rebuilt Second Temple.
Tikkun olam (תיקון עולם (literally, "repair of the world", alternatively, "construction for eternity") is a concept in Judaism, interpreted in Orthodox Judaism as the prospect of overcoming all forms of idolatry, and by other Jewish denominations as an aspiration to behave and act constructively and beneficially. Documented use of the term dates back to the Mishnaic period. Since medieval times, kabbalistic literature has broadened use of the term. In the modern era, among the post Haskalah Ashkenazi movements, tikkun olam is the idea that Jews bear responsibility not only for their own moral, spiritual, and material welfare, but also for the welfare of society at large. To the ears of contemporary pluralistic Rabbis, the term connotes "the establishment of Godly qualities throughout the world".
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ – Torah with "the way of the land"Rabbi Y. Goldson, Aish HaTorah) is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808–88), which formalizes a relationship between traditionally observant Judaism and the modern world.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
The Triennial cycle of Torah reading may refer either a) to the historical practice in ancient Israel by which the entire Torah was read in serial fashion over a three-year period, or b) to the practice adopted by many Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist and Renewal congregations starting in the 19th and 20th Century, in which the traditional weekly Torah portions were divided into thirds, and in which one third of each weekly "parashah" of the annual system is read during the appropriate week of the calendar. There are 54 parashot in the annual cycle, and 141, 154, or 167 parashot in the triennial cycle as practiced in ancient Israel, as evidenced by scriptural references and fragments of recovered text. By the Middle Ages, the annual reading cycle was predominant, although the triennial cycle was still extant at the time, as noted by Jewish figures of the period, such as Benjamin of Tudela and Maimonides. Dating from Maimonides' codification of the parashot in his work Mishneh Torah in the 12th Century CE through the 19th Century, the majority of Jewish communities adhered to the annual cycle. In the 19th and 20th Centuries, many synagogues in the Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist and Renewal Jewish movements adopted a triennial system in order to shorten the weekly services and allow additional time for sermons, study, or discussion.
In Jewish law, ṭumah and ṭaharah) are the state of being ritually "impure" and "pure" respectively. The Hebrew noun ṭum'ah, meaning "impurity," describes a state of ritual impurity. A person or object which contracts ṭumah is said to be ṭamei (Hebrew adjective, "ritually impure"), and thereby unsuited for certain holy activities and utilisations (kedusha in Hebrew) until undergoing predefined purification actions that usually include the elapse of a specified time-period. The contrasting Hebrew noun ṭaharah (טָהֳרָה) describes a state of ritual purity that qualifies the ṭahor (טָהוֹר; ritually pure person or object) to be used for kedusha. The most common method of achieving ṭaharah is by the person or object being immersed in a mikveh (ritual bath). This concept is connected with ritual washing in Judaism, and both ritually impure and ritually pure states have parallels in ritual purification in other world religions. The laws of ṭumah and ṭaharah were generally followed by the Israelites, particularly during the First and Second Temple Period, and to a limited extent are a part of applicable halakha in modern times.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Union for Reform Judaism (until 2003: Union of American Hebrew Congregations), is the congregational arm of Reform Judaism in North America, founded in 1873 by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise.
The Union Libérale Israélite de France (ULIF), commonly referred to as the rue Copernic synagogue, is a Liberal Jewish synagogue, located in Paris, France.
The Union progressiver Juden in Deutschland (UPJ; "Union of Progressive Jews in Germany") is a "Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts", a publicly chartered association, founded in 1997 as the congregational arm of Liberal (also Progressive or Reform) Judaism in Germany.
The Union Prayer Book was a Siddur published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis to serve the needs of the Reform Judaism movement in the United States.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Synagogue is a union of British Orthodox Jewish synagogues, representing the central Orthodox movement in Judaism.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute (VLJI) is a center for the interdisciplinary study and discussion of issues related to philosophy, society, culture, and education.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vormärz (English: pre-March) was a period in the history of Germany preceding the 1848 March Revolution in the states of the German Confederation.
Walter Jacob (born 1930) U.S. Reform rabbi was born in Augsburg, Germany, and immigrated to the United States in 1940.
The West London Synagogue of British Jews, abbreviated WLS (ק"ק שער ציון, Kahal Kadosh Sha'ar Tziyon, "Holy Congregation Gate of Zion"), is a Reform synagogue and congregation near Marble Arch in London.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
"Wissenschaft des Judentums" ("Jewish Studies" or "Judaic Studies" in German) refers to a nineteenth-century movement premised on the critical investigation of Jewish literature and culture, including rabbinic literature, using scientific methods to analyze the origins of Jewish traditions.
The world to come, age to come, or heaven on Earth are eschatological phrases reflecting the belief that the current world or current age is flawed or cursed and will be replaced in the future by a better world, age, or paradise.
The World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ) is the international umbrella organization for the various branches of Reform, Liberal and Progressive Judaism, as well as the separate Reconstructionist Judaism.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yom tov sheni shel galuyot (יום טוב שני של גלויות), also called in short yom tov sheni, means "the second festival day in the Diaspora", and is an important concept in halakha (Jewish law).
Zecharias Frankel, also known as Zacharias Frankel (30 September 1801 – 13 February 1875) was a Bohemian-German rabbi and a historian who studied the historical development of Judaism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
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