189 relations: Ahimsa, Ahimsa in Jainism, Albany, New York, Allah, Anawrahta, Aparigraha, Apostasy, Arabic, Arya Samaj, Asteya, Atheism in Hinduism, Āstika and nāstika, Ātman (Hinduism), Bahá'u'lláh, Baptism, Baptistery, Baptists, Bhakti, Bible Dictionary (LDS Church), Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha, Brahmacharya, Brahmo Samaj, Brainwashing, Buddhahood, Byzantine Empire, California, Catholic Church, Celibacy, Chinese folk religion, Christian denomination, Church of Scientology, Cleveland State University, Coming of age, Confirmation (Latter Day Saints), Conversion to Islam in U.S. prisons, Cru (Christian organization), Dalit Buddhist movement, Deathbed conversion, Deprogramming, Dharma, Diwali, Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith, Druze, Eileen Barker, Ethnic religion, European Court of Human Rights, Evangelism, Faith in Buddhism, Fard, Fitra, ..., Five Pillars of Islam, Forced conversion, Foster Report, Gentile, God in Islam, Great Commission, Greece, Halakha, Hanafi, Hanbali, Hartford Seminary, Hasidic Judaism, Hindu philosophy, Hindu views on monotheism, Hinduism, Human rights, Immersion baptism, Infant baptism, Inquisition, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Ioannis Metaxas, Irresistible grace, Islam, Islamic missionary activity, Jain literature, Jain monasticism, Jainism, Jan Gonda, Jayavarman VII, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus, Jewish Christian, Jewish religious movements, Jews for Jesus, John Lofland (sociologist), Joseph Smith, Judaism, Julius J. Lipner, Karma, Khitan (circumcision), Khmer people, Latter Day Saint movement, Laying on of hands, LDS edition of the Bible, List of converts to Buddhism, List of converts to Christianity, List of converts to Hinduism, List of converts to Islam, List of converts to Judaism, List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement, Love Jihad, Maliki, Mandaeans, Marital conversion, Means of grace, Melchizedek priesthood (Latter Day Saints), Mikveh, Minos Kokkinakis, Missionary, Missionary (LDS Church), Moksha, Monism, Moral conversion, Muhammad, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Age, New religious movement, New Testament, Non-possession, Original sin, Pandeism, Panentheism, Pantheism, Pearson correlation coefficient, Pentecostalism, Peter Lang (publisher), Pioneering (Bahá'í), Polytheism, Prentice Hall, Priest (Latter Day Saints), Priesthood (Latter Day Saints), Profession (religious), Progressive revelation (Bahá'í), Prophets and messengers in Islam, Proselyte, Proselytism, Refuge (Buddhism), Religious denomination, Resurrection of Jesus, Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults, Russian Orthodox Church, Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam, Saiva Siddhanta Church, Sangha, Sannyasa, Satya, Secondary conversion, Shafi‘i, Shahada, Shakers, Shia Islam, Sikhism, Sin, Social class, Soviet Union, Spiritual Assembly, Sun Myung Moon, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, SUNY Press, Synergism (theology), Tattvartha Sutra, The Making of a Moonie, The New Yorker, The Rage Against God, The Salvation Army, Theravada, Tibetan Buddhism, Timeline of Buddhism, Tom Cruise, Umar, Unification Church, Union for Reform Judaism, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United States, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Vedic period, VU University Amsterdam, Waiver, Who is a Jew?, Yajna, Yazidis, Yoga, Young Oon Kim, Zoroastrianism, 14th Dalai Lama. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Anawrahta Minsaw (အနော်ရထာ မင်းစော,; 11 May 1014 – 11 April 1077) was the founder of the Pagan Empire.
In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arya Samaj (Sanskrit: आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi: आर्य समाज, Bengali: আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi: ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati: આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
Asteya is the Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".
Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद,, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Old French baptisterie; Latin baptisterium; Greek βαπτιστήριον, 'bathing-place, baptistery', from βαπτίζειν, baptízein, 'to baptize') is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
Bible Dictionary is an official publication of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Sanstha (IAST), often abbreviated as BAPS is a worldwide religious and civic organization within the Swaminarayan branch of Hinduism.
Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".
Brahmo Samaj (Bengali: ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance.
Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
The Church of Scientology is a multinational network and hierarchy of numerous ostensibly independent but interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, a new religious movement.
Cleveland State University (CSU) is a public research university in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States.
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.
In the Latter Day Saint movement, Confirmation (also known as the Gift of the Holy Ghost or the Baptism of Fire and of the Holy Ghost), is an ordinance essential for salvation.
Conversion to Islam in U.S. prisons refers to the slightly higher rate of conversion to Islam in American prisons, for which there are a number of factors.
Cru (known as Campus Crusade for Christ or CCC until 2011) is an interdenominational Christian parachurch organization for college and university students.
The Dalit Buddhist movement (also known as Neo-Buddhist movement) is a socio-political movement by Dalits in India started by B. R. Ambedkar.
A deathbed conversion is the adoption of a particular religious faith shortly before dying.
Deprogramming refers to measures that claim to assist a person who holds a controversial belief system in changing those beliefs and abandoning allegiance to the religious, political, economic, or social group associated with the belief system.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith is a sociological book based on field study of a group of Unification Church members in California and Oregon.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Eileen Vartan Barker OBE, (born 21 April 1938, Edinburgh, UK) is a professor in sociology, an emeritus member of the London School of Economics (LSE), and a consultant to that institution's Centre for the Study of Human Rights.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
In Buddhism, faith (italic, italic) refers to a serene commitment to the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or bodhisattvas (those aiming to become a Buddha).
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
Fitra, or fitrah (ALA-LC), is an Arabic word that has no exact English equivalent although it has been translated as 'primordial human nature', and as "instinct".
The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress.
The Foster Report is a 1971 report titled Enquiry into the Practice and Effects of Scientology, written by Sir John Foster for the government of the United Kingdom, regarding the Church of Scientology.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
In Christianity, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Hartford Seminary is a non-denominational theological college in Hartford, Connecticut.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hinduism is a religion which incorporates diverse views on the concept of God.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Immersion baptism (also known as baptism by immersion or baptism by submersion) is a method of baptism that is distinguished from baptism by affusion (pouring) and by aspersion (sprinkling), sometimes without specifying whether the immersion is total or partial, but very commonly with the indication that the person baptized is immersed completely.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
Ioannis Metaxas (Ιωάννης Μεταξάς; 12 April 1871 – 29 January 1941) was a Greek military officer and politician, serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941.
Irresistible grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (the elect) and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to faith in Christ.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Dawah, Islamic missionary work, means to "invite" (in Arabic, literally "invitation") to Islam, which is estimated to be the second-largest religion, after Christianity.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.
Jayavarman VII, post-humous name of Mahaparamasaugata, (ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, 1125–1218) was a king (reigned c.1181–1218) of the Khmer Empire in present-day Siem Reap, Cambodia.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jews for Jesus is a Messianic Jewish non-profit organization founded in 1970 as Hineni Ministries, and in 1973 as Jews for Jesus, which seeks to share its belief that Jesus is the promised Messiah of the Jewish people.
John Lofland (born 1936) is an American sociologist, professor, and author best known for his studies of the peace movement and for his first book, Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith which was based on field work among a group of Unification Church members in California in the 1960s.
Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julius Lipner (born 11 August 1946), who is of Indo-Czech origin, is Professor of Hinduism and the Comparative Study of Religion at the University of Cambridge.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Khitan (ختان) or Khatna (ختنة) is the term for male circumcision carried out as an Islamic rite by Muslims.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual.
The LDS edition of the Bible is a version of the Bible published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
The following people are all converts to Buddhism, sorted alphabetically by family name.
The following is a list of notable people who converted to Christianity from a different religion or no religion.
The following is a list of converts to Hinduism from other religions or a non-religious background.
The following is an incomplete list of notable people who converted to Islam from a different religion or no religion.
This article lists nations, groups or tribes, as well as individual people, who have converted to Judaism and have a Wikipedia article about them.
The denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement are sometimes collectively referred to as Mormonism.
Love Jihad or Romeo Jihad is a term used to describe alleged campaigns under which Muslim men target women belonging to non-Muslim communities for conversion to Islam by feigning love.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Marital conversion is religious conversion upon marriage, either as a conciliatory act, or a mandated requirement according to a particular religious belief.
The means of grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives grace.
The Melchizedek priesthood is the greater of the two orders of priesthood recognized in Mormonism.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Minos Kokkinakis (25 February 1909, Sitia, Crete – 28 January 1999 Sitia) was a Greek member of Jehovah's Witnesses.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)—widely known as Mormon missionaries—are volunteer representatives of the LDS Church who engage variously in proselytizing, church service, humanitarian aid, and community service.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
In philosophy, moral conversion is an existential change in the person, who is perceived as the moral agent adopting new moral standards (or mores) in a process of internal transformation.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Non-possession is a philosophy that holds that no one or anything possesses anything.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Pandeism (or pan-deism) is a theological doctrine first delineated in the 18th century which combines aspects of pantheism with aspects of deism.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced), also referred to as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) or the bivariate correlation, is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y. It has a value between +1 and −1, where 1 is total positive linear correlation, 0 is no linear correlation, and −1 is total negative linear correlation.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
A pioneer is a volunteer Bahá'í who leaves his or her home to journey to another place (often another country) for the purpose of teaching the Bahá'í Faith.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Priest is a priesthood office in the Aaronic priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
In the Latter Day Saint movement, priesthood is the power and authority of God given to man, including the authority to perform ordinances and to act as a leader in the church.
The term religious profession is used in many western-rite Christian denominations (including those of Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, and other traditions) to refer to the solemn admission of men or women into a religious order by means of public vows.
Progressive revelation is a core teaching in the Bahá'í Faith that suggests that religious truth is revealed by God progressively and cyclically over time through a series of divine Messengers, and that the teachings are tailored to suit the needs of the time and place of their appearance.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος (proselytos), as used in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".
The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA), or Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum (OICA) is a process developed by the Catholic Church for prospective converts to Catholicism who are above the age of infant baptism.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.
Saiva Siddhanta is an organization that identifies itself with the Saivite Hindu religion.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired).
Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.
In the sociology of religion, secondary conversion is the religious conversion of an individual that results from a relationship with another convert, rather than from any particular aspect of the new religion.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdu'l-Bahá to refer to elected councils that govern the Bahá'í Faith.
Sun Myung Moon (Korean 문선명 Mun Seon-myeong; born Mun Yong-myeong; 25 February 1920 – 3 September 2012) was a Korean religious leader, also known for his business ventures and support of social and political causes.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
In Christian theology, synergism is the position of those who hold that salvation involves some form of cooperation between divine grace and human freedom.
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? is a 1984 book written by British sociologist Eileen Barker, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, United Kingdom,.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Rage Against God (subtitle in US editions: How Atheism Led Me to Faith) is the fifth book by Peter Hitchens, first published in 2010.
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Buddhism from the birth of Gautama Buddha to the present.
Thomas Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV; July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and support of social and political causes.
The Union for Reform Judaism (until 2003: Union of American Hebrew Congregations), is the congregational arm of Reform Judaism in North America, founded in 1873 by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (abbreviated as VU, VU University Amsterdam, "Free University Amsterdam") is a university in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1880.
A waiver is the voluntary relinquishment or surrender of some known right or privilege.
"Who is a Jew?" (מיהו יהודי) is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish self-identification.
Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Young Oon Kim (1914–1989) was a leading theologian of the Unification Church and its first missionary to the United States.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
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