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Index Relativism

Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration. [1]

176 relations: Aesthetics, Against Method, Anekantavada, Anno Domini, Anthropology, Aristotle, Śūnyatā, Bahá'í Faith and the unity of religion, Bart Kosko, Begging the question, Being, Belief, Bernard Crick, Bristol, C. S. Lewis, Catholic Church, Chaos theory, Charles Sanders Peirce, Common sense, Complex system, Conceptual metaphor, Continental philosophy, Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Correspondence theory of truth, Cultural relativism, Deflationary theory of truth, Degree of truth, Dispute resolution, Emic and etic, Epistemology, Epistle to the Ephesians, Ernest Gellner, Essentialism, Ethics, Ethnocentrism, Evangelium vitae, Factual relativism, False dilemma, Feminism, Freemasonry, Fuzzy logic, Gas laws, George Lakoff, God, Graded absolutism, Green politics, Guru Granth Sahib, Hamlet, Harm reduction, Heraclitus, ..., Hilary Putnam, Hinduism, History, Horace Romano Harré, Human condition, Humanum genus, Ik Onkar, Immanuel Kant, Indian religions, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Invariances, Isaiah Berlin, Jack Meiland, Jainism, Jesus, John Hick, Joseph Margolis, Karl Popper, Linguistic relativity, Lord, Madhyamaka, Mahavira, Mahayana, Many-valued logic, Maria Baghramian, Mark Johnson (philosopher), Martin Hollis (philosopher), Max Stirner, McGraw-Hill Education, Mediation, Mere Christianity, Metaphor, Methodology, Michael Krausz, Michel Foucault, Mind, Moral relativism, Nagarjuna, Natural law, Norm (philosophy), Normal science, Normative ethics, Ontic, Ontology, Paradigm shift, Paradox, Paul Boghossian, Paul Feyerabend, Paul the Apostle, Peacemaking, Performative contradiction, Perspectivism, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophical realism, Philosophy, Philosophy Now, Physics World, Pierre Lecomte du Noüy, Plato, Pluralism (philosophy), Point of view (philosophy), Politics, Polylogism, Pope, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Pope Leo XIII, Post-anarchism, Post-Marxism, Post-structuralism, Postmodernism, Postpositivism, Pragmatism, Principle of bivalence, Propositional calculus, Protagoras, Quantum mechanics, Relational theory, Relationalism, Religiocentrism, Richard Dawkins, Richard Rorty, Righteousness, Rigveda, Robert Nozick, Salvation, Science wars, Scientific progress, Scientism, Secularism, Self-refuting idea, Sikh, Sikh gurus, Sikhism, Sin, Skepticism, Social constructionism, Social constructivism, Socrates, Sophist, Stanley Fish, Steven Lukes, Straw man, Strong programme, Subject (philosophy), Subjectivism, Subjunctive possibility, The God Delusion, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Theaetetus (dialogue), Theory of justification, Theory of relativity, Thomas Kuhn, Tirthankara, Truth, Truth value, Two truths doctrine, Ubiquity Press, Uncertainty principle, Universality (philosophy), University of Massachusetts Press, Value (ethics), Veritatis splendor, Western world, World view, World Youth Day 2005. Expand index (126 more) »


Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Against Method

Against Method: Outline of an Anarchist Theory of Knowledge is a 1975 book about the philosophy of science by Paul Feyerabend, in which the author argues that science is an anarchic enterprise, not a nomic (customary) one.

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(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.

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Bahá'í Faith and the unity of religion

Unity of religion is a core teaching of the Bahá'í Faith which states that there is a fundamental unity in many of the world's religions.

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Bart Kosko

Bart Andrew Kosko (born February 7, 1960) is a writer and professor of electrical engineering and law at the University of Southern California (USC).

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Begging the question

Begging the question is a logical fallacy which occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.

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Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Bernard Crick

Sir Bernard Rowland Crick (16 December 1929 – 19 December 2008) was a British political theorist and democratic socialist whose views can be summarised as "politics is ethics done in public".

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Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.

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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Common sense

Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Conceptual metaphor

In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity

Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity is a 1989 book by the American philosopher Richard Rorty, based on two sets of lectures he gave at University College, London and at Trinity College, Cambridge.

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Correspondence theory of truth

The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.

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Cultural relativism

Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.

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Deflationary theory of truth

In philosophy and logic, a deflationary theory of truth is one of a family of theories that all have in common the claim that assertions of predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called "truth" to such a statement.

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Degree of truth

In standard mathematics, propositions can typically be considered unambiguously true or false.

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Dispute resolution

Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.

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Emic and etic

In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Epistle to the Ephesians

The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.

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Ernest Gellner

Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".

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Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.

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Evangelium vitae

Evangelium vitae, translated in English to "The Gospel of Life", is a papal encyclical promulgated on 25 March 1995 by Pope John Paul II.

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Factual relativism

Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.

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False dilemma

A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.

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Gas laws

The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases.

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George Lakoff

George P. Lakoff (born May 24, 1941) is an American cognitive linguist and philosopher, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are significantly influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Graded absolutism

Graded absolutism is a theory of moral absolutism in Christian ethics which resolves the objection to absolutism that in moral conflicts we are obligated to opposites.

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Green politics

Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.

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Harm reduction

Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.

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Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.

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Hilary Putnam

Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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Horace Romano Harré

Horace Romano Harré (born 1927), known widely as Rom Harré, is a distinguished British philosopher and psychologist.

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Human condition

The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".

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Humanum genus

Humanum genus is a papal encyclical promulgated on 20 April 1884 by Pope Leo XIII.

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Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar (Gurmukhi:, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ) is the symbol that represents the One Supreme Reality and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Invariances is a 2001 book by Robert Nozick, his last book before his death in 2002.

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Isaiah Berlin

Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.

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Jack Meiland

Jack W. Meiland (1934–1998) was an American philosopher and educator.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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John Hick

John Harwood Hick (20 January 1922 – 9 February 2012) was a philosopher of religion and theologian born in England who taught in the United States for the larger part of his career.

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Joseph Margolis

Joseph Zalman Margolis (born May 16, 1924) is an American philosopher.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Linguistic relativity

The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.

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Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.

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Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).

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Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

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Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Many-valued logic

In logic, a many-valued logic (also multi- or multiple-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two truth values.

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Maria Baghramian

Maria Baghramian is a professor of philosophy at the University College Dublin (UCD).

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Mark Johnson (philosopher)

Mark L. Johnson (born 24 May 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri) is Knight Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Oregon.

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Martin Hollis (philosopher)

James Martin Hollis (14 March 1938 – 27 February 1998) was an English rationalist philosopher.

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Max Stirner

Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.

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Mere Christianity

Mere Christianity is a theological book by C. S. Lewis, adapted from a series of BBC radio talks made between 1941 and 1944, while Lewis was at Oxford during the Second World War.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michael Krausz

Michael Krausz (born 1942) is a Swiss-born American philosopher as well as an artist and orchestral conductor.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Moral relativism

Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.

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Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Norm (philosophy)

Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.

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Normal science

Normal science, identified and elaborated on by Thomas Samuel Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is the regular work of scientists theorizing, observing, and experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework.

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Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.

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In philosophy, ontic (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: "of that which is") is physical, real, or factual existence.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

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A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.

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Paul Boghossian

Paul Boghossian (born 1957) is an American philosopher.

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Paul Feyerabend

Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Peacemaking is practical conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, or among parties, that had previously engaged in inappropriate (i.e. violent) responses to conflict.

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Performative contradiction

A performative contradiction (performativer Widerspruch) arises when the propositional content of a statement contradicts the presuppositions of asserting it.

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Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives, and that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Philosophical realism

Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy Now

Philosophy Now is a bimonthly philosophy magazine sold from news-stands and book stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada; it is also available on digital devices, and online.

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Physics World

Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.

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Pierre Lecomte du Noüy

Pierre Lecomte du Noüy (20 December 1883, Paris - 22 September 1947, New York City) was a French biophysicist and philosopher.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pluralism (philosophy)

Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").

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Point of view (philosophy)

In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view".

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Polylogism is the belief that different groups of people reason in fundamentally different ways (coined from Greek poly.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII (Leone; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death.

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Post-anarchism or postanarchism is an anarchist philosophy that employs post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches (the term post-structuralist anarchism is used as well, so as not to suggest having moved beyond anarchism).

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Post-Marxism (not post-modernism) is a trend in political philosophy and social theory, which deconstructs Karl Marx's writings and Marxism proper, bypassing orthodox Marxism.

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Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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In philosophy and models of scientific inquiry, postpositivism (also called postempiricism) is a metatheoretical stance that critiques and amends positivism.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Principle of bivalence

In logic, the semantic principle (or law) of bivalence states that every declarative sentence expressing a proposition (of a theory under inspection) has exactly one truth value, either true or false.

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Propositional calculus

Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.

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Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Relational theory

In physics and philosophy, a relational theory is a framework to understand reality or a physical system in such a way that the positions and other properties of objects are only meaningful relative to other objects.

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Relationalism is any theoretical position that gives importance to the relational nature of things.

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Religiocentrism or religio-centrism is defined (Corsini 1999:827) as the "conviction that a person's own religion is more important or superior to other religions." In analogy to ethnocentrism, religiocentrism is a value-neutral term for psychological attitude.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Righteousness is defined as "the quality of being morally correct and justifiable." It can also be considered synonymous with "rightness".

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Science wars

The science wars were a series of intellectual exchanges, between scientific realists and postmodernist critics, about the nature of scientific theory and intellectual inquiry.

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Scientific progress

Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.

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Scientism is the ideology of science.

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Self-refuting idea

Self-refuting ideas or self-defeating ideas are ideas or statements whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikh gurus

The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.

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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Social constructivism

Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.

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Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

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Stanley Fish

Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.

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Steven Lukes

Steven Michael Lukes FBA (born 1941) is a British political and social theorist.

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Straw man

A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.

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Strong programme

The strong programme or strong sociology is a variety of the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) particularly associated with David Bloor, Barry Barnes, Harry Collins, Donald A. MacKenzie, and John Henry.

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Subject (philosophy)

A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").

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Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.

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Subjunctive possibility

Subjunctive possibility (also called alethic possibility) is the form of modality most frequently studied in modal logic.

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The God Delusion

The God Delusion is a 2006 best-selling non-fiction book by English biologist Richard Dawkins, a professorial fellow at New College, Oxford and former holder of the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford.

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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.

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Theaetetus (dialogue)

The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.

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Theory of justification

Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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Two truths doctrine

The Buddhist doctrine of the two truths differentiates between two levels of satya (Sanskrit), meaning truth or "really existing" in the discourse of the Buddha: the "conventional" or "provisional" truth, and the "ultimate" truth.

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Ubiquity Press

Ubiquity Press is a United Kingdom-based academic publisher focusing on open access publication.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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Universality (philosophy)

In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.

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University of Massachusetts Press

The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Veritatis splendor

Veritatis splendor (Latin: The Splendor of the Truth) is an encyclical by Pope John Paul II.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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World Youth Day 2005

The 20th World Youth Day (XX.) was a Catholic youth festival that started on August 16 and continued until August 21, 2005 in Cologne, Germany.

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Redirects here:

Consistent Cancellation Clause, In Defense of Relativity., Paradox of relativism, Postmodern relativism, Relatavism, Relativist, Relativity of Knowledge, Relativity of knowledge.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relativism

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