362 relations: Aeneas, Aeneid, Africa (Roman province), Alban Hills, Alexandre Grandazzi, Altar, Altar of Victory, Ambitus, Ambrose, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Ancus Marcius, Animal sacrifice, Anna Perenna, Antiquarian, Apollo, Apollonius of Tyana, Apostasy, Apotheosis, Apuleius, Arcadia, Ares, Arianism, Ariccia, Arnaldo Momigliano, Artemis, Arval Brethren, Atheism, Augur, Augury, Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustus, Aurelian, Aventine Hill, Bacchanalia, Bar Kokhba revolt, Barbarian, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Pharsalus, Bellona (goddess), Bona Dea, Bordeaux, Campus Martius, Capitoline Triad, Caristia, Castor and Pollux, Cato the Elder, Ceres (mythology), Chariot racing, Child abandonment, ..., Christian apologetics, Chronography of 354, Chthonic, Church Fathers, Cicero, Claudius, Clifford Ando, College of Pontiffs, Compitalia, Concordia (mythology), Conflict of the Orders, Constans, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Constantius Chlorus, Constantius II, Consualia, Council of Tours, Creation myth, Crisis of the Roman Republic, Culture of ancient Rome, Curse tablet, Cursus honorum, Cybele, Dīs Pater, Decius, Devotio, Di inferi, Di Penates, Diana (mythology), Diocles of Peparethus, Diocletian, Diocletianic Persecution, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dionysus, Djémila, Druid, Early Christianity, Ennius, Epicureanism, Epona, Epulum Jovis, Erichtho, Ethnic religion, Etruscan architecture, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan mythology, Euhemerus, Eusebius, Evander of Pallene, Expansionism, Fascinus, Fasti, Fasti (poem), Fauna (deity), Faunus, Feralia, Feriae Latinae, Fetial, First Council of Nicaea, First Jewish–Roman War, First Punic War, Flamen, Fordicidia, Forum Boarium, Founding of Rome, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Genius (mythology), Gens, Gladiator, Glossary of ancient Roman religion, Gratian, Great Altar of Hercules, Great Fire of Rome, Greco-Roman mysteries, Greek Magical Papyri, Greek mythology, Hadrian, Hannibal, Haruspex, Hebe (mythology), Hellenistic religion, Hellenization, Hercules, Hercules in ancient Rome, Heresy in Christianity, Holocaust (sacrifice), Household deity, Iamblichus, Ides of March, Imperial cult of ancient Rome, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Interpretatio graeca, Isis, Janus, Jörg Rüpke, Jewish diaspora, John Scheid, Judaism, Julia (gens), Julian (emperor), Julius Caesar, Junia (gens), Juno (mythology), Jupiter (mythology), Juventas, King of Rome, Kings of Alba Longa, Lares, Late antiquity, Latin League, Latin literature, Latium, Legend, Lemures, Lex Ogulnia, Libation, Liber, Libera (mythology), Liberalia, List of Roman birth and childhood deities, List of Roman deities, Livia, Livius Andronicus, Livy, Lucan, Lucina (mythology), Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Lucretius, Lucus, Ludi, Ludi Romani, Lugdunum, Lupercalia, Magi, Magic in the Graeco-Roman world, Magna Graecia, Manes, Marcellus of Tangier, Marcus Furius Camillus, Marcus Marius Gratidianus, Marcus Terentius Varro, Mars (mythology), Mary Beard (classicist), Maximilian of Tebessa, Minerva, Mithraism, Mola salsa, Monism, Monotheism, Mos maiorum, Mother of the Lares, Mythology, Necromancy, Neoplatonism, Nero, Nicene Christianity, Nicene Creed, Nodens, Numa Pompilius, Old St. Peter's Basilica, Olla (Roman pot), Omen, Onuava, Origen, Orthopraxy, Ovid, Pacatus Drepanius, Palatine Hill, Palestrina, Palladium (classical antiquity), Palmyra, Pantheism, Pantheon (religion), Parentalia, Parilia, Pater familias, Patronage in ancient Rome, Pessinus, Phallus, Philip the Arab, Philostorgius, Philostratus, Pietas, Plebs, Pliny the Elder, Polemius Silvius, Pomerium, Pompeii, Pompey, Pontifex maximus, Pontiff, Primus inter pares, Princeps, Principate, Priscian, Propitiation, Prudentius, Publius Claudius Pulcher (consul 249 BC), Publius Clodius Pulcher, Publius Decius Mus (consul 279 BC), Publius Decius Mus (consul 312 BC), Publius Decius Mus (consul 340 BC), Punic Wars, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, Quintus Fabius Pictor, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur, Quirinus, R. E. A. Palmer, Ramsay MacMullen, Relic, Religio licita, Religion in ancient Rome, René Cagnat, Res gestae, Res publica, Rex Sacrorum, Rhea Silvia, Robigalia, Robin Lane Fox, Roman art, Roman Britain, Roman calendar, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan, Roman consul, Roman dictator, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Roman funerary practices, Roman historiography, Roman Kingdom, Roman magistrate, Roman mythology, Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman temple, Roman triumph, Rome, Romulus and Remus, Rooster, Sabines, Sabratha, Sacramentum (oath), Sacred fire of Vesta, Sacred grove, Salii, Saturnalia, Scipio Africanus, Second Punic War, Secular Games, Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, Separation of church and state, Serapeum, Serapis, Servius Tullius, Sextus Pompey, Sibylline Oracles, Silenus, Slavery in ancient Rome, Social class in ancient Rome, Sol Invictus, Spolia opima, SPQR, Squatting position, State church of the Roman Empire, Stoicism, Sulla, T. P. Wiseman, Terra (mythology), Tertullian, The Rape of the Sabine Women, Theatre of ancient Rome, Theodosius I, Thessaly, Tiburtine Sibyl, Tivoli, Lazio, Toleration, Tophet, Topography of ancient Rome, Topos, Trajan, Tribune of the Plebs, Triple deity, Trojan War, Tullus Hostilius, Tusculum, Tutelary deity, Twelve Olympians, Twelve Tables, Vagdavercustis, Valerian (emperor), Vates, Venus (mythology), Ver sacrum, Verres, Vertault, Vesta (mythology), Vestal Virgin, Vestalia, Via Sacra, Victoria (mythology), Vicus, Vitruvius, Votum, William Warde Fowler, Women in ancient Rome. Expand index (312 more) » « Shrink index
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The Alban Hills are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located southeast of Rome and about north of Anzio.
Alexandre Grandazzi (born 8 February 1957) is a French university professor, a specialist of archaeology and Roman history.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) and bore a gold statue of the goddess Victory.
In ancient Roman law, ambitus was a crime of political corruption, mainly a candidate's attempt to influence the outcome of an election through bribery or other forms of soft power.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancus Marcius (–617 BC; reigned 642–617 BC)"Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity.
Anna Perenna was an old Roman deity of the circle or "ring" of the year, as the name (per annum) clearly indicates.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollonius of Tyana (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD), sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Anatolia.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
Ariccia (Latin: Aricia) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, 16 miles (25 km) south-east of Rome.
Arnaldo Dante Momigliano, KBE (5 September 1908 – 1 September 1987) was an Italian historian known for his work in historiography, characterised by Donald Kagan as "the world's leading student of the writing of history in the ancient world".
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren (Fratres Arvales, "Brothers of the Fields") or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds (aves).
Augustan literature is the period of Latin literature written during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman emperor.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
The Aventine Hill (Collis Aventinus; Aventino) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built.
The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus, based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
Bellona was an ancient Roman goddess of war.
Bona Dea ('Good Goddess') was a divinity in ancient Roman religion.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.
The Capitoline Triad was a group of three deities who were worshipped in ancient Roman religion in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill (Latin Capitolium).
In ancient Rome, the Caristia, also known as the Cara Cognatio, was an official but privately observed holiday on February 22, that celebrated love of family with banqueting and gifts.
Castor and Pollux (or in Greek, Polydeuces) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.
The Chronography of 354, also known as the Calendar of 354, was a 4th-century illuminated manuscript, which was produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus by the calligrapher and illuminator Furius Dionysius Filocalus.
Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Clifford Ando (born 1969) is an American classicist who specializes in Roman law and religion.
The College of Pontiffs (Latin: Collegium Pontificum; see collegium) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the state religion.
In ancient Roman religion, the Compitalia (Latin: Ludi Compitalicii) was a festival celebrated once a year in honor of the Lares Compitales, household deities of the crossroads, to whom sacrifices were offered at the places where two or more ways meet.
In ancient Roman religion, Concordia is the goddess who embodies agreement in marriage and society.
The Conflict of the Orders, also referred to as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic lasting from 500 BC to 287 BC, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.
Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
The Consuales Ludi or Consualia was the name of two ancient Roman festivals in honor of Consus, a tutelary deity of the harvest and stored grain.
In the medieval Roman Catholic church there were several Councils of Tours, that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered fairly centrally located in France.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
The crisis of the Roman Republic refers to an extended period of political instability and social unrest that culminated in the demise of the Roman Republic and the advent of the Roman Empire, from about 134 BC to 44 BC.
The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
A curse tablet (tabella defixionis, defixio; κατάδεσμος katadesmos) is a small tablet with a curse written on it from the Greco-Roman world.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades (Hades was Greek).
Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus; c. 201June 251) was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.
In ancient Roman religion, the devotio was an extreme form of votum in which a Roman general vowed to sacrifice his own life in battle along with the enemy to chthonic gods in exchange for a victory.
The di inferi or dii inferi (Latin, "the gods below") were a shadowy collective of ancient Roman deities associated with death and the underworld.
In ancient Roman religion, the Di Penates or Penates were among the dii familiares, or household deities, invoked most often in domestic rituals.
Diana (Classical Latin) was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature in Roman mythology, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals.
Diocles of Peparethus (Διοκλῆς; fl. late 4th – early 3rd century BC) was a historian from the Greek island of Peparethus.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Djémila (جميلة, the Beautiful one, Cuicul or Curculum), formerly Cuicul, is a small mountain village in Algeria, near the northern coast east of Algiers, where some of the best preserved Berbero-Roman ruins in North Africa are found.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules.
In ancient Roman religion, the Epulum Jovis (also Epulum Iovis) was a sumptuous ritual feast offered to Jove on the Ides of September (September 13) and a smaller feast on the Ides of November (November 13).
In Roman literature, Erichtho (from) is a legendary Thessalian witch who appears in several literary works.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
Etruscan architecture was created between about 700 BC and 200 BC, when the expanding civilization of ancient Rome finally absorbed Etruscan civilization.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
Euhemerus (also spelled Euemeros or Evemerus; Εὐήμερος Euhēmeros, "happy; prosperous"; late fourth century BC), was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedon.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
In Roman mythology, Evander (from Greek Εὔανδρος Euandros, "good man" or "strong man": an etymology used by poets to emphasize the hero's virtue) was a culture hero from Arcadia, Greece, who brought the Greek pantheon, laws, and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, sixty years before the Trojan War.
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
In ancient Roman religion and magic, the fascinus or fascinum was the embodiment of the divine phallus.
In ancient Rome, the fasti (Latin plural) were chronological or calendar-based lists, or other diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events.
The Fasti (Fastorum Libri Sex, "Six Books of the Calendar"), sometimes translated as The Book of Days or On the Roman Calendar, is a six-book Latin poem written by the Roman poet Ovid and published in 8 AD.
In ancient Roman religion, Fauna is a goddess said in differing ancient sources to be the wife, sister, or daughter of Faunus (the Roman counterpart of Pan).
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus was the horned god of the forest, plains and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus.
Ferālia was an ancient Roman public festivalDumézil, Georges.
The Feriae Latinae or Latin Festival was an ancient Roman religious festival held in April on the Alban Mount.
A fetial (Latin plural fetiales) was a type of priest in Ancient Rome.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic.
In ancient Roman religion, the Fordicidia was a festival of fertility, held on the Ides of April (April 13), that pertained to farming and animal husbandry.
The Forum Boarium (Foro Boario) was the cattle forum venalium of Ancient Rome.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
In Roman religion, the genius (plural geniī) is the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
The Great Altar of Unconquered Hercules (Herculis Invicti Ara Maxima) stood in the Forum Boarium of ancient Rome.
The Great Fire of Rome was an urban fire in the year AD 64.
Mystery religions, sacred mysteries or simply mysteries were religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for which participation was reserved to initiates (mystai).
The Greek Magical Papyri (Latin Papyri Graecae Magicae, abbreviated PGM) is the name given by scholars to a body of papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt, which each contain a number of magical spells, formulae, hymns, and rituals.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices; also called aruspex) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina), the inspection of the entrails (exta—hence also extispicy (extispicium)) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry.
Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).
Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Hercules was venerated as a divinized hero and incorporated into the legends of Rome's founding.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
A holocaust is a religious animal sacrifice that is completely consumed by fire.
A household deity is a deity or spirit that protects the home, looking after the entire household or certain key members.
Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.
The Ides of March (Idus Martiae, Late Latin: Idus Martii) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March.
The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, standard abbreviation ILS, is a three-volume selection of Latin inscriptions edited by Hermann Dessau.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (IANVS (Iānus)) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings.
Jörg Rüpke (born December 27, 1962 in Herford, West Germany) is a German scholar of comparative religion and classical philology, recipient of the Prix Gay Lussac-Humboldt in 2008, and of the Advanced Grant of the European Research Council in 2011.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
John Scheid (born 1946 in Luxembourg under the first name Jean) is a French historian.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The gens Julia or Iulia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The gens Junia was one of the most celebrated families in Rome.
Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
Juventas was the ancient Roman goddess whose sphere of tutelage was youth and rejuvenation.
The King of Rome (Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.
The kings of Alba Longa, or Alban kings (Latin: reges Albani), were a series of legendary kings of Latium, who ruled from the ancient city of Alba Longa.
Lares (archaic Lases, singular Lar), were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The Latin League (Foedus Latinum; c. 7th century BC – 338 BC)Stearns, Peter N. (2001) The Encyclopedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
The lemures were shades or spirits of the restless or malignant dead in Roman mythology, and are probably cognate with an extended sense of larvae (from Latin larva, "mask") as disturbing or frightening.
The lex Ogulnia was a Roman law passed in 300 BC.
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid (ex: milk or other fluids such as corn flour mixed with water), or grains such as rice, as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have "passed on".
In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber ("the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father"), was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom.
In ancient Roman religion, Libera was a goddess of wine, fertility and freedom.
The Liberalia (17 March) is the festival of Liber Pater and his consort Libera.
In ancient Roman religion, birth and childhood deities were thought to care for every aspect of conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and child development.
The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta) (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
Lucius Livius Andronicus (c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman dramatist and epic poet of the Old Latin period.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Lucina was the goddess of childbirth who safeguarded the lives of women in labour.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
In ancient Roman religion, a lucus is a sacred grove.
Ludi (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the Roman people (''populus Romanus'').
The Ludi Romani ("Roman Games"; see ludi) was a religious festival in ancient Rome.
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.
Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral annual festival, observed in the city of Rome on February 15, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
The study of magic in the Greco-Roman world is a branch of the disciplines of classics, ancient history and religious studies.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
In ancient Roman religion, the Manes or Di Manes are chthonic deities sometimes thought to represent souls of deceased loved ones.
Saint Marcellus of Tangier or Saint Marcellus the Centurion (San Marcelo) (c. mid 3rd century – 298 AD) is venerated as a Martyr Saint by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Marcus Furius Camillus (c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent.
Marcus Marius Gratidianus (died 82 BC) was a Roman praetor, and a partisan of the political faction known as the populares, led by his uncle, Gaius Marius, during the civil war between the followers of Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Dame Winifred Mary Beard, (born 1 January 1955) is an English scholar and classicist.
Saint Maximilian of Tebessa, also known as Maximilian of Numidia, (Maximilianus; AD 274–295) was a Christian saint and martyr, whose feast day is observed on 12 March.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
In ancient Roman religion, mola salsa ("salted flour") was a mixture of coarse-ground, toasted emmer flour and salt prepared by the Vestal Virgins and used in every official sacrifice.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
The mos maiorum ("ancestral custom" or "way of the ancestors," plural mores, cf. English "mores"; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.
The Mother of the Lares (Latin Mater Larum) has been identified with any of several minor Roman deities.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Necromancy is a practice of magic involving communication with the deceased – either by summoning their spirit as an apparition or raising them bodily – for the purpose of divination, imparting the means to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge, to bring someone back from the dead, or to use the deceased as a weapon, as the term may sometimes be used in a more general sense to refer to black magic or witchcraft.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nicene Christianity refers to Christian doctrinal traditions that adhere to the Nicene Creed, which was originally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD and finished at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nodens (Nudens, Nodons) is a Celtic deity associated with healing, the sea, hunting and dogs.
Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
In ancient Roman culture, the olla (archaic Latin: aula or aulla; Greek: χύτρα, chytra) is a squat, rounded pot or jar.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
Onuava is a Celtic fertility goddess.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Latinus (or Latinius) Pacatus Drepanius, one of the Latin panegyrists, flourished at the end of the 4th century AD.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
Palestrina (ancient Praeneste; Πραίνεστος, Prainestos) is an ancient city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 21,000, in Lazio, about east of Rome.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
In ancient Rome, the Parentalia or dies parentales ("ancestral days") was a nine-day festival held in honor of family ancestors, beginning on 13 February.
''Festa di Pales, o L'estate'' (1783), a reimagining of the Festival of Pales by Joseph-Benoît Suvée In ancient Roman religion, the Parilia is a festival of rural character performed annually on 21 April, aimed at cleansing both sheep and shepherd.
The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.
Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").
Pessinus (Πεσσινούς or Πισσινούς) was an Ancient city and archbishopric in Asia Minor, a geographical area roughly covering modern Anatolia (Asian Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (Sakarya River), remaining a Catholic (formerly double) titular see.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabus, also known as Philip or Philip I), was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.
Philostorgius (Φιλοστόργιος; 368 – c. 439 AD) was an Anomoean Church historian of the 4th and 5th centuries.
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (Φλάβιος Φιλόστρατος; c. 170/172 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Pietas, translated variously as "duty", "religiosity" or "religious behavior", "loyalty", "devotion", or "filial piety" (English "piety" derives from the Latin), was one of the chief virtues among the ancient Romans.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polemius Silvius (fl. 5th century) was the author of an annotated Julian calendar that attempted to integrate the traditional Roman festival cycle with the new Christian holy days.
The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
A pontiff (from Latin pontifex) was, in Roman antiquity, a member of the most illustrious of the colleges of priests of the Roman religion, the College of Pontiffs.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person".
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.
Propitiation, also called expiation, is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution.
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was a Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (now Northern Spain) in 348.
Publius Claudius Pulcher (d 249 BC/246 BC) (of the Claudii family) was a Roman politician.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Publius Decius Mus was a Roman politician and general of the plebeian gens Decia.
Publius Decius Mus (died 295 BC), of the plebeian gens Decia, was a Roman consul in the years 312 BC, 308 BC, 297 BC and 295 BC.
Publius Decius Mus, son of Quintus, of the plebeian gens Decia, was a Roman consul in 340 BC.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 345 – 402) was a Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters.
Quintus Fabius Pictor (flourished c. 200 BC; his birth has been estimated around 270 BC) was the earliest Roman historiographer and is considered the first of the annalists.
Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur (c. 159 – 88 BCE) was a politician of the Roman Republic and an early authority on Roman law.
In Roman mythology and religion, Quirinus is an early god of the Roman state.
Robert Everett Allen Palmer II (1933 – March 11, 2006) was a historian and a leading figure in the study of archaic Rome.
Ramsay MacMullen (born March 3, 1928 in New York City) is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham Professor of History and Classics.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
Religio licita ("permitted religion," also translated as "approved religion") is a phrase used in the Apologeticum of Tertullian to describe the special status of the Jews in the Roman Empire.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
René Cagnat (10 October 1852 – 27 March 1937) was a French historian, a specialist of Latin epigraphy and history of North Africa during Antiquity.
Res gestae (Latin "things done") is a term found in substantive and procedural American jurisprudence and English law.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
In ancient Roman religion, the rex sacrorum ("king of the sacred", also sometimes rex sacrificulus, " offerings made by the king") was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians.
Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia), and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the city of Rome.
The Robigalia was a festival in ancient Roman religion held April 25, named for the god Robigus.
Robin James Lane Fox, FRSL (born 5 October 1946), is an English classicist, ancient historian and gardening writer known for his works on Alexander the Great.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.
The Archdiocese of Milan (Arcidiocesi di Milano; Archidioecesis Mediolanensis) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza, Lecco and Varese.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
Roman funerary practices include the Ancient Romans' religious rituals concerning funerals, cremations, and burials.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism, known variously as Religio Romana (Roman religion) in Latin, the Roman Way to the Gods in Italian and Spanish (via romana agli dei and camino romano a los dioses, respectively), and Cultus Deorum Romanorum (care of the Gods), is a contemporary reconstructionist movement reviving traditional Roman religious cults consisting of loosely related organizations.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.
A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
Sabratha, Sabratah or Siburata (صبراتة), in the Zawiya District, accessed 20 July 2009, in Arabic of Libya, was the westernmost of the ancient "three cities" of Roman Tripolis.
In ancient Roman religion and law, the sacramentum was an oath or vow that rendered the swearer sacer, "given to the gods," in the negative sense if he violated it.
The sacred fire of Vesta was a sacred eternal flame in Ancient Rome.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
In ancient Roman religion, the Salii were the "leaping priests" (from the verb saliō "leap, jump") of Mars supposed to have been introduced by King Numa Pompilius.
Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Secular Games (Ludi saeculares, originally Ludi Terentini) was a Roman religious celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held in ancient Rome for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next.
The senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus ("senatorial decree concerning the Bacchanalia") is a notable Old Latin inscription dating to 186 BC.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
A serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was accepted by the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC), was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
The Sibylline Oracles (Oracula Sibyllina; sometimes called the pseudo-Sibylline Oracles) are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in a frenzied state.
In Greek mythology, Silenus (Greek: Σειληνός Seilēnos) was a companion and tutor to the wine god Dionysus.
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.
Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") is the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.
The spolia opima ("rich spoils") were the armour, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single combat.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent.
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Timothy Peter Wiseman (born 3 February 1940), who usually publishes as T. P.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Tellus Mater or Terra Mater ("Mother Earth") is a goddess of the earth.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The Rape of the Sabine Women was an incident in Roman mythology in which the men of Rome committed a mass abduction of young women from the other cities in the region.
Theatre of ancient Rome refers to the time period of theatrical practice and performance in Rome beginning in the 4th century B.C., following the state’s transition from Monarchy to Republic.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
The Tiburtine Sibyl or Albunea was a Roman sibyl, whose seat was the ancient Etruscan town of Tibur (modern Tivoli).
Tivoli (Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
In the Hebrew Bible, Tophet or Topheth (תוֹפֶת; Ταφεθ; Topheth) was a location in Jerusalem in the Gehinnom where worshipers influenced by the ancient Canaanite religion engaged in the human sacrifice of children to the gods Moloch and Baal by burning them alive.
The topography of ancient Rome is a multidisciplinary field of study that draws on archaeology, epigraphy, cartography and philology.
In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or, or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site).
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
A triple deity (sometimes referred to as threefold, tripled, triplicate, tripartite, triune or triadic, or as a trinity) is three deities that are worshipped as one.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) was the legendary third king of Rome.
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
The goddess Vagdavercustis is known from a dedicatory inscription on an altar found at Cologne (Köln), Germany.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.
The English-Latin noun vates is a term for a prophet and a natural philosopher following the Latin term.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
Ver sacrum ("sacred spring") is a religious practice of ancient Italic peoples, especially Sabines and their offshoot Samnites, concerning the deduction of colonies.
Gaius Verres (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily.
Vertault is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
Vestalia was a Roman religious festival in honor of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth and the burning continuation of the sacred fire of Rome.
The Via Sacra (Sacred Road) was the main street of ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important religious sites of the Forum (where it is the widest street), to the Colosseum.
Victoria, in ancient Roman religion, was the personified goddess of victory.
In Ancient Rome, the vicus (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
In ancient Roman religion, a votum, plural vota, is a vow or promise made to a deity.
William Warde Fowler (16 May 1847 – 15 June 1921) was an English historian and ornithologist, and tutor at Lincoln College, Oxford.
Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office.
Ancient Roman religion, Ancient roman religion, Animal sacrifice in ancient Roman religion, Christianity in Rome, Christianity in ancient Rome, Christianity in the Roman Empire, Christianity to Rome, Christians in Rome, Cultus Deorum Romanorum, Cultus deorum romanum, Dii Familiaris, Dii familiares, Early Christianity in Rome, Graeco-Roman religion, History of Christianity in Rome, Human sacrifice in ancient Rome, Litatio, Priesthoods of ancient Roman religion, Religio Romana, Religio Romano, Religio romana, Religion in Ancient Rome, Religion in the Roman Empire, Religion in the Roman military, Religion in the ancient Roman military, Religion of Ancient Rome, Religions of the Roman Empire, Roman Paganism, Roman Polytheism, Roman Religion, Roman pagan, Roman paganism, Roman polytheism, Roman religion, Roman religion (disambiguation), Sacrifice in ancient Roman religion, Sacrificium Romanam, Scientia colendorum deorum, State religion of Rome.