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Index Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America. [1]

397 relations: A Description of the Northern Peoples, A Visit from St. Nicholas, Agricultural subsidy, Aklavik, Alaska, Alaska Native Language Center, Alaska Natives, Alaska North Slope, Alaska State Library, Albert, Duke of Prussia, Albertus Magnus, Algonquian languages, Allen's rule, Altai Mountains, Animal migration, Answers.com, Antler, Aphrodisiac, Arctic, Arctic char, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Arctic reindeer, Aristotle, Arkhangelsk, Athabaskan languages, Atlantic Ocean, Baker Lake (Nunavut), Baltimore, Banff, Alberta, Barren-ground caribou, Bathurst Inlet, Beaufort Sea, Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, Birch, Black fly, Boreal forest of Canada, Boreal woodland caribou, Botfly, Bowring Park (St. John's), Brian Jungen, British Columbia, Brochet, Manitoba, Bronze Age, Brown bear, Budini, Bureau of Land Management, Cairngorms, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Canadian Rockies, ..., Canadians, Caribou (drink), Caribou Inuit, Carl Linnaeus, Cattle, Cephenemyia trompe, Charles Hamilton Smith, Children's literature, China, Christmas Eve, Chukchi people, Circadian rhythm, Circumpolar distribution, Circumpolar peoples, Cladonia rangiferina, Climate change, Coat (animal), Coat of arms of Nunavut, Columbia Mountains, Columbia River, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, ConocoPhillips, Conrad Gessner, Countercurrent exchange, Cree, Culling, Cyperaceae, Dane-zaa, Dawson City, Deer, Deer botfly, Denmark, Diesel fuel, District of Ungava, DNA, Dolphin-Union caribou, Domestication, Don E. Wilson, Dovrefjell–Sunndalsfjella National Park, Ecotype, Egg, Eidfjord, Electric generator, Elk, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Enzyme, Epithet, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eurasia, Evenks, Extinction, Fairbanks, Alaska, Fennoscandia, Financial capital, Finland, Finnish forest reindeer, First Nations, Folklore, Fox, Fur, Gastropoda, Günz, Genus, Germanic languages, Glacier, Glucose, Gold rush, Golden eagle, Gothic language, Graham Island, Gray wolf, Greenland, Greenland shark, Grocery store, Gustav I of Sweden, Gwich'in, Gwich’in language, Habitat, Haida Gwaii, Handbook of the Mammals of the World, Hardangervidda, Hawk, Hän, Hän language, Helsingin Sanomat, Hercynian Forest, Herding, Hinterland Who's Who, Holarctic, Hoof, Hudson Bay, Human body temperature, Huslia, Alaska, Hypoderma tarandi, Iñupiat, Iceland, Idaho, Ihalmiut, Inari Sami language, Inari, Finland, Indigenous peoples, Insular dwarfism, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Inuit, Inuktitut, Inupiaq language, Inuvialuit, Ireland, Iron Age, IUCN Red List, Japetus Steenstrup, Johann Friedrich Gmelin, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jotunheimen, Julius Caesar, Kaktovik, Alaska, Kalaallit, Kamchatka Peninsula, Karelia, Karelian Front, Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories, Kerguelen Islands, Keystone species, Khanty, Kitaa, Kivalliq Region, Kola Peninsula, Komi Republic, Kootenay Lake, Kootenay River, Koryaks, Koyukon, Koyukon language, Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge, Kuusamo, Labrador, Language revitalization, Lapland (Finland), Last Glacial Maximum, Last glacial period, Leaf River (Quebec), Lemming, Lichen, Lichenin, List of domesticated animals, Live Science, Local extinction, Lule Sami language, Maine, Mammal Species of the World, Manitoba, Mari language, Match/mismatch, Meat, Meatball, Mesolithic, Mi'kmaq, Mi'kmaq language, Middle English, Middle Pleistocene, Midnight sun, Migration Period, Migratory woodland caribou, Mitochondrial DNA, Mongolia, Moose, Mosquito, Mountain reindeer, Mucous membrane, Mule deer, Murmansk, Nasal concha, National Gallery of Canada, National museums of Canada, National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, Nematode, Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Nenets people, Neolithic, Nevada, New England, Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and Labrador, Norsemen, North America, Northern Europe, Northern Sami, Northwest Territories, Norway, Norwegian Environment Agency, Norwegian Polar Institute, Nostril, Novaya Zemlya, Novelist, NPR, Nunavut, Olaus Magnus, Old English, Old Frisian, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Order of Canada, Ox, Pack animal, Parandrus, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, Peary caribou, Personal property, Phenology, Photovoltaics, Pite Sami language, Piteå, Playwright, Pleistocene, Poaceae, Polar bear, Porcupine caribou, Porcupine River, Porsanger, Pribilof Islands, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, Pulk, Qamanirjuaq Lake, Qikiqtaaluk Region, Quarter (Canadian coin), Quebec, Queen Charlotte Islands caribou, Queen Maud Gulf, Rangifer (constellation), Rangifer (journal), Raven, Real estate, Reindeer in Russia, Reindeer in South Georgia, Reindeer Police, Reinheimen National Park, Rendalen, Rome, Rondane National Park, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Ruminant, Russia, Ryan Zinke, Sakhalin, Salt-cured meat, Sami languages, Sami people, Santa Claus, Santa Claus's reindeer, Satellite, Sausage, Sautéed reindeer, Sápmi, Scandinavia, Scotland, Scythia, Sea of Okhotsk, Sedentism, Selkirk Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Sheldon Jackson, Siberia, Sinus ostium, Smoked meat, Snowmobile, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia Island, Southampton Island, Southern Norway, Southern Sami language, Soviet Army, Soviet Union, Spain, Species, Species at Risk Act, St. Matthew Island, Stone Age, Subarctic, Subspecies, Svalbard, Svalbard reindeer, Sweden, Swedish language, Taiga, Tanana, Alaska, Temperature gradient, Tennessee, Teshekpuk Lake, The Canadian Encyclopedia, The Globe and Mail, The New York Times, Theophrastus, Thermoregulation, Threatened species, Tomson Highway, Trapping pit, Tromsø, Tuktut Nogait National Park, Tundra, Tutchone language, Udmurt language, Ulisse Aldrovandi, Ultradian rhythm, Umeå University, Ungava Peninsula, Ungulate, United States Department of the Interior, United States District Court for the District of Alaska, United States Geological Survey, United States Revenue Cutter Service, United States Secretary of the Interior, University College London, University of Alaska system, University of Connecticut, University of Tromsø, Ural Mountains, Uralic languages, Vadsø, Valerius Geist, Västerbotten, Västerbotten County, Vågå, Vulnerable species, Wales, Alaska, Washington (state), White-tailed deer, Willow, Wired UK, Wolverine, Woods Cree, Wool, Working animal, World Heritage site, World War I, World War II, Yukaghir people, Yukon, Yukon River, Yup'ik, Yup'ik language, 50th parallel north. Expand index (347 more) »

A Description of the Northern Peoples

Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus was a monumental work by Olaus Magnus on the Nordic countries, printed in Rome 1555.

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A Visit from St. Nicholas

"A Visit from St.

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Agricultural subsidy

An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

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Aklavik (Inuvialuktun: Akłarvik) (from the Inuvialuktun meaning barrenground grizzly place) is a hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alaska Native Language Center

The, established in 1972 in Fairbanks, Alaska, is a research center focusing on the research and documentation of the Native languages of Alaska.

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Alaska Natives

Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.

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Alaska North Slope

The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U.S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, and the Beaufort Sea on the eastern.

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Alaska State Library

The Alaska State Library and Historical Collections and Talking Book Center are located on the second floor of the Andrew P. Kashevaroff Building in Juneau, Alaska.

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Albert, Duke of Prussia

Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.

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Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

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Allen's rule

Allen's rule is an ecogeographical rule formulated by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877, broadly stating that animals adapted to cold climates have shorter limbs and body appendages than animals adapted to warm climates.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Animal migration

Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.

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Answers.com is an Internet-based knowledge exchange, which includes WikiAnswers.

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Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.

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An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic char

Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters.

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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge) is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States.

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Arctic reindeer

The Arctic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus eogroenlandicus), also known as the East Greenland caribou or Greenland caribou, was a subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) that once lived in eastern Greenland.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Athabaskan languages

Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Baker Lake (Nunavut)

Baker Lake (Inuktitut: Qamani'tuaq; "where the river widens") is a lake in the Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada.

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Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.

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Banff, Alberta

Banff is a town within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada.

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Barren-ground caribou

The barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) is a subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) that is found mainly in the Canadian territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, as well as in Kitaa, Greenland.

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Bathurst Inlet

Bathurst Inlet is a deep inlet located along the northern coast of the Canadian mainland, at the east end of Coronation Gulf, into which the Burnside and Western Rivers empty.

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Beaufort Sea

The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.

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Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial

The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial is a memorial site in France dedicated to the commemoration of Dominion of Newfoundland forces members who were killed during World War I. The preserved battlefield park encompasses the grounds over which the Newfoundland Regiment made their unsuccessful attack on 1 July 1916 during the first day of the Battle of the Somme.

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A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.

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Black fly

A black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder.

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Boreal forest of Canada

The Taiga Biome extends in a broad band across North America, Europe, and Asia.

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Boreal woodland caribou

The boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), also known as woodland caribou, woodland caribou (boreal group) and forest-dwelling caribou, is a North American subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) with the vast majority of animals in Canada.

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Botflies, also known as warble flies, heel flies and gadflies, are a family of flies technically known as Oestridae.

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Bowring Park (St. John's)

Bowring Park is located in the Waterford Valley, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

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Brian Jungen

Brian Jungen (born April 29, 1970 in Fort St. John, British Columbia) is an artist of Dane-Zaa and Swiss ancestry living and working in the North Okanagan of British Columbia.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Brochet, Manitoba

Brochet is an unincorporated community located in Northern Manitoba on the northern shore of Reindeer Lake near the Saskatchewan border.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brown bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.

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The Budini (Ancient Greek: Βουδίνοι; Boudínoi) was a group of people (a tribe) described by Herodotus and several later classical authors.

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Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.

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The Cairngorms (Scottish Gaelic: Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the Cairn Gorm.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society

The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) (la Société pour la nature et les parcs du Canada (SNAP)) was founded in 1963 to help protect Canada's wilderness.

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Canadian Rockies

The Canadian Rockies (Rocheuses canadiennes) comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.

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Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.

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Caribou (drink)

Caribou is a sweet Québécois alcoholic beverage composed of red wine, hard liquor (usually whisky), and maple syrup or sugar.

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Caribou Inuit

Caribou Inuit, Barren-ground Caribou hunters, are bands of inland Inuit who lived west of Hudson Bay in northern Canada's Keewatin Region of the Northwest Territories, now the Kivalliq Region ("Barren Lands") of present-day Nunavut between 61° and 65° N and 90° and 102° W. They were originally named "Caribou Eskimo" by the Danish Fifth Thule Expedition of 1921 - 1924 led by Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Cephenemyia trompe

Cephenemyia trompe, also known as the reindeer nose botfly, is a species of botfly first described by Adolph Modéer in 1786.

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Charles Hamilton Smith

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hamilton Smith, KH (26 December 1776 in East Flanders, Belgium – 21 September 1859 in Plymouth) was an English artist, naturalist, antiquary, illustrator, soldier, and spy.

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Children's literature

Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Chukchi people

The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Circumpolar distribution

A circumpolar distribution is any range of a taxon that occurs over a wide range of longitudes but only at high latitudes; such a range therefore extends all the way around either the North Pole or the South Pole.

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Circumpolar peoples

Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.

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Cladonia rangiferina

Cladonia rangiferina, also known as reindeer lichen (c.p. Sw. renlav), lat., is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the Cladoniaceae family.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Coat (animal)

Coat is the nature and quality of a mammal's pelage.

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Coat of arms of Nunavut

The coat of arms of the territory of Nunavut was granted by a warrant of Roméo LeBlanc, Governor General of Canada, dated 31 March 1999, one day before the territory of Nunavut, Canada, was created.

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Columbia Mountains

The Columbia Mountains are a group of mountain ranges along the upper Columbia River in southeastern British Columbia, and also in Montana, Idaho and Washington.

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Columbia River

The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC, French: Comité sur la situation des espèces en péril au Canada, COSEPAC) is an independent committee of wildlife experts and scientists whose "raison d’être is to identify species at risk" in Canada.

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ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States.

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Conrad Gessner

Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.

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Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

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The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.

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In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.

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The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.

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The Dane-zaa (ᑕᓀᖚ, also spelled Dunne-za, or Tsattine), historically referred to as the Beaver tribe by Europeans, are an Athabaskan-speaking group of First Nations people.

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Dawson City

The Town of the City of Dawson, commonly known as Dawson City or Dawson, is a town in Yukon, Canada.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Deer botfly

The name deer botfly (also deer nose bot) refers to any species in the genus Cephenemyia (sometimes misspelled as Cephenomyia or Cephenemya), within the family Oestridae.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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District of Ungava

The District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1920, although it effectively ceased operation in 1912.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dolphin-Union caribou

Dolphin and Union Caribou, Dolphin and Union caribou herd, Dolphin-Union, locally known as Island Caribou, are a migratory population of barren-ground caribou, Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus, that occupy Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the nearby mainland.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Don E. Wilson

Don Ellis Wilson (born 30 April 1944 in Davis, Oklahoma) is an American zoologist.

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Dovrefjell–Sunndalsfjella National Park

Dovrefjell–Sunndalsfjella National Park (Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella nasjonalpark) is a National Park in Norway.

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In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype,Greek: οίκος.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.

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Eidfjord is a municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.

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Environment and Climate Change Canada

Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.

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Eskimo–Aleut languages

The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Fairbanks, Alaska

Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.

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Financial capital

Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnish forest reindeer

The Finnish forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) (Finnish: metsäpeura, Russian: лесной северный олень) is a rare and threatened subspecies of the reindeer native to Finland and northwestern Russia.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.

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Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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The Günz is a river in Bavaria, Germany, right tributary of the Danube.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Gold rush

A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.

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Golden eagle

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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Graham Island

Graham Island is the largest island in the Haida Gwaii archipelago (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands), lying off the coast of British Columbia, Canada.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Greenland shark

The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark or grey shark, or by the Kalaallisut name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks"), closely related to the Pacific and southern sleeper sharks.

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Grocery store

A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that primarily sells food.

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Gustav I of Sweden

Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

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The Gwich’in (or Kutchin) are an Athabaskan-speaking First Nations people of Canada and an Alaska Native people.

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Gwich’in language

The Gwich’in language (Dinju Zhuh K’yuu) belongs to the Athabaskan language family and is spoken by the Gwich’in First Nation (Canada) / Alaska Native People (United States).

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Haida Gwaii

Haida Gwaii (Haida kíl: X̱aaydag̱a Gwaay.yaay / X̱aayda gwaay, literally "Islands of the Haida people"), is an archipelago approximately 45-60 km (30-40 mi) off the northern Pacific coast of Canada.

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Handbook of the Mammals of the World

Handbook of the Mammals of the World (HMW) is a book series from the publisher Lynx Edicions.

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Hardangervidda (Hardanger Plateau) is a mountain plateau (Norwegian: vidde) in central southern Norway, covering parts of the counties of Buskerud, Hordaland and Telemark.

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Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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The Hän, Han or Hwëch'in / Han Hwech’in (meaning "People of the River, i.e. Yukon River", in English also Hankutchin) are a First Nations people of Canada and an Alaska Native Athabaskan people of the United States; they are part of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group.

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Hän language

The Hän language (Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide) is an Athabaskan language spoken primarily in Eagle, Alaska (United States) and Dawson City, Yukon (Canada), though there are also speakers in Fairbanks, Alaska.

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Helsingin Sanomat

Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma.

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Hercynian Forest

The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.

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Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those.

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Hinterland Who's Who

Hinterland Who's Who is best known as a series of 60-second public service announcements profiling Canadian animals, produced by Environment Canada Wildlife Service and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB) in the 1960s and 70s, and re-launched by the Canadian Wildlife Federation in the 2000s.

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The Holarctic is the name for the biogeographic realm that encompasses the majority of habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world, combining Wallace's Palearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North Africa and all of Eurasia (with the exception of the southern Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent), and the Nearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North America, north of Mexico.

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A hoof, plural hooves or hoofs, is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal, strengthened by a thick, horny, keratin covering.

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Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.

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Human body temperature

Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.

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Huslia, Alaska

Huslia (Ts’aateyhdenaade kk’onh Denh in Koyukon) is a city in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States.

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Hypoderma tarandi

Hypoderma tarandi, also known as the reindeer warble fly and reindeer botfly, is a species of warble fly that is parasitic on reindeer.

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The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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The Ihalmiut ᐃᓴᓪᒥᐅᑦ ("People from Beyond") or Ahiarmiut ("the Out-of-the-Way Dwellers") are a group of inland Inuit who lived along the banks of the Kazan River, Ennadai Lake Little Dubawnt Lake (renamed Kamilikuak), and north of Thlewiaza ("Big River") in northern Canada's Keewatin Region of the Northwest Territories, now the Kivalliq Region ("Barren Lands") of present-day Nunavut.

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Inari Sami language

Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.

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Inari, Finland

Inari (Aanaar, Anár, Aanar, Enare, Enare) is Finland's largest municipality (but one of the most sparsely populated), with four official languages, more than any other in the country.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Insular dwarfism

Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of large animals evolving or having a reduced body size when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.

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Integrated Taxonomic Information System

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.

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Inupiaq language

Inupiaq, Inupiat, Inupiatun or Alaskan Inuit, is a group of dialects of the Inuit languages, spoken by the Iñupiat people in northern and northwestern Alaska, and part of the Northwest Territories.

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The Inuvialuit (ɪnˈuviˌaluət) (sing. Inuvialuk; the real people) or Western Canadian Inuit are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Japetus Steenstrup

Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (8 March 1813 – 20 June 1897) was a Danish zoologist, biologist, and professor.

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Johann Friedrich Gmelin

Johann Friedrich Gmelin (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist.

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Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Jotunheimen (the home of the Jotnar) is a mountainous area of roughly 3,500 km² in southern Norway and is part of the long range known as the Scandinavian Mountains.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Kaktovik, Alaska

Kaktovik (Qaaktuġvik) is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, United States.

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Kalaallit make up the largest group of the Greenlandic Inuit and are concentrated in Kitaa.

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Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Karelian Front

The Karelian Front was a front (a formation of Army Group size) of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II, and operated in Karelia.

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Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories

The Keewatin Region was a region of the Northwest Territories, in use as an administrative and statistical division until the creation of Nunavut in 1999.

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Kerguelen Islands

The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands (Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.

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Keystone species

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

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The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region historically known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with the Mansi.

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Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland.

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Kivalliq Region

The Kivalliq Region (Inuktitut syllabics: ᑭᕙᓪᓕᖅ) is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada.

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Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

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Komi Republic

The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Kootenay Lake

Kootenay Lake is a lake located in British Columbia, Canada and is part of the Kootenay River.

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Kootenay River

The Kootenay (Kootenai in the U.S. and historically called the Flatbow) is a major river in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and northern Montana and Idaho in the United States.

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Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.

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The Koyukon are an Alaska Native Athabaskan people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group.

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Koyukon language

Koyukon (also called Denaakk'e) is the geographically most widespread Athabascan language spoken in Alaska.

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Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge

The Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge is a conservation area in Alaska.

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Kuusamo is a town and municipality in Finland.

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Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Language revitalization

Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.

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Lapland (Finland)

Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Leaf River (Quebec)

Leaf River (French: Rivière aux Feuilles; Inuktitut: Kuugaaluk (the large river) or Itinniq (where there are spring tides)) is a river in northern Quebec, Canada, at the northern limit of the tree line.

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A lemming is a small rodent usually found in or near the Arctic in tundra biomes.

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.

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Lichenin, also known as lichenan or moss starch, is a complex glucan occurring in certain species of lichens.

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List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.

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Live Science

Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.

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Local extinction

Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.

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Lule Sami language

Lule Sami (julevsámegiella) is a Uralic, Sami language spoken in Lule Lappmark, i.e. around the Lule River, Sweden and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sami is an official language.

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Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Mammal Species of the World

Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.

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Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.

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Mari language

The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.

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The match/mismatch hypothesis (MMH) was first described by David Cushing (1969).

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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A meatball is ground meat rolled into a small ball, sometimes along with other ingredients, such as bread crumbs, minced onion, eggs, butter, and seasoning.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.

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Mi'kmaq language

The Mi'kmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically and now always Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Mi'kmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Middle Pleistocene

The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.

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Midnight sun

The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Migratory woodland caribou

The migratory woodland caribou refers to two herds of reindeer (known as caribou in North America) that are included in the migratory woodland ecotype of the subspecies Rangifer tarandus caribou or woodland caribouGeist, V. (2007). The Eleventh North American Caribou Workshop (2006).

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mountain reindeer

The mountain reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), also called the Norwegian reindeer, northern reindeer or mountain caribou, is a mid-sized to large subspecies of the reindeer that is native to the western Scandinavian Peninsula, particularly Norway.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Mule deer

The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer indigenous to western North America; it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.

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Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.

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Nasal concha

In anatomy, a nasal concha, plural conchae, also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals.

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National Gallery of Canada

The National Gallery of Canada (Musée des beaux-arts du Canada), located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is Canada's premier art gallery.

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National museums of Canada

The National museums of Canada are a system of national museums operated by the federal government of Canada consisting of: the Canadian Museum of History; the Canadian Museum of Nature; the National Gallery of Canada; the Canada Science and Technology Museum; the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21; and the Canadian Human Rights Museum.

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National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska

The National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) is an area of land on the Alaska North Slope owned by the United States federal government and managed by the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast).

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Nenets people

The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Northern Sami

Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian Environment Agency

The Norwegian Environment Agency was created on 1 July 2013 through a merger of the Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management and the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency.

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Norwegian Polar Institute

The Norwegian Polar Institute (in Norwegian: Norsk Polarinstitutt) is Norway's central governmental institution for scientific research, mapping and environmental monitoring in the Arctic and the Antarctic.

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A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.

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Novaya Zemlya

Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.

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A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.

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National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.

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Olaus Magnus

Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Frisian

Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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Order of Canada

The Order of Canada (Ordre du Canada) is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada.

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An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.

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Pack animal

A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.

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The parandrus or tarandos was an animal from medieval bestiaries.

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Parelaphostrongylus tenuis

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (also known as meningeal worm, brainworm, or moose illness) is a neurotropic nematode parasite common to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, which causes damage to the central nervous system.

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Peary caribou

The Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) is a subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) found in the High Arctic islands of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories in Canada.

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Personal property

Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.

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Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation).

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Pite Sami language

Pite Sami, also known as Arjeplog Sami, is a Sami language traditionally spoken in Sweden and Norway.

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Piteå is a locality and the seat of Piteå Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden.

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A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Polar bear

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.

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Porcupine caribou

The Porcupine caribou or Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) is a subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) found in Alaska, United States, and adjacent parts of Canada.

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Porcupine River

The Porcupine River (Ch’ôonjik in Gwich’in) is a tributary of the Yukon River in Canada and the United States.

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Porsanger (Norwegian) or Porsáŋgu (Northern Sami) or Porsanki (Kven/Finnish) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.

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Pribilof Islands

The Pribilof Islands (formerly the Northern Fur Seal Islands) are a group of four volcanic islands off the coast of mainland Alaska, in the Bering Sea, about north of Unalaska and 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Cape Newenham.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Prudhoe Bay Oil Field

Prudhoe Bay Oil Field is a large oil field on Alaska's North Slope.

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Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

Prudhoe Bay or Sagavanirktok is a census-designated place (CDP) located in North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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A pulk (from Finnish pulkka) is a Nordic short, low-slung small toboggan used in sport or for transport, pulled by a dog or a skier, or in Lapland pulled by reindeer.

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Qamanirjuaq Lake

Qamanirjuaq Lake (variant: Kaminuriak Lake; pronunciation: ka-min-YOO-ree-ak; meaning: "huge lake adjoining a river at both ends") is a lake in Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada.

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Qikiqtaaluk Region

The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ) or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada.

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Quarter (Canadian coin)

The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a Canadian coin worth 25 cents or one fourth of a Canadian dollar.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Queen Charlotte Islands caribou

The Queen Charlotte Islands caribou or Dawson's caribou (Rangifer tarandus dawsoni) is an extinct subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) that once lived on Graham Island, the largest of the Haida Gwaii islands in British Columbia, Canada.

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Queen Maud Gulf

Queen Maud Gulf lies between the northern coast of the mainland and the southeastern corner of Victoria Island in Nunavut, Canada.

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Rangifer (constellation)

Rangifer was a small constellation between the constellations of Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis.

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Rangifer (journal)

Rangifer is an open-access scientific journal about northern ungulates and reindeer husbandry.

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A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.

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Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.

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Reindeer in Russia

Reindeer in Russia include tundra and forest reindeer and are subspecies of Rangifer tarandus.

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Reindeer in South Georgia

Reindeer in South Georgia are an example of an animal which has been introduced outside its native range.

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Reindeer Police

The Reindeer Police (Reinpolitiet) is a special branch of the Norwegian Police Service.

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Reinheimen National Park

Reinheimen National Park (Reinheimen nasjonalpark) is a national park in Norway that was established in 2006.

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Rendalen is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rondane National Park

Rondane National Park (Rondane nasjonalpark) is the oldest national park in Norway, established on 21 December 1962.

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Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, popularly known as "Santa's ninth reindeer", is a fabled reindeer created by Robert Lewis May.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Ryan Zinke

Ryan Keith Zinke (born November 1, 1961) is an American politician and businessman serving as the 52nd and current United States Secretary of the Interior since 2017, in the Cabinet of Donald Trump.

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Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Salt-cured meat

Salt-cured meat or salted meat is meat or fish preserved or cured with salt.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).

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Santa Claus's reindeer

In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to children on Christmas Eve.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.

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Sautéed reindeer

Sautéed reindeer (poronkäristys in Finnish, renskav in Swedish, finnbiff in Norwegian, báistebiđus in Sami) is perhaps the best known traditional meal from Lapland, especially in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia.

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Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.

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Sea of Okhotsk

The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.

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In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.

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Selkirk Mountains

The Selkirk Mountains are a mountain range spanning the northern portion of the Idaho Panhandle, eastern Washington, and southeastern British Columbia.

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Seward Peninsula

The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.

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Sheldon Jackson

Sheldon Jackson (May 18, 1834 – May 2, 1909) was a Presbyterian minister, missionary, and political leader.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sinus ostium

A sinus ostium is the opening that connects a sinus to the nasal cavity itself.

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Smoked meat

Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.

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A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

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South Georgia Island

South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Southampton Island

Southampton Island (Inuktitut: Shugliaq) is a large island at the entrance to Hudson Bay at Foxe Basin.

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Southern Norway

Southern Norway (Sørlandet; lit. "The Southland") is the geographical region (landsdel) along the Skagerrak coast of southern Norway.

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Southern Sami language

Southern or South Sami (åarjelsaemien gïele) is the southwestern-most of the Sami languages.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species at Risk Act

The Species at Risk Act (SARA) is a piece of Canadian federal legislation which became law in Canada on December 12, 2002.

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St. Matthew Island


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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.

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In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.

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Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.

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Svalbard reindeer

The Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) is a subspecies of the reindeer found on the Svalbard archipelago of Norway.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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Tanana, Alaska

Tanana (Hohudodetlaatl Denh in Koyukon) is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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Temperature gradient

A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.

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Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Teshekpuk Lake

Teshekpuk Lake is a -wide lake on the Arctic coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, South of Pitt Point, East of Harrison Bay, East of Point Barrow.

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The Canadian Encyclopedia

The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Threatened species

Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.

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Tomson Highway

Tomson Highway, CM (born 6 December 1951) at The Canadian Encyclopedia.

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Trapping pit

Trapping pits are deep pits dug into the ground, or built from stone, in order to trap animals.

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Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.

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Tuktut Nogait National Park

Tuktut Nogait National Park (established 1998) is a national park located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.

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In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Tutchone language

Tutchone is a Athabaskan language spoken by the Northern and Southern Tutchone First Nations in central and southern regions of Yukon Territory, Canada.

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Udmurt language

Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.

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Ulisse Aldrovandi

Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 – 4 May 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe.

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Ultradian rhythm

In chronobiology, an ultradian rhythm is a recurrent period or cycle repeated throughout a 24-hour day.

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Umeå University

Umeå University (Umeå universitet) is a university in Umeå in the mid-northern region of Sweden.

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Ungava Peninsula

The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United States Department of the Interior

The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.

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United States District Court for the District of Alaska

The United States District Court for the District of Alaska (in case citations, D. Alaska) is a federal court in the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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United States Revenue Cutter Service

The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by an act of Congress on 4 August 1790 as the Revenue-Marine upon the recommendation of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to serve as an armed customs enforcement service.

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United States Secretary of the Interior

The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Alaska system

The University of Alaska System is a university system in Alaska.

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University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut (UConn) is a public land grant, National Sea Grant and National Space Grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut, United States.

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University of Tromsø

The University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway (Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet; is the world's northernmost university. Located in the city of Tromsø, Norway, it was established in 1968, and opened in 1972. It is one of eight universities in Norway. The University of Tromsø is the largest research and educational institution in northern Norway. The University's location makes it a natural venue for the development of studies of the region's natural environment, culture, and society. The main focus of the University's activities is on the Auroral light research, Space science, Fishery science, Biotechnology, Linguistics, Multicultural societies, Saami culture, Telemedicine, epidemiology and a wide spectrum of Arctic research projects. The close vicinity of the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research and the Polar Environmental Centre gives Tromsø added weight and importance as an international centre for Arctic research. Research activities, however, are not limited to Arctic studies. The University researchers work within a broad range of subjects and are recognised both nationally and internationally. On 1 January 2009, the University of Tromsø merged with Tromsø University College. On 1 August 2013, the university merged with Finnmark University College to form Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet (The University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway), thereby adding campuses in Alta, Hammerfest and Kirkenes. On 1 January 2016, Narvik University College and Harstad University College merged with UiT - The Arctic University of Norway. As of January 2016 the university now has six campus locations in northern Norway, the main campus being Tromsø.

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Vadsø (Čáhcesuolu; Vesisaari) is a municipality in Finnmark County, Norway.

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Valerius Geist

Valerius Geist (born February 2, 1938) is a Canadian biologist and a professor emeritus in the Faculty of Environmental Design at the University of Calgary.

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Västerbotten, known in English as West Bothnia or Westrobothnia, is a province (landskap) in the north of Sweden, bordering Ångermanland, Lapland, North Bothnia, and the Gulf of Bothnia.

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Västerbotten County

Västerbotten County (Västerbottens län) is a county or län in the north of Sweden.

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Vågå is a municipality in Oppland county, Norway.

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Vulnerable species

A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.

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Wales, Alaska

Wales (Kiŋigin) is a city in the Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.

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Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.

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Wired UK

Wired UK is a full-colour monthly magazine that reports primarily on the effects of science and technology.

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The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.

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Woods Cree

Woods Cree is an autochthonous language spoken in Northern Manitoba and Northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yukaghir people

The Yukaghir, or Yukagir (юкаги́ры; self-designation: одул (odul), деткиль (detkil)) are a people in East Siberia, living in the basin of the Kolyma River.

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Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).

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Yukon River

The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America.

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The Yup'ik or Yupiaq (sg & pl) and Yupiit or Yupiat (pl), also Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Central Yup'ik, Alaskan Yup'ik (own name Yup'ik sg Yupiik dual Yupiit pl), are an Eskimo people of western and southwestern Alaska ranging from southern Norton Sound southwards along the coast of the Bering Sea on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (including living on Nelson and Nunivak Islands) and along the northern coast of Bristol Bay as far east as Nushagak Bay and the northern Alaska Peninsula at Naknek River and Egegik Bay.

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Yup'ik language

Central Alaskan Yup'ik or just Yup'ik (also called Yupik, Central Yupik, or indigenously Yugtun) is one of the languages of the Yupik family, in turn a member of the Eskimo–Aleut language group, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska.

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50th parallel north

The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Arctic caribou, Caribou, Caribou (North America), Caribou (zoology), Caribous, Cervus tarandus, Feral reindeer, Raindeer, Raindeers, Rangerine, Rangifer (genus), Rangifer tarandus, Rangiferine, Rein deer, Reindeer habitat, Reindeer herder, Reindeer herders, Reindeer husbandry, Reindeers, Woodland reindeer.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reindeer

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