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Relief

Index Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. [1]

191 relations: Agostino di Duccio, Ajanta Caves, Akhenaten, Alhambra, Altarpiece, Amarna Period, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek sculpture, Ancient Maya art, Ancient Near East, Ancient Roman pottery, Angkor, Angkor Thom, Angkor Wat, Anglo-Saxon art, Apsara, Ara Pacis, Arabesque, Art Deco, Art of ancient Egypt, Assyrian sculpture, Atropos, Aztecs, Babylon, Baltimore, Bassae Frieze, Bayon, Berlin Gold Hat, Berthouville Treasure, Bimaran casket, Bishopsgate, Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, Borobudur, Bourges Cathedral, British Museum, Bronze, Buddhist art, Cambodia, Cameo (carving), Cartouche, Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264), Casting, Casting (metalworking), Cave painting, Central Java, Ceramic art, Chartres Cathedral, Chisel, Christ in Majesty, Cloisters Cross, ..., Column of Marcus Aurelius, Consular diptych, Cornice, Decorative arts, Descent of the Ganges (Mahabalipuram), Devata, Diptych, Donatello, Egyptian temple, Elephanta Caves, Elgin Marbles, Elizabeth Wyn Wood, Ellora Caves, Engraved gem, Eric Gill, Franks Casket, Frieze, Frieze of Parnassus, Funerary art, Gautama Buddha, Gothic art, Granite, Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Gundestrup cauldron, Harbaville Triptych, Hardstone carving, Hardwick Hall, Hellenistic period, Hieroglyph, Hindu art, History of Iran, India, Indonesia, Iowa City, Iowa, Iran, Ishtar Gate, Islamic architecture, Islamic art, Italian language, Ivory carving, Jataka tales, Java, Kama Sutra, Karnak, Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Khmer Empire, Late antiquity, Leon Battista Alberti, Lintel, Lion Capital of Ashoka, Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, Lokapala, Lomellini Ewer and Basin, London, Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus, Ludovisi Throne, Luxor Temple, Luxury goods, Lycurgus Cup, Maryland, Maya stelae, Medieval art, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, Metalworking, Metopes of the Parthenon, Mildenhall Treasure, Missorium of Theodosius I, Moissac, Monumental sculpture, Mount Rushmore, Mount Vesuvius, Naqsh-e Rajab, Naqsh-e Rustam, Near East, Nefertiti, Nelson's Column, Neoclassical architecture, New Testament, New York City, Nimrud ivories, Nineveh, Ornament (art), Oxford Art Online, Palace of Fontainebleau, Panagyurishte Treasure, Papier-mâché, Pargeting, Paris, Parthenon Frieze, Pediment, Pergamon Altar, Persepolis, Persian Empire, Plane (geometry), Plaquette, Plaster, Pompeii, Portland Vase, Portonaccio sarcophagus, Prambanan, Qajar dynasty, Ramayana, Relief, Relief carving, Relief printing, Renaissance, Repoussé and chasing, Rimini, Robert Gould Shaw, Rock relief, Roman sculpture, Romanesque art, Ryerson University, Sacrifice, Samudra manthan, Sanchi, Sarcophagus, Sasanian Empire, Seal (emblem), Shapur I, Southeast Asia, Stanford University Press, Stele, Stone carving, Stone Mountain, Stucco, Tangeh Savashi, Tempio Malatestiano, Terra sigillata, Toronto, Trajan's Column, Triptych, Tripura, Triumphal arch, Unakoti, Veroli Casket, Victory column, Warren Cup, Wax, Yaxchilan. Expand index (141 more) »

Agostino di Duccio

Agostino di Duccio (1418 &ndash) was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor.

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Ajanta Caves

The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India.

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Akhenaten

Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.

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Alhambra

The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.

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Altarpiece

An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture or relief representing a religious subject made for placing behind the altar of a Christian church.

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Amarna Period

The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek sculpture

Ancient Greek sculpture is the sculpture of ancient Greece.

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Ancient Maya art

Ancient Maya art refers to the material arts of the Maya civilization, an eastern and south-eastern Mesoamerican culture that took shape in the course of the later Preclassic Period (500 BCE to 200 CE).

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Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Ancient Roman pottery

Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.

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Angkor

Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.

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Angkor Thom

Angkor Thom (អង្គរធំ; literally: "Great City"), (alternate name: Nokor Thom, នគរធំ) located in present-day Cambodia, was the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer empire.

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Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.

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Anglo-Saxon art

Anglo-Saxon art covers art produced within the Anglo-Saxon period of English history, beginning with the Migration period style that the Anglo-Saxons brought with them from the continent in the 5th century, and ending in 1066 with the Norman Conquest of a large Anglo-Saxon nation-state whose sophisticated art was influential in much of northern Europe.

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Apsara

An apsara, also spelled as apsaras by the Oxford Dictionary (respective plurals apsaras and apsarases), is a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu culture.

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Ara Pacis

The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.

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Arabesque

The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Art of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD.

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Assyrian sculpture

Assyrian sculpture is the sculpture of the ancient Assyrian states, especially the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911 to 612 BC, which ruled modern Iraq, Syria, and much of Iran.

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Atropos

Atropos or Aisa (Ἄτροπος "without turn"), in Greek mythology, was one of the three Moirai, goddesses of fate and destiny.

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Aztecs

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Babylon

Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Baltimore

Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.

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Bassae Frieze

The Bassae Frieze is the high relief marble sculpture in 23 panels, 31m long by 0.63m high, made to decorate the interior of the cella of the Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassae.

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Bayon

The Bayon (ប្រាសាទបាយ័ន, Prasat Bayon) is a well-known and richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor in Cambodia.

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Berlin Gold Hat

The Berlin Gold Hat or Berlin Golden Hat (German: Berliner Goldhut) is a Late Bronze Age artefact made of thin gold leaf.

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Berthouville Treasure

The Berthouville treasure is a hoard of Roman silver uncovered by ploughing in March 1830 at the hamlet of Villeret in the commune of Berthouville in the Eure département of Normandy, northern France.

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Bimaran casket

The Bimaran casket or Bimaran reliquary is a small gold reliquary for Buddhist relics that was found inside the stupa no.2 at Bimaran, near Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan.

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Bishopsgate

Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and also the name of a major road (part of the A10) between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of London's main financial district.

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Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III is a black limestone Assyrian sculpture with many scenes in bas-relief and inscriptions.

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Borobudur

Borobudur, or Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

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Bourges Cathedral

Bourges Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Bourges) is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Buddhist art

Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism.

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Cameo (carving)

Cameo is a method of carving an object such as an engraved gem, item of jewellery or vessel.

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Cartouche

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name.

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Casket with Scenes of Romances (Walters 71264)

The object called by the museum Casket with Scenes of Romances (catalogued as Walters 71264) is a French Gothic ivory casket made in Paris between 1330 and 1350, and now in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

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Casting

Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.

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Casting (metalworking)

In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.

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Cave painting

Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.

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Central Java

Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.

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Ceramic art

Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.

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Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a Roman Catholic church of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.

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Chisel

A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.

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Christ in Majesty

Christ in Majesty or Christ in Glory (Maiestas Domini) is the Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world, always seen frontally in the centre of the composition, and often flanked by other sacred figures, whose membership changes over time and according to the context.

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Cloisters Cross

The Cloisters Cross, also referred to as the Bury St Edmunds Cross, is an unusually complex 12th century ivory Romanesque altar cross in The Cloisters, part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

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Column of Marcus Aurelius

The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Columna Centenaria Divorum Marci et Faustinae, Colonna di Marco Aurelio) is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy.

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Consular diptych

In Late Antiquity, a consular diptych was a type of diptych intended as a de-luxe commemorative object.

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Cornice

A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element – the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall.

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Decorative arts

The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.

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Descent of the Ganges (Mahabalipuram)

Descent of the Ganges is a monument at Mamallapuram, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, in the Kancheepuram district of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Devata

Deva is the Hindu term for deity; however, devata (Devanagari: देवता; Khmer: ទេវតា (tevoda); Javanese, Balinese, Sundanese, Malay and Indonesian: dewata; Batak languages: debata (Toba), dibata (Karo), naibata (Simalungun); Philippine languages: diwata) is a smaller, more focused deva.

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Diptych

A diptych (from the Greek δίπτυχον, di "two" + ptychē "fold") is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge.

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Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.

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Egyptian temple

Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.

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Elephanta Caves

Elephanta Caves are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a collection of cave temples predominantly dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva.

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Elgin Marbles

The Elgin Marbles (/ˈel gin/), also known as the Parthenon Marbles, are a collection of Classical Greek marble sculptures made under the supervision of the architect and sculptor Phidias and his assistants.

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Elizabeth Wyn Wood

Elizabeth Winnifred Wood (October 8, 1903 – January 27, 1966) known as Elizabeth Wyn Wood, was a Canadian sculptor and advocate of art education.

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Ellora Caves

Ellora (\e-ˈlȯr-ə\, IAST), located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India, is one of the largest rock-cut monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments, and artwork, dating from the 600-1000 CE period.

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Engraved gem

An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.

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Eric Gill

Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.

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Franks Casket

The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.

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Frieze

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

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Frieze of Parnassus

The Frieze of Parnassus is a large sculpted stone frieze encircling the podium, or base, of the Albert Memorial in London, England.

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Funerary art

Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gothic art

Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram

The group of monuments at Mahabalipuram is a collection of 7th- and 8th-century CE religious monuments in the coastal resort town of Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu, India and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Gundestrup cauldron

The Gundestrup cauldron is a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date from between 200 BC and 300 AD,Nielsen, S; Andersen, J; Baker, J; Christensen, C; Glastrup, J; et al.

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Harbaville Triptych

The Harbaville Triptych is a Byzantine ivory triptych of the middle of the 10th century with a Deesis and other saints, now in the Louvre.

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Hardstone carving

Hardstone carving is a general term in art history and archaeology for the artistic carving of predominantly semi-precious stones (but also of gemstones), such as jade, rock crystal (clear quartz), agate, onyx, jasper, serpentine, or carnelian, and for an object made in this way.

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Hardwick Hall

Hardwick Hall, in Derbyshire, is an architecturally significant Elizabethan country house in England, a leading example of the Elizabethan prodigy house.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Hieroglyph

A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.

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Hindu art

Hindu art encompasses the artistic traditions and styles culturally connected to Hinduism and have a long history of religious association with Hindu scriptures, rituals and worship.

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History of Iran

The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Iowa City, Iowa

Iowa City is a city in Johnson County, Iowa, United States.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Ivory carving

Ivory carving is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually.

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Jataka tales

The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.

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Java

Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Kama Sutra

The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.

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Karnak

The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.

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Khajuraho Group of Monuments

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India, about southeast of Jhansi.

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Khmer Empire

The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.

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Lintel

A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.

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Lion Capital of Ashoka

The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals.

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Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal

The royal Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal is shown on a famous group of Assyrian palace reliefs from the North Palace of Nineveh that are now displayed in room 10a of the British Museum.

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Lokapala

Lokapāla, Sanskrit and Pāli for "guardian of the world", has different uses depending on whether it is found in a Hindu or Buddhist context.

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Lomellini Ewer and Basin

This silver ewer and basin, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, was originally part of a set of six.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus

The Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus or "Great" Ludovisi sarcophagus is an ancient Roman sarcophagus dating to around AD 250–260 from a tomb near the Porta Tiburtina.

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Ludovisi Throne

The Ludovisi Throne is an ancient sculpted block of white marble hollowed at the back and carved with bas-reliefs on the three outer faces.

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Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the Nile River in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was constructed approximately 1400 BCE.

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Luxury goods

In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.

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Lycurgus Cup

The Lycurgus Cup is a 4th-century Roman glass cage cup made of a dichroic glass, which shows a different colour depending on whether or not light is passing through it; red when lit from behind and green when lit from in front.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Maya stelae

Maya stelae (singular stela) are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica.

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Medieval art

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metalworking

Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.

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Metopes of the Parthenon

The metopes of the Parthenon are the surviving set of what were originally 92 square carved plaques of Pentelic marble originally located above the columns of the Parthenon peristyle on the Acropolis of Athens.

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Mildenhall Treasure

The Mildenhall Treasure is a large hoard of 34 masterpieces of Roman silver tableware from the 4th century AD, and by far the most valuable Roman objects artistically and by weight of bullion in Britain.

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Missorium of Theodosius I

The Missorium of Theodosius I is a large ceremonial silver dish preserved in the Real Academia de la Historia, in Madrid, Spain.

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Moissac

Moissac is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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Monumental sculpture

The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently.

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Mount Rushmore

Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States.

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Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

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Naqsh-e Rajab

Naqsh-e Rajab (نقش رجب) is an archaeological site just west of Istakhr and about 5 km north of Persepolis in Fars Province, Iran.

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Naqsh-e Rustam

Naqsh-e Rustam (نقش رستم) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Nefertiti

Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh.

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Nelson's Column

Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nimrud ivories

The Nimrud ivories are carved ivory plaques and figures dating from the 9th to the 7th centuries BC that were excavated from the Assyrian city of Nimrud (in modern Ninawa in Iraq) during the 19th and 20th centuries.

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Nineveh

Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.

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Ornament (art)

In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.

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Oxford Art Online

Oxford Art Online (formerly known as Grove Art Online, previous to that The Dictionary of Art and often referred to as The Grove Dictionary of Art) is a large encyclopedia of art, now part of the online reference publications of Oxford University Press, and previously a 34-volume printed encyclopedia first published by Grove in 1996 and reprinted with minor corrections in 1998.

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Palace of Fontainebleau

The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.

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Panagyurishte Treasure

The Panagyurishte Treasure (Панагюрско златно съкровище) is a Thracian treasure.

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Papier-mâché

Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.

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Pargeting

Pargeting (or sometimes pargetting) is a decorative or waterproofing plastering applied to building walls.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parthenon Frieze

The Parthenon frieze is the high-relief pentelic marble sculpture created to adorn the upper part of the Parthenon’s naos.

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Pediment

A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.

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Pergamon Altar

The Pergamon Altar is a monumental construction built during the reign of king Eumenes II in the first half of the 2nd century BC on one of the terraces of the acropolis of the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor.

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Persepolis

Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

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Plaquette

A plaquette (small plaque) is a small low relief sculpture in bronze or other materials.

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Plaster

Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Pompeii

Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Portland Vase

The Portland Vase is a Roman cameo glass vase, which is dated to between AD 1 and AD 25, though low BC dates have some scholarly support.

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Portonaccio sarcophagus

The Portonaccio sarcophagus is a 2nd-century ancient Roman sarcophagus found in the Portonaccio quarter of Rome and now held at the Museo Nazionale Romano (palazzo Massimo).

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Prambanan

Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang (Rara Jonggrang) is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimurti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Transformer (Shiva).

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Ramayana

Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Relief carving

Relief carving as a type of wood carving in which figures are carved in a flat panel of wood.

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Relief printing

Relief printing is a family of printing methods where a printing block, plate or matrix that has had ink applied to its surface, but not to any recessed areas, is brought into contact with paper.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Repoussé and chasing

Repoussé or repoussage (respectively) is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief.

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Rimini

Rimini (Rémin; Ariminum) is a city of about 150,000 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini.

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Robert Gould Shaw

Robert Gould Shaw (October 10, 1837 – July 18, 1863) was an American soldier in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

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Rock relief

A rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone.

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Roman sculpture

The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture.

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Romanesque art

Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.

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Ryerson University

Ryerson University (commonly referred to as Ryerson) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Sacrifice

Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.

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Samudra manthan

The samudra manthana (Sanskrit: समुद्रमन्थन, lit. churning of the ocean) is one of the best-known episodes in the Hindu mythology, narrated in the Bhagavata Purana, in the Mahabharata and in the Vishnu Purana.

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Sanchi

Sanchi Stupa, also written Sanci, is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

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Sarcophagus

A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Seal (emblem)

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.

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Shapur I

Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stele

A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Stone carving

Stone carving is an activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone.

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Stone Mountain

Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park near Stone Mountain, Georgia.

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Stucco

Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.

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Tangeh Savashi

Tangeh Savashi (Persian: تنگ ساواشی) or Tangeh Vashi (Persian: تنگ واشی) is a gorge and mountain pass in the Alborz range of Iran (Persia).

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Tempio Malatestiano

The Tempio Malatestiano is the unfinished cathedral church of Rimini, Italy.

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Terra sigillata

Terra sigillata is a term with at least three distinct meanings: as a description of medieval medicinal earth; in archaeology, as a general term for some of the fine red Ancient Roman pottery with glossy surface slips made in specific areas of the Roman Empire; and more recently, as a description of a contemporary studio pottery technique supposedly inspired by ancient pottery.

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Toronto

Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Trajan's Column

Trajan's Column (Colonna Traiana, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.

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Triptych

A triptych (from the Greek adjective τρίπτυχον "triptukhon" ("three-fold"), from tri, i.e., "three" and ptysso, i.e., "to fold" or ptyx, i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open.

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Tripura

Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.

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Triumphal arch

A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.

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Unakoti

Unakoti hill, literally meaning one less a koti in Bengali, hosts an ancient Shaivite place of worship with huge rock reliefs celebrating Shiva.

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Veroli Casket

The Veroli Casket is a casket, made in Constantinople (now Istanbul) in the late tenth or early eleventh century, and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

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Victory column

A victory column—or monumental column or triumphal column—is a monument in the form of a column, erected in memory of a victorious battle, war, or revolution.

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Warren Cup

The Warren Cup is a silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts.

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Wax

Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Yaxchilan

Yaxchilan is an ancient Maya city located on the bank of the Usumacinta River in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

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Alto relievo, Alto rilievo, Alto-Relievo, Alto-relievo, Alto-rilievo, Bah relief, Bas relief, Bas reliefs, Bas-Relief, Bas-relief, Bas-reliefs, Bas-relieves, Basrelief, Basreliefs, Bass reliefs, Bass-relief, Basso Relievo, Basso relievo, Basso-Relievo, Basso-relievo, Basso-rilievo, Bassorelievo, Bassorilievo, Counter-relief, Egyptian reliefs, Haut relief, High relief, High reliefs, High-relief, Hollow relief, Hollow-relief, Low relief, Low-relief, Mid-relief, Relief (art), Relief sculpture, Relief-bas, Reliefs, Rilievo schiacciato, Stone relief, Sunk relief, Sunk-relief, Sunken relief, Sunken reliefs, Sunken-relief, Sunken-reliefs.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relief

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