339 relations: Aerodrom (band), African reggae, Alborosie, Alexander Barykin, Allen Toussaint, Alpha Blondy, Alton Ellis, Anti-capitalism, Anti-racism, Apartheid, Astronomy Class, Aswad, Atlantic Records, Šarlo Akrobata, B.R. Stylers, Bar (music), Bass guitar, Bassline, Beat (music), Beenie Man, Benicàssim, Billboard Hot 100, Birmingham, Bitty McLean, Black and White (Three Dog Night song), Black Missionaries, Black nationalism, Black Uhuru, Blue King Brown, Bob Marley, Bob Marley and the Wailers, Bongo drum, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bounty Killer, Brass instrument, Brazil, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Buju Banton, Bunny Wailer, Burning Spear, Call and response (music), Calypso music, Can't Stop Won't Stop (book), Canada, Cannabis (drug), Cape Town, Capleton, Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, Carlton Barrett, Carroll Thompson, ..., Central Australia, Chicago, Chop chord, Chord (music), Chris Blackwell, Chronixx, Clancy Eccles, Claves, Clinton Cerejo, Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, Cockney, Coke Studio (India), Cologne, Colonialism, Count Ossie, Cover version, Coxsone Dodd, Croatia, Cross-beat, Crossover thrash, Cultura Profética, Dancehall, Darkwood Dub, Deejay (Jamaican), Del Arno Band, Delay (audio effect), Derrick Harriott, Desmond Dekker, Disc jockey, Do the Reggay, Don Letts, Drum and bass, Drum kit, Du Du A, Dub music, Dubioza kolektiv, Dubstep, Duke Reid, Duke University Press, Economic materialism, Electric organ, Elephant Man (musician), English language, Equalization (audio), Eric "Monty" Morris, Eric Clapton, Ethiopia, Eyesburn, Fat Freddy's Drop, Fats Domino, Funk, Gaudi (musician), Gentleman (musician), Germany, Giant Panda Guerilla Dub Squad, Gondwana (band), Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album, Gregory Isaacs, Guitar, Guyana, Hammond organ, Hardcore punk, Hauptstimme, Haustor, Hebrew language, Herbs (band), Hi-hat, Hip hop music, Hjálmar, Homophobia, Honolulu, Horace Andy, I Can See Clearly Now, I Shot the Sheriff, Inner city, Island Records, Israel Vibration, Italy, Ivory Coast, Iyaric, Izrael (band), Jackie Mittoo, Jah, Jamaica, Jamaican diaspora, Jamaican English, Jamaican Patois, Janet Kay, Japanese reggae, Jarocho, Jazz, Jeremy Marre, Jerry Dammers, Jimmy Cliff, Joe Gibbs (producer), John Brown's Body (band), John Holt (singer), John Peel, Johnny Nash, Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me), Kailash Kher, Kanda, Kodža i Nebojša, Katchafire, Kaya (album), Ken Boothe, King Tubby, Kingston Town (song), Kingston, Jamaica, Laboratorija Zvuka, Larry Marshall (singer), Laurence Cane-Honeysett, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Leslie Kong, Lira Vega, List of dub artists, List of reggae compilation albums, List of reggae festivals, List of reggae musicians, Lloyd Brevett, Lloyd Knibb, Lovers rock, Lucky Dube, Magic!, Majek Fashek, Major seventh chord, Malawi, Maranhão, Matisyahu, Maxi Priest, Mbaqanga, Melodica, Melody, Mento, Mexico, Miami, Michael de Koningh, Mighty Diamonds, Millie Small, Minor seventh chord, Misty in Roots, Mod (subculture), Montreal, Mother and Child Reunion, Motown, Music genre, Music of Guyana, Music of Hawaii, Music of Jamaica, Music of Mali, Music of Trinidad and Tobago, My Boy Lollipop, New wave music in Yugoslavia, New York City, New Zealand reggae, Nigerian reggae, Nyabinghi rhythm, Nyanga, Cape Town, Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da, One drop rhythm, Osoppo, Ostinato, Outlandos d'Amour, Papa Cidy, Patois, Paul Douglas (musician), Paul Simon, Percussion instrument, Peter Tosh, Piano, Piloti (band), Pinoy reggae, Pitura Freska, Polish reggae, Polyrhythm, Pop music, Popular music in Yugoslavia, Prince Buster, Punk rock, Ragga, Rastafari, Rebelution (band), Red Red Wine, Reggae en Español, Reggae fusion, Reggae genres, Reggae in Australia, Reggae rock, Reggaestep, Reggaeton, Rhythm, Rhythm and blues, Riddim, Rino Gaetano, Rock music, Rocksteady, Roots reggae, Rootvälta, Rototom Sunsplash, Rude (song), Salmonella Dub, Samba, Samba reggae, Saxon Studio International, São Luís, Maranhão, Seeed, Seggae, Serbia, Singer-songwriter, Sizzla, Ska, Ska stroke, Skank (dance), Skinhead, Slightly Stoopid, Sly and Robbie, Sly Dunbar, Smiley Culture, Snare drum, SOJA, Soul music, Sound system (Jamaican), South Africa, Southern California, Spain, Sri Lanka, Staccato, Steel Pulse, Steve Barrow, Stick Figure, Sticky Fingers (band), Stir It Up, Stop Murder Music, Sud Sound System, Sudan, Sugar Minott, Summerjam, Svenska Akademien (band), Swing (jazz performance style), Syncopation, Synthesizer, T.O.K., Thaikkudam Bridge, The Abyssinians, The Beatles, The Black Seeds, The Clash, The Harder They Come, The Independent, The Maytones, The Members, The Pioneers (band), The Police, The Roxy (Covent Garden), The Ruts, The Skatalites, The Slits, The Temptations, The Upsetters, Third World (band), This Is Your Brain on Music, Three Dog Night, Tiken Jah Fakoly, Timbales, Time (magazine), Time signature, Tippa Irie, Tom-tom drum, Toots and the Maytals, Toots Hibbert, Toronto, Tremolo, Trojan Records, Tuff Gong, Tuplet, Two-tone (music genre), UB40, Uganda, United Kingdom, Uppsala Reggae Festival, Venezuela, Veracruz, Vibrato, Vybz Kartel, Waiting in Vain, Washington, D.C., Winston Grennan, Xalapa, Yiddish, 45 rpm adapter. 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Aerodrom (also known as Jurica Pađen & Aerodrom) is a Croatian rock band from Zagreb.
There are many African reggae musicians with a wide fanbase both on the continent and abroad.
Alberto D'Ascola (born 4 July 1977), better known by his stage name Alborosie, or the Italian Reggae Ambassador, and sometimes styled as AlBorosie, is an Italian reggae artist.
Aleksander Aleksandrovich Barykin (Byrykin) (Александр Александрович Барыкин (Бырыкин); February 18, 1952 — March 26, 2011) was a Soviet and Russian singer and songwriter.
Allen Toussaint (January 14, 1938 – November 10, 2015) was an American musician, songwriter, arranger and record producer, who was an influential figure in New Orleans R&B from the 1950s to the end of the century, described as "one of popular music’s great backroom figures."Richard Williams,, The Guardian, November 11, 2015.
Alpha Blondy (born Seydou Koné; 1 January 1953 in Dimbokro, Ivory Coast) is a reggae singer and international recording artist.
Alton Nehemiah Ellis OD (1 September 1938 – 10 October 2008)"", Press Association, 11 October 2008 was a Jamaican singer-songwriter.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Astronomy Class are an Australian hip-hop / reggae group from Sydney.
Aswad are a long-lasting British reggae group, noted for adding strong R&B and soul influences to the reggae sound.
Atlantic Recording Corporation (simply known as Atlantic Records) is an American major record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson.
Šarlo Akrobata (Шарло Акробата; trans. Charlot the Acrobat, a Serbo-Croatian language version of Charlie Chaplin's name in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) were a seminal Serbian new wave/post-punk band from Belgrade.
B.R. Stylers is an Italian reggae dub band from Pordenone founded in 2000.
In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines.
The bass guitar (also known as electric bass, or bass) is a stringed instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).
In music and music theory, the beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level).
Anthony Moses Davis (born 22 August 1973), better known by his stage name Beenie Man, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall singer.
Benicàssim (Benicasim, بنو قاسم according to numismatic findings) is a municipality and beach resort located in the province of Castelló, on the Costa del Azahar in Spain.
The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for songs, published weekly by Billboard magazine.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Bitty McLean (born 8 August 1972, Birmingham, England) is a British/Jamaican reggae, lovers rock and ragga musician.
"Black and White" is a song written in 1954 by David I. Arkin and Earl Robinson.
black missionaries are a popular reggae band from the Malawi.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
Black Uhuru is a Jamaican reggae group formed in 1972, initially as Uhuru (Swahili for 'freedom').
Blue King Brown are an Australian urban roots ensemble formed in 2003 in Byron Bay by mainstays Nattali Rize and Carlo Santone.
Robert Nesta Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter who became an international musical and cultural icon, blending mostly reggae, ska, and rocksteady in his compositions.
Bob Marley and the Wailers was a Jamaican reggae band led by Bob Marley.
Bongos (Spanish: bongó) are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument consisting of a pair of small open bottomed drums of different sizes.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Rodney Basil Price (born 12 June 1972), known as Bounty Killer, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall deejay.
A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie; 15 July 1973)Larkin, Colin (1998) "The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae", Virgin Books, is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae musician.
Bunny Wailer (Neville O'Riley Livingston O.M., born 10 April 1947, also known as Bunny Livingston and affectionately Jah B), is a Jamaican singer songwriter and percussionist and was an original member of reggae group The Wailers along with Bob Marley and Peter Tosh.
Winston Rodney OD (born 1 March 1945), better known by the stage name Burning Spear, is a Jamaican roots reggae singer and musician.
In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually written in different parts of the music, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or in response to the first.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation is a book by Jeff Chang chronicling the early hip hop scene.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Clifton George Bailey III (born 13 April 1967),Thompson, Dave (2002) Reggae & Caribbean Music, Backbeat Books,, pp.
People of African descent from the Caribbean have made a significant contribution to British Black music for many generations.
Carlton "Carly" Barrett (17 December 1950 – 17 April 1987) was an influential reggae drummer and percussionist.
Carroll Thompson (born 1960) is a British lovers rock singer, best known for her work in the 1980s.
Central Australia, also known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
In music, a chop chord is a "clipped backbeat".
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.
Christopher Percy Gordon Blackwell (born 22 June 1937) is an English businessman and former record producer, and the founder of Island Records, which has been called "one of Britain's great independent labels".
Jamar McNaughton (born 10 October 1992), popularly known as Chronixx, is a Jamaican reggae artist.
Clancy Eccles (9 December 1940 in Dean Pen, St. Mary, Jamaica – 30 June 2005 in Spanish Town, Jamaica)Katz was a Jamaican ska and reggae singer, songwriter, arranger, promoter, record producer and talent scout.
Claves are a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short (about, thick dowels. Traditionally they are made of wood, typically rosewood, ebony or grenadilla. In modern times they are also made of fibreglass or plastics. When struck they produce a bright clicking noise. Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.
Clinton Cerejo is an Indian music producer, film composer and singer.
The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival (commonly referred to as Coachella or the Coachella Festival) is an annual music and arts festival held at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California, located in the Inland Empire's Coachella Valley in the Colorado Desert.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
Coke Studio India, officially titled Coke Studio @ MTV, is an Indian television series, which features live studio-recorded music performances by various artists.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Count Ossie, born Oswald Williams (1926 – 18 October 1976)Moskowitz, David V. (2006) Caribbean Popular Music: an Encyclopedia of Reggae, Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, and Dancehall, Greenwood Press,, p. 317-8 was a Jamaican Rastafari drummer and band leader.
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, or simply cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a previously recorded, commercially released song.
Clement Seymour "Sir Coxsone" Dodd CD (26 January 1932 – 5 May 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of ska and reggae in the 1950s, 1960s and beyond.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
In music, a cross-beat or cross-rhythm is a specific form of polyrhythm.
Crossover thrash (often abbreviated to crossover) is sub genre of thrash metal.
Cultura Profética (in English, Prophetic Culture) is a Puerto Rican reggae band formed in 1996.
Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s.
Darkwood Dub is an alternative rock band from Belgrade, Serbia, which, formed in 1988, gradually grew to prominence on the Serbian rock scene.
In Jamaican music, a deejay (DJ) is a reggae or dancehall musician who sings and "toasts" to an instrumental riddim.
Del Arno Band is a Serbian and former Yugoslav reggae band from Belgrade.
Delay is an audio effect and an effects unit which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, and then plays it back after a period of time.
Derrick Clifton Harriott (born 6 February 1939) is a Jamaican singer and record producer.
Desmond Dekker (16 July 1941 – 25 May 2006Thompson, Dave (2002) "Reggae & Caribbean Music", Backbeat Books,, Note: some sources list year of birth as 1942 or 1943) was a Jamaican ska, rocksteady and reggae singer-songwriter and musician.
A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.
"Do the Reggay" is a reggae song by The Maytals.
Donovan "Don" Letts (born) is a British film director, DJ and musician.
Drum and bass (also written as "drum 'n' bass" or "drum & bass"; commonly abbreviated as "D&B", "DnB" or "D'n'B"), is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s.
A drum kit — also called a drum set, trap set, or simply drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments, typically cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum.
Du Du A (Ду Ду А) was a Serbian alternative rock band from Belgrade.
Dub is a genre of music that grew out of reggae in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a subgenre,Dub: soundscapes and shattered songs in Jamaican reggae, p.2 though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae.
Dubioza Kolektiv, also known as Dubioza, is a Bosnian band known for their fresh take on hip-hop, reggae, dub, punk, rock and Bosnian folklore.
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in South London in the late 1990s.
Arthur "Duke" Reid CD (21 July 1915 – 1 January 1975) was a Jamaican record producer, DJ and label owner.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Materialism is a personal attitude which attaches importance to acquiring and consuming material goods.
An electric organ, also known as electronic organ, is an electronic keyboard instrument which was derived from the harmonium, pipe organ and theatre organ.
Oneal Bryan, better known by his stage name Elephant Man, (born September 11, 1975), is a Jamaican dancehall recording artist.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal.
Eric "Monty" Morris (born c.1942)Campbell, Howard (2016) "", Jamaica Observer, 12 November 2016.
Eric Patrick Clapton, (born 1945), is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eyesburn was a Serbian band which combined hardcore punk and crossover thrash with reggae music.
Fat Freddy's Drop is a New Zealand seven-piece band from Wellington, whose musical style has been characterised as any combination of dub, reggae, soul, jazz, rhythm and blues, and techno.
Antoine "Fats" Domino Jr. (February 26, 1928 – October 24, 2017) was an American pianist and singer-songwriter.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
Daniele Gaudi (born 12 July 1963 in Bologna, Italy) is a musician, composer, record producer and solo artist, based in London since 1995.
Tilmann Otto (born April 19, 1975 in Osnabrück, Germany), better known by his stage name Gentleman, is a German reggae musician.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giant Panda Guerilla Dub Squad is an American reggae and jam band from Rochester, New York, founded in 2004 and known for their live performances and authentic roots reggae and dub sound.
Gondwana is a reggae group from La Pincoya, Santiago, Chile, founded in 1987 by I-Locks Labbé.
The Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album is an award presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for quality works in the reggae music genre.
Gregory Anthony Isaacs OD (15 July 1951 – 25 October 2010)Thompson, p. 127.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Hammond organ is an electric organ, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935.
Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s.
In music, (German for primary voice) or is the main voice, chief part; i.e., the contrapuntal or melodic line of primary importance, in opposition to.
Haustor was a Yugoslav rock band from Zagreb, SR Croatia, a member of the new wave movement, and an important act of the former Yugoslav rock scene.
Herbs are a multi-cultural New Zealand reggae group, which since its foundation has featured Samoans, Tongans, Cook Islanders and Maori members.
A hi-hat, also spelled hihat or high-hat, is a combination of two cymbals, a foot-operated pedal which moves a rod which in turn moves one of the cymbals, all mounted on a metal stand.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Hjálmar is an Icelandic reggae band formed in 2004 in Keflavík.
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
Horace Andy (born Horace Hinds, 19 February 1951)Thompson, Dave (2002) "Reggae & Caribbean Music", Backbeat Books, is a Jamaican roots reggae songwriter and singer, known for his distinctive vocals and hit songs such as "Government Land", as well as "Angel" and "Five Man Army" with English trip hop duo Massive Attack.
"I Can See Clearly Now" is a song originally recorded by Johnny Nash.
"I Shot the Sheriff" is a song written by Bob Marley and released in 1973 by The Wailers.
The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.
Island Records is a British-Jamaican record label that operates as a division of Universal Music Group (UMG).
Israel Vibration are a reggae harmony group, originating from Kingston, Jamaica.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Iyaric, Livalect, Dread-talk or I-talk is a consciously created dialect of English in use among members of the Rastafari movement.
Izrael is one of the most popular and influential Polish reggae bands.
Donat Roy Mittoo (3 March 1948 – 16 December 1990), better known as Jackie Mittoo, was a Jamaican- Canadian keyboardist, songwriter and musical director.
Jah or Yah (יהּ Yah) is a short form of Yahweh (in consonantal spelling YHWH יהוה, called the Tetragrammaton), the proper name of God in the Hebrew Bible.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The Jamaican diaspora refers to the body of Jamaicans who have left the island of Jamaica, their dispersal and to a lesser extent the subsequent developments of their culture.
Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English spoken in Jamaica.
Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora; it is spoken by the majority of Jamaicans as a native language.
Janet Kay (born 17 January 1958) is a British vocalist best known for her 1979 lovers rock hit "Silly Games".
Japanese reggae is reggae music originating from Japan.
A jarocho is a person, item or style of music from the city of Veracruz, Mexico.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jeremy Marre is a television director, writer and producer who founded Harcourt Films and has worked extensively around the world.
Jeremy David Hounsell "Jerry" Dammers (born 22 May 1955) is a British musician who is a founder, keyboard player and primary songwriter of the Coventry, England based ska revival band The Specials, The Special A.K.A. and The Spatial AKA Orchestra.
James Chambers, OM (1 April 1948), known professionally as Jimmy Cliff, is a Jamaican ska and reggae musician, multi-instrumentalist, singer, and actor.
Joe Gibbs born Joel Arthur Gibson (14 October 1942 – 22 February 2008) was a Jamaican reggae producer.
John Brown's Body is an American reggae band from Boston, Massachusetts and Ithaca, New York.
John Kenneth Holt CD (11 July 1947 – 19 October 2014), better known as John Holt, was a reggae singer and songwriter from Jamaica who first found fame as a member of The Paragons, before establishing himself as a solo artist.
John Robert Parker Ravenscroft, (30 August 1939 – 25 October 2004), known professionally as John Peel, was an English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist.
John Lester "Johnny" Nash, Jr. (born August 19, 1940) is an American reggae and pop music singer-songwriter, best known in the US for his 1972 hit, "I Can See Clearly Now".
"Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)" is a song by American soul group The Temptations.
Kailash Kher is an Indian film music composer and pop - rock based singer, he sung songs with a music style influenced by Indian folk music and Sufi music.He is a prominent singer in Hindi Gujarati, Nepali, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Bengali, Odia and Urdu languages.
Kanda, Kodža i Nebojša (Канда, Коџа и Небојша;, trans. Probably, Plenty and Nebojša) is a Serbian alternative rock band from Belgrade.
Katchafire are a New Zealand roots reggae band from Hamilton, New Zealand.
Kaya is a roots reggae album released by Bob Marley and the Wailers in 1978.
Ken Boothe OD (born 22 March 1948) is a Jamaican vocalist known for his distinctive vibrato and timbre.
Osbourne Ruddock (28 January 1941 – 6 February 1989), better known as King Tubby, was a Jamaican sound engineer who greatly influenced the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s.
"Kingston Town" is a 1970 song by Lord Creator.
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island.
Laboratorija Zvuka (Лабораторија Звука; trans. Sound Laboratory), sometimes credited as Laboratorija (Laboratory) only, was a Serbian and former Yugoslav rock band.
Larry Marshall (born Fitzroy Marshall), (17 December 1941 – 24 August 2017) was a Jamaican reggae singer, who recorded both as a solo artist and as part of the duos Larry & Alvin and Larry & Enid.
Laurence Cane-Honeysett is a British musician, producer and music journalist specialising in Jamaican music.
Lee "Scratch" Perry OD (born Rainford Hugh Perry; 20 March 1936) is a Jamaican music producer and inventor noted for his innovative studio techniques and production style.
Leslie Kong (1933 – 9 August 1971) was an influential Chinese-Jamaican reggae producer.
Lira Vega (Лира Вега; trans. Lyra Vega) is a Serbian alternative rock band from Belgrade.
Dub is a subgenre of reggae which developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
This is a list of reggae music compilations.
This is a list of notable reggae festivals by country.
This is a list of reggae musicians.
Lloyd Brevett OD (1 August 1931 – 3 May 2012) was a Jamaican double bassist, songwriter, and a founding member of The Skatalites.
Lloyd Knibb OD (8 March 1931 – 12 May 2011) was a Jamaican drummer who is primarily known for his contribution to the development of the rhythm of the ska era.
Lovers rock is a style of reggae music noted for its romantic sound and content.
Lucky Philip Dube (pronounced duu-beh;, luckydubemusic.com, Retrieved 19 October 2007 3 August 1964 – 18 October 2007) was a South African reggae musician and Rastafarian.
Magic! (stylized as MAGIC!) is a Canadian reggae fusion band based in Toronto, Ontario.
Majekodunmi Fasheke, popularly known as Majek Fashek, is a Nigerian reggae singer-songwriter and guitarist.
In music, a major seventh chord is a seventh chord where the "third" note is a major third above the root, and the "seventh" note is a major seventh above the root (a fifth above the third note).
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil.
Matthew Paul Miller (born June 30, 1979), known by his Hebrew and stage name Matisyahu (מתּתיהו, "Gift of God"), is a Jewish American reggae vocalist, beatboxer, and alternative rock musician.
Max Alfred "Maxi" Elliott (born 10 June 1961), known by his stage name Maxi Priest, is an English reggae vocalist of Jamaican descent.
Mbaqanga is a style of South African music with rural Zulu roots that continues to influence musicians worldwide today.
The melodica, also known as the pianica, blow-organ, key harmonica, free-reed clarinet, or melodyhorn, is a free-reed instrument similar to the pump organ and harmonica.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michael de Koningh (1958-2016) was a contemporary British music journalist specialising in Jamaican music, reggae afrobeat and afrofunk.
Mighty Diamonds are a Jamaican harmony trio, recording roots reggae with a strong Rastafarian influence.
Millicent Dolly May "Millie" Small, CD (born 6 October 1946), is a Jamaican singer-songwriter, best known for her 1964 recording of "My Boy Lollipop".
In music, a minor seventh chord is any nondominant seventh chord where the "third" note is a minor third above the root.
Misty in Roots are a British roots reggae band formed in Southall, London in the mid 1970s.
Mod is a subculture that began in London in 1958 and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, and continues today on a smaller scale.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
"Mother and Child Reunion" is a song by the American singer-songwriter Paul Simon.
Motown is an American record company.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
The music of Guyana encompasses a range of musical styles and genres that draw from various influences including: Indian, Latino-Hispanic, European, African, Chinese, and Amerindian music.
The music of Hawaii includes an array of traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop.
The music of Jamaica includes Jamaican folk music and many popular genres, such as mento, ska, rocksteady, reggae, dub music, dancehall, reggae fusion and related styles.
The Music of Mali is, like that of most African nations, ethnically diverse, but one influence predominates; that of the ancient Mali Empire of the Mandinka (from c. 1230 to c. 1600).
The music of Trinidad and Tobago is best known for its calypso music, soca music and steelpan, including its internationally noted performances in the 1950s from native artists such as Lord Kitchener and Mighty Sparrow.
"My Boy Lollipop" (originally "My Girl Lollypop") is a song written in the mid-1950s by Robert Spencer of the doo-wop group The Cadillacs, and usually credited to Spencer, Morris Levy, and Johnny Roberts.
New wave in Yugoslavia (Bosnian, Croatian and Slovenian: Novi val; Нови талас, Novi talas; Нов бран, transl.: Nov bran; all meaning "New wave") was the new wave music scene of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand reggae is the New Zealand (Aotearoa) variation of the musical genre reggae.
Reggae is a style of Jamaican music that evolved in the late 1960s.
Nyabinghi, also Nyahbinghi, Niyabinghi, Niyahbinghi, is the gathering of Rastas, known as Rastafarians to celebrate and commemorate key dates significant to Rastafari throughout the year.
Nyanga is a township in Cape Town, South Africa.
One drop rhythm is a reggae style drum beat.
Osoppo (Osôf) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about northwest of Trieste and about northwest of Udine.
In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English, from Latin: 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently at the same pitch.
Outlandos d'Amour is the debut studio album by English rock band The Police, released in November 1978 by A&M Records.
Papa Cidy (born Hamidu Sekyeru) is a Ugandan singer and music executive.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Earl “Paul” Douglas (born c. 1950) is a Grammy Award-winning drummer and percussionist, best known for his work as the drummer, percussionist and bandleader of Toots and the Maytals.
Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and actor.
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
Peter Tosh, OM (born Winston Hubert McIntosh; 19 October 1944 – 11 September 1987) was a Jamaican reggae musician.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
Piloti (Пилоти, trans. The Pilots) is a Serbian rock band from Belgrade.
Filipino reggae or Pinoy reggae is reggae music created in the Philippines.
Pitura Freska was a reggae music group based in Venice, Italy, consisting of Marco Forieri (saxophone and vocal), "Sir" Oliver Skardy (Gaetano Scardicchio, vocals), Francesco Duse (guitar), Cristiano Verardo (guitar), Valerio Silvestri (trumpet), Toni Costantini (trombone) and Francesco "Ciuke" Casucci (bass).
Reggae is one of the most popular music genres in Poland.
Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
SFR Yugoslav pop and rock scene includes the pop and rock music of the former SFR Yugoslavia, including all their genres and subgenres.
Cecil Bustamente Campbell OD (24 May 1938 – 8 September 2016), known professionally as Prince Buster, was a Jamaican singer-songwriter and producer.
Punk rock (or "punk") is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia.
Raggamuffin music, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a subgenre of dancehall and reggae music, in which the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
Rebelution is a reggae music band formed in Isla Vista, California.
"Red Red Wine" is a song originally written, performed, and recorded by American singer Neil Diamond in 1967.
Reggae en Español (in English, Spanish Reggae) is reggae and dancehall music recorded in the Spanish language by artists of Latin American origin.
Reggae fusion is a fusion genre of reggae that mixes reggae or dancehall with other genres, such as pop, rock, R&B, jazz and drum and bass.
There are several subgenres of reggae music including various predecessors to the form.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
Reggae rock is a subgenre of reggae fusion and rock music that primarily uses the genres reggae, rock and ska.
Reggaestep (portmanteau of reggae and dubstep) is a fusion genre of reggae music and dubstep that has gained popularity online, particularly SoundCloud.
Reggaeton (also known as reggaetón and reguetón) is a music genre which originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
Riddim is the Jamaican Patois pronunciation of the English word "rhythm".
Salvatore Antonio "Rino" Gaetano (29 October 1950 – 2 June 1981) was an Italian musician and singer-songwriter.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Rocksteady is a music genre that originated in Jamaica around 1966.
Roots reggae is a subgenre of reggae that deals with the everyday lives and aspirations of the artists concerned, including the spiritual side of Rastafari and the honoring of God, called Jah by Rastafari.
Rootvälta is a reggae band from Borlänge in the county of Dalarna, Sweden.
Rototom Sunsplash is a large European reggae festival, it takes place every summer at Benicassim, a few miles north of Valencia in Spain.
"Rude" is the debut single by Canadian band Magic! from their debut studio album, Don't Kill the Magic.
Salmonella Dub is a dub/drum n bass/reggae/roots band from New Zealand.
Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.
Samba-reggae is a music genre from Bahia, Brazil.
Saxon Studio International is a reggae soundsystems from London, the first UK soundsystem to win an international competition.
São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
Seeed is a German hip hop / reggae / dancehall band from Berlin.
Seggae is a fusion genre of sega, the traditional music of the Mascarene Islands, and reggae.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Singer-songwriters are musicians who write, compose, and perform their own musical material, including lyrics and melodies.
Miguel Orlando Collins (born 17 April 1976), known by his stage name Sizzla Kalonji or Sizzla, is a Jamaican reggae musician.
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.
The ska stroke or ska upstroke, skank or bang, is a guitar strumming technique that is used mostly in the performance of ska, rocksteady, and reggae music.
Skanking is a form of dancing practiced in the ska, ska punk, hardcore punk, reggae, jump-up (a drum and bass subgenre) and other music scenes.
The skinhead subculture originated among working class youths in London, England in the 1960s and soon spread to other parts of the United Kingdom, with a second working class skinhead movement emerging worldwide in the 1980s.
Slightly Stoopid is an American band based in the Ocean Beach neighborhood of San Diego, California, who describe their music as "a fusion of folk, rock, reggae and blues with hip-hop, funk, metal and punk." As a band, they have released twelve albums (four live), with their eighth studio album entitled Meanwhile...Back at the Lab on June 29, 2015.
Sly and Robbie are a prolific Jamaican rhythm section and production duo, associated primarily with the reggae and dub genres.
Lowell "Sly" Fillmore Dunbar (born 10 May 1952, Kingston, Jamaica) is a drummer, best known as one half of the prolific Jamaican rhythm section and reggae production duo Sly and Robbie.
David Victor Emmanuel (10 February 1963 – 15 March 2011), better known as Smiley Culture, was a British reggae singer and DJ known for his 'fast chat' style.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
SOJA (Soldiers Of Jah Army) is an American Grammy-nominated reggae band based in Arlington, Virginia.
Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
In Jamaican popular culture, a sound system is a group of disc jockeys, engineers and MCs playing ska, rocksteady or reggae music.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Staccato (Italian for "detached") is a form of musical articulation.
Steel Pulse is a roots reggae musical band from the Handsworth area of Birmingham, England, which has a large number of Afro-Caribbean, Indian and other Asian migrants.
Steve Barrow (born 29 September 1945) is a British reggae historian, writer and producer.
Stick Figure is an American reggae and dub band founded in 2006 and based in Northern California.
Sticky Fingers is a reggae fusion/indie rock band formed in 2008 in Sydney, Australia.
"Stir It Up" is a song composed by Bob Marley in 1967 and first recorded by his group The Wailers that year and issued as a single. The song was later covered by American singer Johnny Nash on his 1972 album I Can See Clearly Now album. The next year, Marley and the Wailers then re-recorded the song for their album Catch a Fire. The Wailers performed the song on The Old Grey Whistle Test in 1973 during their first trip to the UK. "Stir It Up" was Marley's first successful song outside Jamaica. Another song written by Bob Marley, "I Shot The Sheriff", was made a hit by Eric Clapton on the album 461 Ocean Boulevard, July 1974. Marley's first "own" international hit, "No Woman No Cry", was released on the Bob Marley and the Wailers album Live!, December 1975.
Stop Murder Music is a campaign to oppose Caribbean artists that produce music with lyrics alleged to glorify murder of homosexual men.
Sud Sound System is a dancehall reggae sound system from Salento, Apulia, Italy.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Lincoln Barrington "Sugar" Minott (25 May 1956 – 10 July 2010)Campbell, Howard (2010) "", Associated Press, 11 July 2010, retrieved 2010-07-12Peru, Yasmine (2010) " ", Jamaica Observer, 12 July 2010, retrieved 2010-07-12 was a Jamaican reggae singer, producer and sound-system operator.
Summerjam is a European reggae festival.
Svenska Akademien is a Swedish reggae band formed in 1999 by Carl-Martin Vikingsson, Simon Vikokel and Kristoffer Hellman.
In music, the term swing has two main uses.
In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat.
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
T.O.K. were a dancehall group from Kingston, Jamaica.
Thaikkudam Bridge is a Kerala-based music band, founded and formed in 2013.The band first became famous through the musical show Music Mojo, which is telecast on Kappa TV and their own composition "Fish Rock", which became popular through social networking sites and YouTube.
The Abyssinians are a Jamaican roots reggae group, famous for their close harmonies and promotion of the Rastafari movement in their lyrics.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Black Seeds are a musical group rooted in reggae from Wellington, New Zealand.
The Clash were an English rock band formed in London in 1976 as a key player in the original wave of British punk rock.
The Harder They Come is a 1972 Jamaican crime film directed by Perry Henzell and co-written by Trevor D. Rhone, and starring Jimmy Cliff.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Maytones (sometimes known as The Mighty Maytones) are a Jamaican reggae vocal duo who were active between the late 1960s and until 1980.
The Members are a British punk band that originated in Camberley, England.
The Pioneers are a Jamaican reggae vocal trio, whose main period of success was in the 1960s.
The Police were a British rock band formed in London in 1977.
The Roxy was a fashionable nightclub located at 41–43 Neal Street in London's Covent Garden, known for hosting the flowering British punk music scene in its infancy.
The Ruts / Ruts DC are an English reggae-influenced punk rock band, notable for the 1979 UK Top 10 hit "Babylon's Burning", and an earlier single "In a Rut", which was not a hit but was highly regarded and regularly played by BBC Radio 1 disc jockey John Peel.
The Skatalites are a ska band from Jamaica.
The Slits were a British punk rock band formed in London in 1976 by members of the groups The Flowers of Romance and The Castrators.
The Temptations are an American vocal group who released a series of successful singles and albums with Motown Records during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Upsetters was the name given to the house band for Jamaican reggae producer Lee "Scratch" Perry.
Third World is a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1973.
This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession is a popular science book written by the McGill University neuroscientist Daniel J. Levitin, and first published by Dutton Penguin in the U.S. and Canada in 2006, and updated and released in paperback by Plume/Penguin in 2007.
Three Dog Night is an American rock band.
Tiken Jah Fakoly (born 23 June 1968) is an Ivorian reggae singer.
Timbales or pailas are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each measure (bar) and which note value is equivalent to one beat.
Tippa Irie (real name Anthony Henry) is a British reggae singer and DJ from Brixton, South London.
A tom-tom drum is a cylindrical drum with no snares, named from the Anglo-Indian and Sinhala language.
Toots and the Maytals, originally called The Maytals, are a Jamaican musical group and one of the best known ska and rocksteady vocal groups.
Frederick Nathaniel "Toots" Hibbert, O.J. (born 8 December 1942) is a Jamaican singer and songwriter, known as the leader for the reggae and ska band Toots & the Maytals.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
In music, tremolo, or tremolando, is a trembling effect.
Trojan Records is a British record label founded in 1968.
Tuff Gong is the brand name associated with a number of businesses started by Bob Marley and the Marley family.
In music, a tuplet (also irrational rhythm or groupings, artificial division or groupings, abnormal divisions, irregular rhythm, gruppetto, extra-metric groupings, or, rarely, contrametric rhythm) is "any rhythm that involves dividing the beat into a different number of equal subdivisions from that usually permitted by the time-signature (e.g., triplets, duplets, etc.)".
Two-tone (or 2 tone) is a genre of British music that fuses traditional ska with musical elements of punk rock.
UB40 are an English reggae and pop band, formed in December 1978 in Birmingham, England.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Uppsala Reggae Festival is the largest reggae festival in Scandinavia.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
Vibrato (Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch.
Adidja Azim Palmer (born 7 January 1976) better known as Vybz Kartel, is a Jamaican musical artist, record producer, entrepreneur and convicted murderer.
"Waiting in Vain" is a song written by reggae musician Bob Marley and recorded by Bob Marley & The Wailers, for his 1977 album Exodus.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Winston Grennan (16 September 1944 – 27 October 2000) was a Jamaican drummer, famous for session work from 1962 to 1973 in Jamaica as well as later in New York City through the 1970s and 1980s.
Xalapa (often spelled Jalapa,;; officially Xalapa-Enríquez) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
A 45 rpm adapter (also 45 rpm record insert, 45 rpm spindle adapter, or 7 inch adapter, the common size of 45 RPM records) is a small plastic or metal insert that goes in the middle of a 45-rpm record so it can be played on the LP or 78 rpm size spindle of a turntable.