Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows.
BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
In mathematics, a binary function (also called bivariate function, or function of two variables) is a function that takes two inputs.
In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
The C programming language has a set of functions implementing operations on strings (character strings and byte strings) in its standard library.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cocoa is Apple's native object-oriented application programming interface (API) for their operating system macOS.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
In programming languages, scientific calculators and similar common operator notation or operator grammar is a way to define and analyse mathematical and other formal expressions.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.
Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality.
An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
GNUstep is a free software implementation of the Cocoa (formerly OpenStep) Objective-C frameworks, widget toolkit, and application development tools for Unix-like operating systems and Microsoft Windows.
Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
In mathematics an identity is an equality relation A.
An identity in object-oriented programming, object-oriented design and object-oriented analysis describes the property of objects that distinguishes them from other objects.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), retaining the same implementation.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
In mathematics, the lexicographic or lexicographical order (also known as lexical order, dictionary order, alphabetical order or lexicographic(al) product) is a generalization of the way words are alphabetically ordered based on the alphabetical order of their component letters.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.
In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
Macsyma (Project MAC’s SYmbolic MAnipulator) is one of the oldest general purpose computer algebra systems which is still widely used.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
Maxima is a computer algebra system (CAS) based on a 1982 version of Macsyma.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language.
Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System), or M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing.
In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.
In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Oberon is a king of the fairies in medieval and Renaissance literature.
Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.
In programming, operator overloading, sometimes termed operator ad hoc polymorphism, is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Polish notation (PN), also known as normal Polish notation (NPN), Łukasiewicz notation, Warsaw notation, Polish prefix notation or simply prefix notation, is a mathematical notation in which operators precede their operands, in contrast to reverse Polish notation (RPN) in which operators follow their operands.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language.
In mathematical logic, a predicate is commonly understood to be a Boolean-valued function P: X→, called the predicate on X. However, predicates have many different uses and interpretations in mathematics and logic, and their precise definition, meaning and use will vary from theory to theory.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
qsort is a C standard library function that implements a polymorphic sorting algorithm for arrays of arbitrary objects according to a user-provided comparison function.
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
In computing, redirection is a form of interprocess communication, and is a function common to most command-line interpreters, including the various Unix shells that can redirect standard streams to user-specified locations.
In computer science, a reference is a value that enables a program to indirectly access a particular datum, such as a variable's value or a record, in the computer's memory or in some other storage device.
In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is reflexive if every element of X is related to itself.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store unique values, without any particular order.
SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets.
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.
A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
Standard ML (SML; "Standard Meta Language") is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.
In computer programming languages, a switch statement is a type of selection control mechanism used to allow the value of a variable or expression to change the control flow of program execution via a multiway branch.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
In mathematics, a ternary relation or triadic relation is a finitary relation in which the number of places in the relation is three.
In computer science, a three-way comparison takes two values A and B belonging to a type with a total order and determines whether A < B, A.
In mathematics, a binary relation over a set is transitive if whenever an element is related to an element and is related to an element then is also related to.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program.
VBScript ("Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition") is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft that is modeled on Visual Basic.
VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.
Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on the.NET Framework.
In mathematics, a well-order (or well-ordering or well-order relation) on a set S is a total order on S with the property that every non-empty subset of S has a least element in this ordering.
Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others.
In programming jargon, Yoda conditions (also called Yoda notation) is a programming style where the two parts of an expression are reversed from the typical order in a conditional statement.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
!=, .EQ., .GE., .GT., .LE., .LT., .NE., =!, ==, ===, Compare instruction, Comparison (computer programming), Comparison operator, Comparison operators, Comparison relation, Does not equal, Equality (computer programming), Equality (relational operator), Equality operator, Ifeq, Inequality operator, Relational expression, Relational operators, Relationship operator, Test operator, \ne, ~=, ⩵, ⩶.