65 relations: Adenosine, Allergy, Autoimmune disease, Bone marrow, Cancer, CD28, CD4, CD8, CD86, Cell lineage, Cluster of differentiation, Co-stimulation, CTLA-4, Cytokine, Dendritic cell, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, DNA methylation, Downregulation and upregulation, ENTPD1, FOXP3, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Granzyme B, Hassall's corpuscles, HIV, Homeostasis, IL2RA, Immune response, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunosuppression, Immunotherapy, In vitro, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 35, Interleukin 6, IPEX syndrome, LAG3, Leishmania, Major histocompatibility complex, Malaria, Mast cell, Model organism, Neoplasm, NT5E, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Organ transplantation, Prognosis, ..., Retrovirus, Stochastic, T cell, T helper 17 cell, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Thymus, TIGIT, TNFRSF18, Transcription factor, Transforming growth factor beta, Treg17 cells, Tuberculosis, Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Type 1 regulatory T cell. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.
Cell lineage denotes the developmental history of a tissue or organ from the fertilized embryo.
The cluster of differentiation (also known as cluster of designation or classification determinant and often abbreviated as CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells.
During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (gene: ENTPD1; protein: NTPDase1) also known as CD39 (Cluster of Differentiation 39), is a typical cell surface-located enzymes with an extracellularly facing catalytic site.
FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), also known as scurfin, is a protein involved in immune system responses.
"Goldilocks and the Three Bears" (originally titled "The Story of the Three Bears") is a 19th-century fairy tale of which three versions exist.
Granzyme B is a serine protease most commonly found in the granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer cells (NK cells) and cytotoxic T cells.
Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (also called CD25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RA gene.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO or INDO) is a heme-containing enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IDO1 gene.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a recently discovered cytokine from the IL-12 family.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
IPEX (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked) syndrome is a rare disease linked to the dysfunction of the transcription factor FOXP3, widely considered to be the master regulator of the regulatory T cell lineage.
Lymphocyte-activation gene 3, also known as LAG-3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAG3 gene.
Leishmania is a genus of trypanosomes that are responsible for the disease leishmaniasis.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NT5E gene.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a continuously updated catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and traits, with a particular focus on the gene-phenotype relationship.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
TIGIT (also called T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer Cells(NK).
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) also known as activation-inducible TNFR family receptor (AITR) or glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF18 gene.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated toward tumor.
Type 1 regulatory cells or Tr1 (TR1) cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells.
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